Home Region:  Mongolia (Central and Northern Eurasia)

Eastern Turk Khaganate

D G SC WF HS CC EQ 2020  mn_turk_khaganate_1 / MnETurk

Preceding:
[continuity; First Turk Khaganate] [continuity]   Update here
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
600 CE 1000 CE Shiwei (mn_shiwei)    [None]
Add one more here.

The Orkhon Valley lies either side of the Orkhon River, in north-central Mongolia. For just under a century, between about 550 and 630 CE, it was under the control of a Turkic Khaganate, which split between a Western Khaganate and an Eastern one around 580; [1] the Eastern Khaganate included the Orkhon Valley, though it lasted only a few decades, between succumbing to a combination of internal rebellions and an invasion from Tang China, around 630 CE. [2] Like many of their predecessors in the region, the Turks were nomads: indeed, the Turkic general and counselor, Tonyukhukh, is believed to have once said, "If we build castles and give up our old customs, we shall be vanquished". [2] Both Western and Eastern khaganates were characterised by a four-tiered administrative hierarchy, whose members largely came from the ruling clan. [3] In the East, Sogdian was the language used for administrative purposes. [4]
No population estimates specific to this polity could be found in the literature, though, according to McEvedy and Jones, at that time Mongolia and Siberia together likely had a population of no more than 500,000. [5]

[1]: (Hosszú 2012, 285)

[2]: (Rogers 2012, 226)

[3]: (Rogers 2012, 225)

[4]: (Hosszú 2012, 285) Hosszú, G. 2012. Heritage of Scribes: The Relation of Rovas Scripts to Eurasian Writing Systems. Rovas Foundation.

[5]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978) McEvedy, Colin. Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd. London.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
48 T  
Original Name:
Eastern Turk Khaganate  
Capital:
none  
Alternative Name:
Northern Turk Khaganate  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[583 CE ➜ 630 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]  
Succeeding Entity:
Tang Dynasty  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
UNCLEAR:    [continuity]  
Succeeding: Shiwei (mn_shiwei)    [None]  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Oghuz  
Language:
Old Turkic  
Sogdian  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Buddhism  
Alternate Religion Genus:
Christianity  
Manichaeism  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[4,500,000 to 5,000,000] km2  
Polity Population:
[400,000 to 500,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[1 to 2]  
Religious Level:
2  
Military Level:
[3 to 4]  
Administrative Level:
[4 to 5]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred absent  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
absent  
Professional Military Officer:
unknown  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown  
Merit Promotion:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
inferred present  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown  
Judge:
unknown  
Formal Legal Code:
unknown  
Court:
unknown  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
unknown  
Irrigation System:
unknown  
Food Storage Site:
unknown  
Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
unknown  
Port:
unknown  
Canal:
unknown  
Bridge:
unknown  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
inferred present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
unknown  
Nonwritten Record:
inferred present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
present  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
unknown  
Sacred Text:
unknown  
Religious Literature:
unknown  
Practical Literature:
inferred present  
Philosophy:
unknown  
Lists Tables and Classification:
inferred present  
History:
unknown  
Calendar:
inferred present  
Information / Money
Token:
absent  
Precious Metal:
absent  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
absent  
Foreign Coin:
present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
absent  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
absent  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
absent  
  Fortified Camp:
absent  
  Earth Rampart:
absent  
  Ditch:
absent  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
inferred absent  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
inferred present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
unknown  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
unknown  
  Javelin:
unknown  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
inferred absent  
  Crossbow:
unknown  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
unknown  
  Sword:
unknown  
  Spear:
unknown  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
unknown  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
unknown  
  Donkey:
unknown  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
unknown  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
inferred present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
unknown  
  Limb Protection:
unknown  
  Leather Cloth:
inferred present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
inferred present  
  Chainmail:
unknown  
  Breastplate:
unknown  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
absent  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Eastern Turk Khaganate (mn_turk_khaganate_1) was in:
 (583 CE 630 CE)   Orkhon Valley
Home NGA: Orkhon Valley

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Eastern Turk Khaganate

"There were no major urban centers; in fact, the Turkic general and counselor, Tonyukhukh, is credited with the quote, ‘‘If we build castles and give up our old customs, we shall be vanquished’’ (Tkachev 1987, p. 114). The Turkic leaders took this advice, although there is a report of a settlement built at a place called Dalee (Perlee 1961, p. 47; Rogers et al. 2005, pp. 812-813)." [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 226)


Alternative Name:
Northern Turk Khaganate

Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[583 CE ➜ 630 CE]

"By 627 internal rebellions and a Tang invasion resulted in the dissolution of the first Turkic polity." [1] c582 CE: "The First Turkic Khaganate officially split into the Western and the Eastern Turkic Khaganate. In the Eastern Turkic Khaganate, the Sogdian language and script was used for chancellery purposes and inscriptions." [2]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 226)

[2]: (Hosszú 2012, 285)


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]

"At other times the Turkic polities were closely allied with either the Sui (A.D. 581-618) or the Tang (A.D. 618-907) dynasty (Sinor 1990)." [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 226)


Succeeding Entity:
Tang Dynasty

Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

"By 627 internal rebellions and a Tang invasion resulted in the dissolution of the first Turkic polity." [1] "Tumïn’s brother Ištemi, ruled over the western part of the realm as subordinate kaghan—yabghu or yabghu kaghan—with a winter camp somewhere near Karashahr (Agni). This gradually became the de facto independent realm of the Western Turks, while *Tumïn’s successors reigned over the Türk, or Eastern Turks, and retained the full imperial dignity." [2]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 226)

[2]: (Beckwith 2009, 115-116)


Preceding Entity:
First Turk Khaganate

"By 627 internal rebellions and a Tang invasion resulted in the dissolution of the first Turkic polity." [1] "Tumïn’s brother Ištemi, ruled over the western part of the realm as subordinate kaghan—yabghu or yabghu kaghan—with a winter camp somewhere near Karashahr (Agni). This gradually became the de facto independent realm of the Western Turks, while *Tumïn’s successors reigned over the Türk, or Eastern Turks, and retained the full imperial dignity." [2]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 226)

[2]: (Beckwith 2009, 115-116)

Preceding Entity:
Eastern Turk Khaganate [mn_turk_khaganate_1] ---> Shiwei [mn_shiwei]

Language

Language:
Old Turkic

"The question may be asked whether all these groups spoke the same language. The Orkhon inscriptions, engraved in the mid eighth century, are certainly Turkic - we refer to their language as Old Turkic, but one may as well call it Türk - and there is no reason to believe that at least the bulk of those who were called Türk used a different language. For example, the Chiu T’ang shu clearly states that the languages spoken by respectively the Eastern and Western Turks are only "slightly different." There is, however, some evidence to show that the Turk state incorporated some non-Turkic peoples whose languages left traces in Turk proper names and even in the vocabulary of Turk." [1] "As witnessed by the Bugut inscription, the role of the Sogdians within the Turk state ensured a prominent status for their language. It is safe to assume that it was widely used in commerce and in other international contacts." [2] c582 CE: "The First Turkic Khaganate officially split into the Western and the Eastern Turkic Khaganate. In the Eastern Turkic Khaganate, the Sogdian language and script was used for chancellery purposes and inscriptions." [3]

[1]: (Sinor 1990, 289-290)

[2]: (Sinor 1990, 291)

[3]: (Hosszú 2012, 285) Hosszú, G. 2012. Heritage of Scribes: The Relation of Rovas Scripts to Eurasian Writing Systems. Rovas Foundation.

Language:
Sogdian

"The question may be asked whether all these groups spoke the same language. The Orkhon inscriptions, engraved in the mid eighth century, are certainly Turkic - we refer to their language as Old Turkic, but one may as well call it Türk - and there is no reason to believe that at least the bulk of those who were called Türk used a different language. For example, the Chiu T’ang shu clearly states that the languages spoken by respectively the Eastern and Western Turks are only "slightly different." There is, however, some evidence to show that the Turk state incorporated some non-Turkic peoples whose languages left traces in Turk proper names and even in the vocabulary of Turk." [1] "As witnessed by the Bugut inscription, the role of the Sogdians within the Turk state ensured a prominent status for their language. It is safe to assume that it was widely used in commerce and in other international contacts." [2] c582 CE: "The First Turkic Khaganate officially split into the Western and the Eastern Turkic Khaganate. In the Eastern Turkic Khaganate, the Sogdian language and script was used for chancellery purposes and inscriptions." [3]

[1]: (Sinor 1990, 289-290)

[2]: (Sinor 1990, 291)

[3]: (Hosszú 2012, 285) Hosszú, G. 2012. Heritage of Scribes: The Relation of Rovas Scripts to Eurasian Writing Systems. Rovas Foundation.


Religion

Alternate Religion Genus:
Christianity
Alternate Religion Genus:
Manichaeism

Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI


Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[4,500,000 to 5,000,000] km2

in squared kilometers.


Polity Population:
[400,000 to 500,000] people

People.
According to McEvedy and Jones the areas of Mongolia and Siberia would not have had a population over 500,000. [1]

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978) McEvedy, Colin. Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd. London.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[1 to 2]

levels. Estimate from other, similarly sized/structured settlements in the region and elsewhere


Religious Level:
2

levels.
1. Khagan as high priest
2. Ordinary shaman
"At the top, the kaghan ruled by heavenly mandate (kut), embodying and demonstrating heaven’s favor through successful performance of his functions as ruler.77 Prominent among these were ritual functions with shamanic overtones. The kaghan had to maintain control of Mount Ötüken and perform ancestral rites at the sacred sites there." [1]
"Türk religious life, not extensively documented, was based on an ancient complex of beliefs widespread in Inner Asia.84 The term “shamanism,” although conventional, is a misleading name for this belief system. Shamans, male and female, served as religious specialists, who could communicate with the spirit world. They were called on, however, only for exceptional reli- gious or medical needs, not for routine religious practice. Their ability, real or reputed, to divine the future or conjure up storms on the battlefield made their services especially significant for rulers. However, the heroic, ecstatic quest that transformed an individual from sickness and alienation through initiation into a shaman capable of performing such wonders little resembled his or her neighbors’ usual religious observance." [2]
"If there was a difference in spiritual emphases between dynast and ordinary nomad, it took the form of the greater devotion to Tengri, the supreme deity, in the politicized state cult, with the kaghan as high priest." [3]

[1]: (Findley 2005, 43)

[2]: (Findley 2005, 45-47)

[3]: (Findley 2005, 48)


Military Level:
[3 to 4]

levels.
"Every male was an er, “man” and implicitly “warrior”; every young man had to earn his “warrior name” (er ati) through prowess in battle or the hunt; and an elite male, too, was an er bashi, or commander of so many men.82" [1]
1. Khagan
2. Er Bashi. Commander3. Officer level (inferred)4. Er. Individual warrior

[1]: (Findley 2005, 45)


Administrative Level:
[4 to 5]

levels. At least 4 levels.
"Although the two Turk empires are distinct, they are combined here because of similar organization and their spatial and temporal proximity. For both, there were at least four recognized levels in the administrative hierarchy, almost all of whose members came from the ruling Ashina clan." [1]
c582 CE: "The First Turkic Khaganate officially split into the Western and the Eastern Turkic Khaganate. In the Eastern Turkic Khaganate, the Sogdian language and script was used for chancellery purposes and inscriptions." [2]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 225)

[2]: (Hosszú 2012, 285) Hosszú, G. 2012. Heritage of Scribes: The Relation of Rovas Scripts to Eurasian Writing Systems. Rovas Foundation.


Professions
Professional Soldier:
absent

"Every male was an er, “man” and implicitly “warrior”; every young man had to earn his “warrior name” (er ati) through prowess in battle or the hunt; and an elite male, too, was an er bashi, or commander of so many men." [1]

[1]: (Findley 2005, 45)


Professional Priesthood:
present

"The religious beliefs of the Türk focused on a sky god, Tängri, and an earth goddess, Umay.9 Some of the Turks—notably the Western Turks in Tokharistan—converted very early to Buddhism, and it played an impor- tant role among them. Other religions were also influential, particularly Christianity and Manichaeism, which were popular among the Sogdians, close allies of the Türk who were skilled in international trade. Although the Sogdians were a settled, urban people, they were like the Türk in that they also had a Central Eurasian warrior ethos with a pervasive comitatus tradi- tion, and both peoples were intensely interested in trade." [1]
"Türk religious life, not extensively documented, was based on an ancient complex of beliefs widespread in Inner Asia.84 The term “shamanism,” although conventional, is a misleading name for this belief system. Shamans, male and female, served as religious specialists, who could communicate with the spirit world. They were called on, however, only for exceptional reli- gious or medical needs, not for routine religious practice. Their ability, real or reputed, to divine the future or conjure up storms on the battlefield made their services especially significant for rulers. However, the heroic, ecstatic quest that transformed an individual from sickness and alienation through initiation into a shaman capable of performing such wonders little resembled his or her neighbors’ usual religious observance." [2]

[1]: (Beckwith 2009, 115)

[2]: (Findley 2005, 45-47)

Professional Priesthood:
absent

"The religious beliefs of the Türk focused on a sky god, Tängri, and an earth goddess, Umay.9 Some of the Turks—notably the Western Turks in Tokharistan—converted very early to Buddhism, and it played an impor- tant role among them. Other religions were also influential, particularly Christianity and Manichaeism, which were popular among the Sogdians, close allies of the Türk who were skilled in international trade. Although the Sogdians were a settled, urban people, they were like the Türk in that they also had a Central Eurasian warrior ethos with a pervasive comitatus tradi- tion, and both peoples were intensely interested in trade." [1]
"Türk religious life, not extensively documented, was based on an ancient complex of beliefs widespread in Inner Asia.84 The term “shamanism,” although conventional, is a misleading name for this belief system. Shamans, male and female, served as religious specialists, who could communicate with the spirit world. They were called on, however, only for exceptional reli- gious or medical needs, not for routine religious practice. Their ability, real or reputed, to divine the future or conjure up storms on the battlefield made their services especially significant for rulers. However, the heroic, ecstatic quest that transformed an individual from sickness and alienation through initiation into a shaman capable of performing such wonders little resembled his or her neighbors’ usual religious observance." [2]

[1]: (Beckwith 2009, 115)

[2]: (Findley 2005, 45-47)


Professional Military Officer:
unknown

Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown

Not mentioned by sources.



Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

"According to the Chinese chroniclers, there were 28 hereditary ranks or titles in the Turk political system, suggesting a formal bureaucracy but not an entirely centralized administration." [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 225)


Examination System:
unknown

Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown

As much as we know about the governance system is there was probably "a formal bureaucracy but not an entirely centralized administration." [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 225)


Formal Legal Code:
unknown

As much as we know about the governance system is there was probably "a formal bureaucracy but not an entirely centralized administration." [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 225)


As much as we know about the governance system is there was probably "a formal bureaucracy but not an entirely centralized administration." [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 225)


Specialized Buildings: polity owned



Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown

Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

"In 568 the Greek Zemarkhos, ambassador of Justin II to the Western Turks in Sogdiana, then under Turk rule, met a Turk who offered him iron for sale. The historian Menander, reporting this event, added his own commentary to the effect that it was in this way that the Turks wanted to make it known that they had iron mines. When the famous Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Hsüan-tsang called on one of the rulers of the Western Turks he noticed an iron bedstead in place of the usual wooden one. He found the object so unusual that he deemed it worthy of a mention in his travel account." [1]

[1]: (Sinor 1990, 296)


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

"The inscriptions of the Orkhon, written in Turk in rune-type characters, contain a number of words not common to Turkic but with parallels in Samoyed or Ugric languages from which, directly or indirectly, they had to be borrowed." [1] "The First Turkic Khaganate officially split into the Western and the Eastern Turkic Khaganate. In the Eastern Turkic Khaganate, the Sogdian language and script was used for chancellery purposes and inscriptions." [2]

[1]: (Sinor 1990, 291)

[2]: (Hosszú 2012, 285) Hosszú, G. 2012. Heritage of Scribes: The Relation of Rovas Scripts to Eurasian Writing Systems. Rovas Foundation.


Script:
present

"The inscriptions of the Orkhon, written in Turk in rune-type characters, contain a number of words not common to Turkic but with parallels in Samoyed or Ugric languages from which, directly or indirectly, they had to be borrowed." [1] "The First Turkic Khaganate officially split into the Western and the Eastern Turkic Khaganate. In the Eastern Turkic Khaganate, the Sogdian language and script was used for chancellery purposes and inscriptions." [2]

[1]: (Sinor 1990, 291)

[2]: (Hosszú 2012, 285) Hosszú, G. 2012. Heritage of Scribes: The Relation of Rovas Scripts to Eurasian Writing Systems. Rovas Foundation.


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
unknown

Nonwritten Record:
present

Oral histories inferred present in previous polities.


Non Phonetic Writing:
present

"The inscriptions of the Orkhon, written in Turk in rune-type characters, contain a number of words not common to Turkic but with parallels in Samoyed or Ugric languages from which, directly or indirectly, they had to be borrowed." [1] "The First Turkic Khaganate officially split into the Western and the Eastern Turkic Khaganate. In the Eastern Turkic Khaganate, the Sogdian language and script was used for chancellery purposes and inscriptions." [2]

[1]: (Sinor 1990, 291)

[2]: (Hosszú 2012, 285) Hosszú, G. 2012. Heritage of Scribes: The Relation of Rovas Scripts to Eurasian Writing Systems. Rovas Foundation.



Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
unknown


Religious Literature:
unknown

Practical Literature:
present

c582 CE: "The First Turkic Khaganate officially split into the Western and the Eastern Turkic Khaganate. In the Eastern Turkic Khaganate, the Sogdian language and script was used for chancellery purposes and inscriptions." [1]

[1]: (Hosszú 2012, 285) Hosszú, G. 2012. Heritage of Scribes: The Relation of Rovas Scripts to Eurasian Writing Systems. Rovas Foundation.



Lists Tables and Classification:
present

c582 CE: "The First Turkic Khaganate officially split into the Western and the Eastern Turkic Khaganate. In the Eastern Turkic Khaganate, the Sogdian language and script was used for chancellery purposes and inscriptions." [1]

[1]: (Hosszú 2012, 285) Hosszú, G. 2012. Heritage of Scribes: The Relation of Rovas Scripts to Eurasian Writing Systems. Rovas Foundation.



Calendar:
present

c582 CE: "The First Turkic Khaganate officially split into the Western and the Eastern Turkic Khaganate. In the Eastern Turkic Khaganate, the Sogdian language and script was used for chancellery purposes and inscriptions." [1]

[1]: (Hosszú 2012, 285) Hosszú, G. 2012. Heritage of Scribes: The Relation of Rovas Scripts to Eurasian Writing Systems. Rovas Foundation.


Information / Money

According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Precious Metal:
absent

According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Paper Currency:
absent

According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Indigenous Coin:
absent

According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Foreign Coin:
present

Turks used Sogdian money. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Article:
present

According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Information / Postal System

General Postal Service:
unknown


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
absent

According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent

According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Stone Walls Mortared:
absent

According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
absent

According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Modern Fortification:
absent

According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Fortified Camp:
absent

According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Earth Rampart:
absent

According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Complex Fortification:
absent

According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)



Military use of Metals

No steel of a high quality until later. By the seventh century the "Sogdians and Turkic peoples "had their own sophisticated metallurgical industries." [1] "The other peoples who were heavily involved with arms production and trade with the Tibetans were the Turkic peoples and especially the Karluks, allies of the Tibetans during the eighth and early ninth centuries ... The Karluks ... were noted by Islamic geographers as producers and exporters of iron artifacts and weapons to Tibet and China." [2]

[1]: (Clarke 2006, 21-22) John Clarke. A History of Ironworking in Tibet: Centers of Production, Styles, and Techniques. Donald J LaRocca. ed. 2006. Warriors of the Himalayas: Rediscovering the Arms and Armor of Tibet. Yale University Press. New Haven.

[2]: (Clarke 2006, 22) John Clarke. A History of Ironworking in Tibet: Centers of Production, Styles, and Techniques. Donald J LaRocca. ed. 2006. Warriors of the Himalayas: Rediscovering the Arms and Armor of Tibet. Yale University Press. New Haven.


Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region. [1] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [2]

[1]: (Baumer 2012) Baumer, Christoph. 2012. The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors. I.B.Tauris. London.

[2]: (Di Cosmo 2002, 84) Nicola Di Cosmo. 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


long been in use in the region. Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region. [1] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [2]

[1]: (Baumer 2012) Baumer, Christoph. 2012. The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors. I.B.Tauris. London.

[2]: (Di Cosmo 2002, 84) Nicola Di Cosmo. 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


long been in use in the region. Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region. [1] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [2]

[1]: (Baumer 2012) Baumer, Christoph. 2012. The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors. I.B.Tauris. London.

[2]: (Di Cosmo 2002, 84) Nicola Di Cosmo. 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Projectiles

Sling Siege Engine:
absent

First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon. [1]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.





Handheld Firearm:
absent

"Firearms appeared in Siberia and Mongolia in the 17th century in the form of flintlock rifles. Flintlocks were the only firearms used in most areas until the turn of the 20th century." [1]

[1]: (Atwood 2004, 229)


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Not in use until much later.



Composite Bow:
present

"It is no wonder that the skill required to produce steel swords over charcoal fires seemed supernatural. The same could be said for bow makers, who required great time and expertise to make the composite bows, which still set distance records exceeding those of European-style longbows “by humiliating margins.” [1]

[1]: (Findley 2005, 45)


Weapon of the Americas, highly unlikely to be present here


Handheld weapons




"Among the steppe riders a dagger was typically carried in all periods, and a number of dagger designs are encountered in the archaeological and artistic record." [1]

[1]: (Karasulas 2004, 28)



Animals used in warfare

Horses were the means of travel for mobile nomadic warriors since the establishment of cavalry forces by the mid-first millennium BCE






Armor

"Shields were known in all periods and, though they are mentioned in the contemporary literature, they only occasionally appear in artistic representations. They were typically made of leather on a reed frame, and a few rare examples survive." [1]

[1]: (Karasulas 2004, 29)





Leather Cloth:
present

"Shields were known in all periods and, though they are mentioned in the contemporary literature, they only occasionally appear in artistic representations. They were typically made of leather on a reed frame, and a few rare examples survive." [1]

[1]: (Karasulas 2004, 29)



"Helmets were widely used, although just as much evidence suggests soft, perhaps padded, headgear was also common. All types of helmets typical of the eras in this discussion found expression among the nomads, often with stylistic changes made to suit the tastes of the new nomadic owner. Often, especially among the Turkic and Mongolian tribes, metal helmets had leather neckflaps attached." [1]

[1]: (Karasulas 2004, 30)




Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
absent

According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent

According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions
- Nothing coded yet.