Home Region:  Anatolia-Caucasus (Southwest Asia)

Kingdom of Lydia

D G SC WF HS EQ 2020  tr_lydia_k / TrLydia

Preceding:
[Konya Plain - Cimmerian Period] [None]   Update here
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
No Polity found. Add one here.

One of a number of small kingdoms in Anatolia, the Kingdom of Lydia under the Mermnad dynasty (670-546 BCE), which began with the rule of king Gyges and ended with Croesus in the 540s BCE, came to dominate Anatolia after the conquest of Phrygia. Blessed with a rich supply of minable electrum, the natural alloy of silver and gold, Lydia is most famous for being the likely birthplace of coinage. [1]
Like Phrygia archaeologists lack detailed understanding of Lydian government but they believe the rulers ruled from a Palace citadel above the capital Sardis. Some areas under Lydian control were directly ruled through appointments made by the kings: for example, Alyattes appointed his son Croesus as governor of Adramyttetion, northwest of Lydia, when Cimmerians were causing trouble there. However, the Greek city states attacked by Mermnad kings, whom were required to pay tribute, were generally never under Lydian control for long. [1]
The 650 BCE and 500 BCE period was characterized by the expansion of an integrated Mediterranean trading zone [2] and it seems that pragmatic deal-making to preserve this economic system often characterized Lydian relations with other states.
The most immediate threat appears to have been the nomadic Cimmerians who initially were expelled [3] which at times lead to an alliance with Assyria [4] which also became an enemy that required an alliance with Egypt. [3]
Lydia kings often utilised marriages to secure alliances with many foreign powers, including the Persian Medians as well as Greek Ionians and Carians and the tyrant of Ephesus. [1]

[1]: (Roosevelt 2012, 897-913) C H Roosevelt. 2012. Iron Age Western Anatolia. In Potts, D.T. (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Near East. London: Blackwell.

[2]: (Broodbank 2015, 508-509) Cyrprian Broodbank. 2015. The Making of the Middle Sea. Thames & Hudson. London.

[3]: (Leverani 2014, 544) Mario Liverani. Soraia Tabatabai trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.

[4]: (Leverani 2014, 495) Mario Liverani. Soraia Tabatabai trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
35 S  
Original Name:
Kingdom of Lydia  
Capital:
Sardis  
Alternative Name:
Mermnad dynasty  
Maeonia  
Luddi  
Lydian Empire  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
560 BCE  
Duration:
[670 BCE ➜ 546 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
personal union with [---]  
alliance with [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
Achaemenid Empire  
Preceding Entity:
UNCLEAR:    [None]  
Degree of Centralization:
confederated state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
Lydian  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Lydian Religions  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[6,000 to 24,000] people  
Polity Territory:
250,000 km2 600 BCE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[3 to 5]  
Religious Level:
[3 to 4]  
Military Level:
[4 to 7]  
Administrative Level:
[4 to 5]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
inferred present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
absent  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
inferred present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
inferred present  
Law
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
inferred present  
Port:
inferred present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
inferred present  
History:
inferred present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
inferred present  
Information / Money
Precious Metal:
inferred present  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
inferred absent 600 BCE
Article:
inferred present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
unknown  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
present  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
inferred absent  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
unknown  
  Sword:
inferred present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
unknown  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
present  
  Dog:
present  
  Camel:
unknown  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
inferred present  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
unknown  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
inferred present  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
unknown  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Kingdom of Lydia (tr_lydia_k) was in:
 (670 BCE 547 BCE)   Konya Plain
Home NGA: Konya Plain

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Kingdom of Lydia

Named after King Lydus, of the Atyad dynasty, who ruled before the Mermnad dysnasty according to Herodotus. [1] Homer said original name was Maionia or Maeonia. [2]

[1]: Roosevelt, C.H. 2012. Iron Age Western Anatolia. In Potts, D.T. (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Near East. London: Blackwell. p. 897-913

[2]: (Rich 2012) Rich, Kurt M V. 2012. Chasing the Golden Hoard: A Tale of Theft, Repatriation, Greed & Deceit. Authorhouse.


Capital:
Sardis

[1] Sardis. [2]

[1]: Roosevelt, C.H. 2012. Iron Age Western Anatolia. In Potts, D.T. (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Near East. London: Blackwell. p. 897-913

[2]: (Leverani 2014, 533) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.


Alternative Name:
Mermnad dynasty

Maeonia was an earlier name for Lydia, mentioned by Homer. It is unclear whether it was still used during the Mermnad dynasty. The first king of the Mermnad dynasty was called "Gyges of the Luddi" in the Assyrian records of Assurbanipal. [1]

[1]: Roosevelt, C.H. 2012. Iron Age Western Anatolia. In Potts, D.T. (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Near East. London: Blackwell. p. 897-913

Alternative Name:
Maeonia

Maeonia was an earlier name for Lydia, mentioned by Homer. It is unclear whether it was still used during the Mermnad dynasty. The first king of the Mermnad dynasty was called "Gyges of the Luddi" in the Assyrian records of Assurbanipal. [1]

[1]: Roosevelt, C.H. 2012. Iron Age Western Anatolia. In Potts, D.T. (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Near East. London: Blackwell. p. 897-913

Alternative Name:
Luddi

Maeonia was an earlier name for Lydia, mentioned by Homer. It is unclear whether it was still used during the Mermnad dynasty. The first king of the Mermnad dynasty was called "Gyges of the Luddi" in the Assyrian records of Assurbanipal. [1]

[1]: Roosevelt, C.H. 2012. Iron Age Western Anatolia. In Potts, D.T. (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Near East. London: Blackwell. p. 897-913

Alternative Name:
Lydian Empire

Maeonia was an earlier name for Lydia, mentioned by Homer. It is unclear whether it was still used during the Mermnad dynasty. The first king of the Mermnad dynasty was called "Gyges of the Luddi" in the Assyrian records of Assurbanipal. [1]

[1]: Roosevelt, C.H. 2012. Iron Age Western Anatolia. In Potts, D.T. (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Near East. London: Blackwell. p. 897-913


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
560 BCE

1. 619-560 BCE
Peak "development and stability" was the long reign of Alyattes. [1]
2. 560-546 BCE
The reign of Croesus, King of the saying "as rich as Croesus". Several campaigns during the previous reign of Alyattes and again during the reign of Croesus led to the expansion of Lydia. The Eastern border stretched to the Halys river in Central Anatolia, where eventually a peace treaty was acknowledge between the Lydians in the west and the Medians in the east. Perhaps Croesus’ most significant contribution was to require that annual tribute be extracted from conquered states to the west, thus turning Lydia into an Empire. [2]
It became a powerful force in Anatolia during the Mermnad dynasty, where it expanded it’s control to the majority of western Anatolia. A number of Mermnad kings also attacked Greek states, but Lydia never maintained control of Greek lands for long. [2]
Mermnad dynasty kings
Gyges (680 - 644 BCE); Ardys (644 - late 7th century BCE); Sadyattes (late 7th century - 610 BCE); Alyattes (610 - 560 BCE); Croesus (560 - 540’s BCE)

[1]: (Leverani 2014, 544) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.

[2]: Roosevelt, C.H. 2012. Iron Age Western Anatolia. In Potts, D.T. (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Near East. London: Blackwell. p. 897-913


Duration:
[670 BCE ➜ 546 BCE]

Began as a Neo-Hittite state. period earlier than 700 BCE covered by quasi-polity. 546 BCE: date of Persian conquest of Anatolia.
Founded by Gyges around 670 BCE. [1]
Herodotus says Gyges followed by Ardys, Sadyattes and Alyattes. These kings expelled the Cimmerians and built the kingdom, and conquered Greek cities in Asia Minor. Croesus was the last king before the Persians took Sardis. [2]
Mermnad dynasty kingsGyges (680 - 644 BCE); Ardys (644 - late 7th century BCE); Sadyattes (late 7th century - 610 BCE); Alyattes (610 - 560 BCE); Croesus (560 - 540’s BCE)

[1]: (Leverani 2014, 533) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.

[2]: (Leverani 2014, 544) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
personal union with [---]

Lydia frequently utilised marriage as a form of peace treaty. When Alyattes expanded Lydia to the East, he met a Median army expanding their territory from Susiana. An indicisive battle was fought and a truce was declared with the Halys river as the border between the two empires. To seal the deal Alyattes’ daughter was married to the son of Cyaxeres, the Median king. Alyattes himself married Ionian and Carian women and married another daught to the tyrant of Ephesus. [1]
Sought alliance with Assyrians against the Cimmerians. [2]
Alliance with Egypt against the Assyrians. [3]

[1]: Roosevelt, C.H. 2012. Iron Age Western Anatolia. In Potts, D.T. (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Near East. London: Blackwell. p. 897-913

[2]: (Leverani 2014, 495) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.

[3]: (Leverani 2014, 544) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.

Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]

Lydia frequently utilised marriage as a form of peace treaty. When Alyattes expanded Lydia to the East, he met a Median army expanding their territory from Susiana. An indicisive battle was fought and a truce was declared with the Halys river as the border between the two empires. To seal the deal Alyattes’ daughter was married to the son of Cyaxeres, the Median king. Alyattes himself married Ionian and Carian women and married another daught to the tyrant of Ephesus. [1]
Sought alliance with Assyrians against the Cimmerians. [2]
Alliance with Egypt against the Assyrians. [3]

[1]: Roosevelt, C.H. 2012. Iron Age Western Anatolia. In Potts, D.T. (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Near East. London: Blackwell. p. 897-913

[2]: (Leverani 2014, 495) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.

[3]: (Leverani 2014, 544) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.


Supracultural Entity:
Achaemenid Empire

Preceding Entity:
Konya Plain - Cimmerian Period

Degree of Centralization:
confederated state

The Kingdom of Lydia had mixed levels of centralization. In some areas control was strongly in the hands of the kings, for example, Alyattes appointed his son Croesus as governor of Adramyttetion, northwest of Lydia, when Cimmerians were causing trouble there. However, in the form of an Empire, much of Lydia’s control was carried out throught the enforcement of annnual tribute. [1]

[1]: Roosevelt, C.H. 2012. Iron Age Western Anatolia. In Potts, D.T. (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Near East. London: Blackwell. p. 897-913


Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European

Language:
Lydian

There are two schools of thought about the origins of the Lydian language. One suggests that it arose in north-western Anatolia and its speakers entered and settled Lydia sometime after the 12th century CBE, before written Lydia arose in 7th century CBE. Other scholars suggest that Lydia was the language of the Bronze Age including the first settlers of Sardis and other urban centres of the time. [1]

[1]: Roosevelt, C.H. 2012. Iron Age Western Anatolia. In Potts, D.T. (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Near East. London: Blackwell. p. 897-913


Religion
Religion Genus:
Lydian Religions

Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI


Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[6,000 to 24,000] people

Inhabitants.
Miletus 6,000-24,000 at a Seshat standard estimate of 50-200 persons per hectare.
Archaic Miletus, pre-494 BCE: "implied intra muros area 120 ha". [1]
Unlikely to be the capital, Sardis. At its "heyday (150 BC - AD 250)" something above 5000. [2]
How large were the Greek cities along the coast of Asia Minor?

[1]: (McEvedy 2011, 216) McEvedy, Colin. 2011. Cities of the Classical World. Allen Lane.

[2]: (McEvedy 2011, 327) McEvedy, Colin. 2011. Cities of the Classical World. Allen Lane.


Polity Territory:
250,000 km2
600 BCE

in squared kilometers
At peak eastern border was at the Halys River. [1]
Core area of Lydia Turkish province of Usak. [2]
Lydia was an Empire of c250,000 km2 by late 7th century. [3]

[1]: (Rich, Kurt M V. 2012. Chasing the Golden Hoard: A Tale of Theft, Repatriation, Greed & Deceit. Authorhouse.)

[2]: (Rich 2012) Rich, Kurt M V. 2012. Chasing the Golden Hoard: A Tale of Theft, Repatriation, Greed & Deceit. Authorhouse.

[3]: (Broodbank 2015, 537) Broodbank, Cyprian. 2015. The Making of the Middle Sea. Thames & Hudson. London.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[3 to 5]

levels. A very rough estimate.


Religious Level:
[3 to 4]

levels.
No data. There were likely a number of religious levels in the temples. Have not read anything to suggest the king was the top priest (as in New Kingdom Hittite) but there are no literary records from this period and this might have been the case. However, since Lydia was a neo-Hittite state, it may be reasonable to code [3-4] based on the 4 levels coded for the New Kingdom Hittites.
Croesus built the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. [1]

[1]: (Rich 2012) Rich, Kurt M V. 2012. Chasing the Golden Hoard: A Tale of Theft, Repatriation, Greed & Deceit. Authorhouse.


Military Level:
[4 to 7]

levels.
No data. Lydia was a neo-Hittite state and the New Kingdom Hittites had [6-7] levels including at the lowest levels Officers of 10, Officers of 100 and leaders of brigades of 1000. If Lydia inherited a similar system then there would be at least 5 levels
King100010010Individual soldier


Administrative Level:
[4 to 5]

levels.
Was a neo-Hittite polity. Hittite New Kingdom had [4-5] levels and it is reasonable to suppose that the Lydian Empire had at least as many as this.
The tributary Greek city states may have had a number of government levels.
1. King
rulers ruled from a Palace/citadel above Sardis.
 ? Manager of a government mint ? Mint worker


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

"Croesus asked a rich Lydian, Sadyattes, for money to hire mercenaries." Account by Nicolas of Damascus. [1] "The Bronze Age army was an army of specialists and corvee soldiers. The army of the Early Iron Age was a ’military population’ charged with enthusiasm, guided by the decisions of kin-based groups united in council and not by impositions from the state administration. Moreover, this army chose its charismatic leaders, who would return to their previous occupation once the danger was overcome." [2]
One hypothesis for Lydian coinage "is that these coins were intended for issuing pay to mercenaries, and for spending internally." [3]

[1]: Pedley, J.G. 1972. Ancient Literary Sources on Sardis. Achaeological Exploration of Sardis. Monograph 2. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p.25

[2]: (Leverani 2014, 400) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.

[3]: (Broodbank 2015, 556) Broodbank, Cyprian. 2015. The Making of the Middle Sea. Thames & Hudson. London.


Professional Priesthood:
present

Croesus built the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. [1]

[1]: (Rich 2012) Rich, Kurt M V. 2012. Chasing the Golden Hoard: A Tale of Theft, Repatriation, Greed & Deceit. Authorhouse.


Professional Military Officer:
present

"When Alyattes, father of Croesus the king of Lydians, was campaigning against Caria, he instructed his generals to bring their forces to Sardis on a day which he appointed." Account by Nicolas of Damascus. [1] "The Bronze Age army was an army of specialists and corvee soldiers. The army of the Early Iron Age was a ’military population’ charged with enthusiasm, guided by the decisions of kin-based groups united in council and not by impositions from the state administration. Moreover, this army chose its charismatic leaders, who would return to their previous occupation once the danger was overcome." [2]

[1]: Pedley, J.G. 1972. Ancient Literary Sources on Sardis. Achaeological Exploration of Sardis. Monograph 2. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p.25

[2]: (Leverani 2014, 400) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.

Professional Military Officer:
absent

"When Alyattes, father of Croesus the king of Lydians, was campaigning against Caria, he instructed his generals to bring their forces to Sardis on a day which he appointed." Account by Nicolas of Damascus. [1] "The Bronze Age army was an army of specialists and corvee soldiers. The army of the Early Iron Age was a ’military population’ charged with enthusiasm, guided by the decisions of kin-based groups united in council and not by impositions from the state administration. Moreover, this army chose its charismatic leaders, who would return to their previous occupation once the danger was overcome." [2]

[1]: Pedley, J.G. 1972. Ancient Literary Sources on Sardis. Achaeological Exploration of Sardis. Monograph 2. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p.25

[2]: (Leverani 2014, 400) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Dio Chrysostom tells the story of Alcmeon given a gift from Croesus. "They say that the Lydian allowed him to open his treasuries and carry off all the gold he wanted. He, they say, went in and loaded himself with the king’s gift with a will, filling the deep womanish folds of the lengthy tunic tht he wore and the large spacious boots which he had put on purposefully." [1] Lydian coinage [2] must have required government mints.

[1]: Pedley, J.G. 1972. Ancient Literary Sources on Sardis. Achaeological Exploration of Sardis. Monograph 2. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p.28

[2]: (Broodbank 2015, 556) Broodbank, Cyprian. 2015. The Making of the Middle Sea. Thames & Hudson. London.


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

Rulers were likely helped by full time administrators. Production of Lydian coinage [1] must have required mints and implies existence of bureaucrats making and implementing technical decisions. Alliances such as against Assyrians [2] implies couriers who delivered messages and diplomatic staff who helped compose them.

[1]: (Broodbank 2015, 556) Broodbank, Cyprian. 2015. The Making of the Middle Sea. Thames & Hudson. London.

[2]: (Leverani 2014, 495) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.


Law
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Transport Infrastructure

Likely maintained given the value of trade when it had to be carried inland. "Much of what tied this world together remained commercial transactions. Except in Levantine waters, the later 7th and 6th centuries saw a further burgeoning of trade, and the final realization of a Mediterranean-wide market, already partly interdependent and governed by the regime of cheap martime transport costs, specialist production and extensive importation" [1] Lydia had a reputation among Greek historians for its luxury and opulence and it is difficult to imagine this without the existence of some maintained roads.

[1]: (Broodbank 2015, 546) Broodbank, Cyprian. 2015. The Making of the Middle Sea. Thames & Hudson. London.


"Much of what tied this world together remained commercial transactions. Except in Levantine waters, the later 7th and 6th centuries saw a further burgeoning of trade, and the final realization of a Mediterranean-wide market, already partly interdependent and governed by the regime of cheap martime transport costs, specialist production and extensive importation" [1] "Lydia’s martime outlet of Ephesus". [2]

[1]: (Broodbank 2015, 546) Broodbank, Cyprian. 2015. The Making of the Middle Sea. Thames & Hudson. London.

[2]: (Broodbank 2015, 555-556) Broodbank, Cyprian. 2015. The Making of the Middle Sea. Thames & Hudson. London.


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

Lydia had a significant amount of electrum, an alloy of gold and silver, that existed in the alluvial deposits of the rivers around Sardis. There was an extensive associated processing industry that purified the gold and silver. // Lydia was one of a number of small kingdoms in Anatolia. It was well positioned in the riverlands of western Anatolia and had a rich supply of electrum, the natural alloy of silver and gold. [1]

[1]: Roosevelt, C.H. 2012. Iron Age Western Anatolia. In Potts, D.T. (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Near East. London: Blackwell. p. 897-913


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Alphabetic writing of Greek origins. [1]

[1]: (Leverani 2014, 544) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.


Script:
present

Alphabetic writing of Greek origins. [1]

[1]: (Leverani 2014, 544) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

Alphabetic writing of Greek origins. [1]

[1]: (Leverani 2014, 544) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Mathematics. From the Aegean region, which includes Greek cities of Lydia on the coast of Western Asia Minor: "By the 6th century BC, writing was widespread there and, thanks to the later reverence for Greek culture, huge amounts survive in transmission beyond that on archaeologically durable media. In addition to poetry, dedications, laws, mathematics and philosophy ... historians" [1] Writings on mathematics, philsophy and the ordering of celestial and earthly space" [2]

[1]: (Broodbank 2015, 536) Broodbank, Cyprian. 2015. The Making of the Middle Sea. Thames & Hudson. London.

[2]: (Broodbank 2015, 545) Broodbank, Cyprian. 2015. The Making of the Middle Sea. Thames & Hudson. London.


Religious Literature:
present

Dedications? From the Aegean region, which includes Greek cities of Lydia on the coast of Western Asia Minor: "By the 6th century BC, writing was widespread there and, thanks to the later reverence for Greek culture, huge amounts survive in transmission beyond that on archaeologically durable media. In addition to poetry, dedications, laws, mathematics and philosophy ... historians" [1]

[1]: (Broodbank 2015, 536) Broodbank, Cyprian. 2015. The Making of the Middle Sea. Thames & Hudson. London.


Practical Literature:
present

Laws. From the Aegean region, which includes Greek cities of Lydia on the coast of Western Asia Minor: "By the 6th century BC, writing was widespread there and, thanks to the later reverence for Greek culture, huge amounts survive in transmission beyond that on archaeologically durable media. In addition to poetry, dedications, laws, mathematics and philosophy ... historians" [1]

[1]: (Broodbank 2015, 536) Broodbank, Cyprian. 2015. The Making of the Middle Sea. Thames & Hudson. London.


Philosophy:
present

Philosophy. From the Aegean region, which includes Greek cities of Lydia on the coast of Western Asia Minor: "By the 6th century BC, writing was widespread there and, thanks to the later reverence for Greek culture, huge amounts survive in transmission beyond that on archaeologically durable media. In addition to poetry, dedications, laws, mathematics and philosophy ... historians" [1]

[1]: (Broodbank 2015, 536) Broodbank, Cyprian. 2015. The Making of the Middle Sea. Thames & Hudson. London.


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

inferred continuity with earlier periods in the region


History:
present

"Hecataeus, the first known name in a line of historians with a geographical bent, was born at Miletus around 530 BC." [1] 530 BCE is just a few years after the end date of this polity. Miletus on the coast of Western Asia Minor was one of the Greek cities within the Lydian Empire.

[1]: (Broodbank 2015, 536) Broodbank, Cyprian. 2015. The Making of the Middle Sea. Thames & Hudson. London.


Fiction:
present

Poetry. From the Aegean region, which includes Greek cities of Lydia on the coast of Western Asia Minor: "By the 6th century BC, writing was widespread there and, thanks to the later reverence for Greek culture, huge amounts survive in transmission beyond that on archaeologically durable media. In addition to poetry, dedications, laws, mathematics and philosophy ... historians" [1]

[1]: (Broodbank 2015, 536) Broodbank, Cyprian. 2015. The Making of the Middle Sea. Thames & Hudson. London.


Calendar:
present

inferred continuity with earlier periods in the region


Information / Money
Precious Metal:
present

Lydia had a reputation among Greek historians for its luxury and opulence.



Indigenous Coin:
present

Lydian coinage. "True coins started to be minted with a decade or two on either side of 600 BC, by Lydia to judge by their emblem of lion’s head and paws, the first known were found alongside stamped weights at Lydia’s martime outlet of Ephesus, a city-state where Anatolian and Greek traditions mingled around a famous shrine to Artemis." [1] Lydia was one of a number of small kingdoms in Anatolia. It was well positioned in the riverlands of western Anatolia and had a rich supply of electrum, the natural alloy of silver and gold. Lydia is thought to be the birthplace of coinage. [2]

[1]: (Broodbank 2015, 555-556) Broodbank, Cyprian. 2015. The Making of the Middle Sea. Thames & Hudson. London.

[2]: Roosevelt, C.H. 2012. Iron Age Western Anatolia. In Potts, D.T. (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Near East. London: Blackwell. p. 897-913


Foreign Coin:
absent
600 BCE

"By the early 6th century BC, the east Aegean Greek towns bordering Lydia were issuing their own mainly silver coins, as was maritime Aegina. City-states in southern Italy were soon active too, ad in the late 6th century some on Cyrpus and coastal, metal-rich Populonia in Etruria followed suit, the latter with large units rather than small change." [1]

[1]: (Broodbank 2015, 556) Broodbank, Cyprian. 2015. The Making of the Middle Sea. Thames & Hudson. London.



Information / Postal System

General Postal Service:
unknown


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
unknown

not mentioned in literature


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present

’By the end of Croesus’s reign, Sardis was a city of monumental architecture that included: a fortification wall twenty meters thick (figure 52.3) that enclosed a lower city area of about 108 hectares; terraces of white ashlar masonry that regularized natural slopes and contours of the acropolis (figures 52.4, 52.5; Ratté 2011); probably the triple-wall defenses of the acropolis—if they are not Persian—that later impressed Alexander the Great (Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri 1.17.5; Lucian, Charon 9); three huge tumuli at Bin Tepe—the largest more than 350 m in diameter (figure 52.6)—that were visible from afar and heralded the city to those approaching it (Roosevelt 2009).’ [1]

[1]: Crawford H. Greenewalt, ‘Sardis: A First Millennium B.C.E. Capital in Western Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p.1117


Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown

not mentioned in literature


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

citadel mentioned below


Modern Fortification:
absent

Cannon equipped reinforced star forts are not yet in use


not mentioned in literature


Fortified Camp:
unknown

not mentioned in literature


Earth Rampart:
unknown

not mentioned in literature


not mentioned in literature


Complex Fortification:
present

’By the end of Croesus’s reign, Sardis was a city of monumental architecture that included: a fortification wall twenty meters thick (figure 52.3) that enclosed a lower city area of about 108 hectares; terraces of white ashlar masonry that regularized natural slopes and contours of the acropolis (figures 52.4, 52.5; Ratté 2011); probably the triple-wall defenses of the acropolis—if they are not Persian—that later impressed Alexander the Great (Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri 1.17.5; Lucian, Charon 9); three huge tumuli at Bin Tepe—the largest more than 350 m in diameter (figure 52.6)—that were visible from afar and heralded the city to those approaching it (Roosevelt 2009).’ [1]

[1]: Crawford H. Greenewalt, ‘Sardis: A First Millennium B.C.E. Capital in Western Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p.1117



Military use of Metals

Not known to have been in use here yet


iron knife found [1]

[1]: Crawford H. Greenewalt, ‘Sardis: A First Millennium B.C.E. Capital in Western Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p.1118


present as used in bronze


bronze had long been in use and bronze swords have been uncovered in Anatolia during this time [1]

[1]: Altan Çilingiroğlu, ‘Ayanis: An Iron age Site in the East’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 1060


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

In Anatolia siege warfare was mentioned in Old Hittite records. [1] Presumably at this time the catapult was not used? In India, according to Jain texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone". [2] Marsden (1969) said archaeological records exist before the 4th century BCE. [3] The Achaemenids (c400 BCE?) are assumed to have had the catapult because the Macedonians did. [4] Pollard and Berry (2012) say torsion catapults first came into widespread use in the Hellenistic period 4th - 1st centuries BCE. [5] The Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE which encouraged the development of large tension-powered weapons. [6] There is no direct evidence for catapults for this time/location. The aforementioned evidence we currently have covering the wider ancient world suggests they were probably not used at this time, perhaps because effective machines had not been invented yet.

[1]: Siegelova I. and H. Tsumoto (2011) Metals and Metallurgy in Hittite Anatolia, pp. 278 [In:] H. Genz and D. P. Mielke (ed.) Insights Into Hittite History And Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven, Paris, Walpole MA: PEETERS, pp. 275-300

[2]: (Singh 2008, 272) Upinder Singh. 2008. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Longman. Delhi.

[3]: (Marsden 1969, 5, 16, 66.) Marsden, E. W. 1969. Greek and Roman Artillery: The Historical Development. Toronto: Oxford University Press.

[4]: (Dandamaev 1989, 314) Dandamaev, M A. 1989. A Political History of the Achaemenid Empire. Brill.

[5]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 45) Pollard, N, Berry, J (2012) The Complete Roman Legions, Thames and Hudson, London Rives, J (2006) Religion in the Roman Empire, Wiley

[6]: (Keyser and Irby-Massie 2006, 260) Paul T Keyser. Georgia Irby-Massie. Science, Medicine, And Technology. Glenn R Bugh. ed. 2006. The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

The counter-weight trebuchet was first used by the Byzantines in 1165 CE.



[1] "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders." [2] Bows were used by the Greeks and Romans but they didn’t place much emphasis on the bow as a weapon preferring instead infantry combat. [3]

[1]: (Rich 2012) Rich, Kurt M V. 2012. Chasing the Golden Hoard: A Tale of Theft, Repatriation, Greed & Deceit. Authorhouse.

[2]: Sergey A Nefedov, RAN Institute of History and Archaeology, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. January 2018.

[3]: (Gabriel 2002, 29) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


"He removed the javelins and spears and all the weapons men use in war from their rooms and heaped them up in the women’s quarters lest any of them suspended above Atys should fall on him" Account of Croesus attempts to protect his son by Herodotus. [1]

[1]: Pedley, J.G. 1972. Ancient Literary Sources on Sardis. Achaeological Exploration of Sardis. Monograph 2. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p.31


Handheld Firearm:
absent

Not invented yet.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Not invented yet.


Not at this time: "the hand-held crossbow was invented by the Chinese, in the fifth century BC, and probably came into the Roman world in the first century AD, where it was used for hunting." [1] The crossbow also developed after the Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE. [2]

[1]: (Nicholson 2004, 99) Helen Nicholson. 2004. Medieval Warfare: Theory and Practice of War in Europe, 300-1500. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[2]: (Keyser and Irby-Massie 2006, 260) Paul T Keyser. Georgia Irby-Massie. Science, Medicine, And Technology. Glenn R Bugh. ed. 2006. The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Composite Bow:
present

"The ancient Hewbrews considered the Lydians accomplished archers." [1] "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders." [2] Bows were used by the Greeks and Romans but they didn’t place much emphasis on the bow as a weapon preferring instead infantry combat. [3]

[1]: (Rich 2012) Rich, Kurt M V. 2012. Chasing the Golden Hoard: A Tale of Theft, Repatriation, Greed & Deceit. Authorhouse.

[2]: Sergey A Nefedov, RAN Institute of History and Archaeology, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. January 2018.

[3]: (Gabriel 2002, 29) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


weapon of the Americas


Handheld weapons

not mentioned in literature


"All armies after the seventeenth century B.C.E. carried the sword, but in none was it a major weapon of close combat; rather, it was used when the soldier’s primary weapons, the spear and axe, were lost or broken." [1]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 26-27) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


"His was not that kind of strength and fecklessness of spirit, as I gather from my forebear, who saw him drive the thick columns of Lydian cavalry into confusion along the plain of Hermus, and he a spear-bearing mortal" Account by Minnermus [1] Spear-using phalanx first used in Sumer 2500 BCE. The phalanx was in use until the 1st century BCE. [2]

[1]: Pedley, J.G. 1972. Ancient Literary Sources on Sardis. Achaeological Exploration of Sardis. Monograph 2. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p.20

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 25) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


not mentioned in literature


iron knife found [1]

[1]: Crawford H. Greenewalt, ‘Sardis: A First Millennium B.C.E. Capital in Western Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p.1118


Battle Axe:
unknown

not mentioned in literature


Animals used in warfare

Horse bridle ornaments decorated in a nomadic animal style might reflect the impact on Lydian horsemanship of Cimmerians and Scythians, who were present at Sardis in the seventh and early sixth centuries b.c.e [1]

[1]: Crawford H. Greenewalt, ‘Sardis: A First Millennium B.C.E. Capital in Western Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p.1125


No evidence for use in warfare yet


"His was not that kind of strength and fecklessness of spirit, as I gather from my forebear, who saw him drive the thick columns of Lydian cavalry into confusion along the plain of Hermus, and he a spear-bearing mortal" Account by Minnermus [1]

[1]: Pedley, J.G. 1972. Ancient Literary Sources on Sardis. Achaeological Exploration of Sardis. Monograph 2. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p.20


"When the Cimmmerians, who have strange and beastly physiques, campaigned against him, Alyattes with the rest of his army led out to battle the fiercest war-dogs. They fastened on the barbarians as if they were wild beasts, killed many of them and compelled the remainder to flee shamefully." Account by Polyaenus. [1] The Lydian king Alyattes used hounds against the Cimmerians in the sixth century BCE, apparently to great effect. [2]

[1]: Pedley, J.G. 1972. Ancient Literary Sources on Sardis. Achaeological Exploration of Sardis. Monograph 2. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p.25

[2]: (Mayor 2014, 287) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Bactrian Camels’ first used in battle 853 BC by the nearby Assyrians, but no evidence of use in Tabal [1]

[1]: Gabriel, Richard A. (2007). Soldiers’ Lives Through History: The Ancient World. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. xvi


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
unknown

not mentioned in literature


It can be inferred from testimonials of ceremonial shields. "A gold shield and spear were sent to Amphiaraus" by Croesus. [1]

[1]: Pedley, J.G. 1972. Ancient Literary Sources on Sardis. Achaeological Exploration of Sardis. Monograph 2. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p.25


Scaled Armor:
unknown

not mentioned in literature


Plate Armor:
present

By 600 BCE early Greeks and Romans had introduced the bronze cast bell muscle cuirass. [1]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Limb Protection:
present

Closest reference in Anatolia is the Hittite period. [1] In Greece c1600 BCE: "Early Mycenaean and Minoan charioteers wore an arrangement of bronze armor that almost fully enclosed the soldier, the famous Dendra panoply." [2] Mesopotamia (the Assyrians) c800 BCE?: iron plates used for shin protection. [3]

[1]: Bryce T. (2007) Hittite Warrior, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, pp. 15

[2]: (Gabriel 2007, 78) Richard A Gabriel. 2007. Soldiers’ Lives Through History: The Ancient World. Greenwood Press. Westport.

[3]: (Gabriel and Metz 1991, 51) Richard A Gabriel. Karen S Metz. 1991. The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Leather Cloth:
unknown

not mentioned in literature


Laminar Armor:
unknown

Possible. Already introduced by the Assyrians.


Present in Egypt probably worn by charioteers by the 18th Dynasty c1500 BCE. [1] Earliest known helmet dates to 2500 BCE in Sumer. After this time use of helmets became widespread. [2]

[1]: (Hoffmeier 2001) J K Hoffmeier in D B Redford. ed. 2001. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 22) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples. [1]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Breastplate:
unknown

not mentioned in literature


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown

Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

boats had been in use for thousands of years in this NGA


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown


Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions
- Nothing coded yet.