Home Region:  West Africa (Africa)

Jenne-jeno III

EQ 2020  ml_jenne_jeno_3 / MlJeJe3

The archaeological site of Jenne-jeno (or Djenné-djenno) is a mound located in the Niger Inland Delta, a region of West Africa just south of the Sahara and part of modern-day Mali, characterized by lakes and floodplains. It was continuously inhabited between 250 BCE and 1400 CE. ’Jenne-jeno III’ refers to the period from 400 to 900 CE. This roughly corresponds to the region’s ’urban prosperity’ phase. [1] Though subsistence strategies remained largely unchanged, a number of important transformations occurred: the inhabitants of Jenne-jeno grew in number, established long-distance trade networks, and developed more sophisticated metalworking techniques. [2] [1]
Population and political organization
Between 400 and 800 CE, Jenne-jeno grew from 25 to 33 hectares. Population density was likely high, and a conservative estimate puts the population of Jenne-jeno and its satellites within a one-kilometre radius at 10,000-26,000 people around 800 CE. [3]
The political organization of Jenne-jeno may have been quite different from that of other ancient cities. In several decades of excavation, clear evidence for hierarchies of any kind has yet to be unearthed: it seems that Jenne-jeno had no palaces, rich tombs, temples, public buildings, or monumental architecture. Indeed, the city’s very layout ‒ an assemblage of dispersed clusters ‒ suggests a resistance to centralization. [4] It is possible that, at this time, Niger Inland Delta society was organized ’heterarchically’ rather than hierarchically: that is, it was divided into multiple components, each deriving authority from separate or overlapping sources, with mechanisms in place to prevent any one group from monopolizing power. [5]

[1]: (McIntosh 2006, 175-76) Roderick McIntosh. 2006. Ancient Middle Niger. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[2]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 1) Roderick J. McIntosh and Susan K. McIntosh. 1981. ’The Inland Niger Delta before the Empire of Mali: Evidence from Jenne-jeno’. Journal of African History 22 (1): 1-22.

[3]: (McIntosh 2006, 174-75) Roderick McIntosh. 2006. Ancient Middle Niger. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[4]: (McIntosh 2006, 189) Roderick McIntosh. 2006. Ancient Middle Niger. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[5]: (McIntosh 2006, 228-29) Roderick McIntosh. 2006. Ancient Middle Niger. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
30 P  
Original Name:
Jenne-jeno III  
Alternative Name:
Jenne-jeno Phase III  
Djoboro  
Do-Dojobor  
Zoboro  
Old Jenne  
Djenne-jeno  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
899 CE  
Duration:
[400 CE ➜ 899 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
unknown [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
Jenne Culture  
Succeeding Entity:
Jenne-Jeno IV  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
25,000 km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuation  
Preceding Entity:
Jenne-jeno II  
Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity  
Language
Linguistic Family:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[7,000 to 8,000] people  
Polity Territory:
1,100 km2  
Polity Population:
[10,000 to 26,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3  
Administrative Level:
[1 to 2]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
unknown  
Professional Priesthood:
absent  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred absent  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown  
Merit Promotion:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown  
Judge:
inferred absent  
Formal Legal Code:
unknown  
Court:
inferred absent  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
inferred present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
inferred present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
inferred absent  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
unknown  
Port:
inferred present  
Canal:
unknown  
Bridge:
unknown  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent  
Script:
absent  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent  
Sacred Text:
absent  
Religious Literature:
absent  
Practical Literature:
absent  
Philosophy:
absent  
Lists Tables and Classification:
absent  
History:
absent  
Fiction:
inferred absent  
Calendar:
absent  
Information / Money
Token:
unknown  
Precious Metal:
unknown  
Paper Currency:
unknown  
Indigenous Coin:
unknown  
Foreign Coin:
unknown  
Article:
inferred present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
inferred absent  
General Postal Service:
inferred absent  
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
inferred absent  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred absent  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
absent  
  Fortified Camp:
inferred absent  
  Earth Rampart:
inferred absent  
  Ditch:
absent  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
present  
absent  
  Copper:
unknown  
  Bronze:
absent  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
inferred absent  
  Self Bow:
present  
absent  
  Javelin:
present  
absent  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
absent  
  Atlatl:
inferred absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
absent  
  Spear:
inferred absent  
  Polearm:
inferred absent  
  Dagger:
inferred absent  
  Battle Axe:
absent  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
absent  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
absent  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
absent  
  Shield:
absent  
  Scaled Armor:
absent  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
absent  
  Leather Cloth:
absent  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
absent  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
absent  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Jenne-jeno III (ml_jenne_jeno_3) was in:
 (400 CE 899 CE)   Niger Inland Delta
Home NGA: Niger Inland Delta

General Variables
Identity and Location


Alternative Name:
Jenne-jeno Phase III

Djoboro [1] , Do-Dojobor and Zoboro. [2] Jenne-jeno ("Old Jenne"; Djenne-jeno) [3]

[1]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 1)

[2]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 9)

[3]: (http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ind_1/hd_ind_1.htm)

Alternative Name:
Djoboro

Djoboro [1] , Do-Dojobor and Zoboro. [2] Jenne-jeno ("Old Jenne"; Djenne-jeno) [3]

[1]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 1)

[2]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 9)

[3]: (http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ind_1/hd_ind_1.htm)

Alternative Name:
Do-Dojobor

Djoboro [1] , Do-Dojobor and Zoboro. [2] Jenne-jeno ("Old Jenne"; Djenne-jeno) [3]

[1]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 1)

[2]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 9)

[3]: (http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ind_1/hd_ind_1.htm)

Alternative Name:
Zoboro

Djoboro [1] , Do-Dojobor and Zoboro. [2] Jenne-jeno ("Old Jenne"; Djenne-jeno) [3]

[1]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 1)

[2]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 9)

[3]: (http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ind_1/hd_ind_1.htm)

Alternative Name:
Old Jenne

Djoboro [1] , Do-Dojobor and Zoboro. [2] Jenne-jeno ("Old Jenne"; Djenne-jeno) [3]

[1]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 1)

[2]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 9)

[3]: (http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ind_1/hd_ind_1.htm)

Alternative Name:
Djenne-jeno

Djoboro [1] , Do-Dojobor and Zoboro. [2] Jenne-jeno ("Old Jenne"; Djenne-jeno) [3]

[1]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 1)

[2]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 9)

[3]: (http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ind_1/hd_ind_1.htm)


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
899 CE

Phase III: 400-900 CE. Urban expansion. apogee 750-1150 CE. [1]
"Jenne-jeno’s floruit: 450-1100 C.E." [2]
"Jenne-jeno’s floruit between 800-1000 C.E." [2]

[1]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 16)

[2]: (Susan Keech McIntosh and Roderick J. McIntosh "Jenne-jeno, an ancient African city" http://anthropology.rice.edu/Content.aspx?id=500)


Duration:
[400 CE ➜ 899 CE]

Phase III: 400-900 CE. [1]
Jenne-Jeno: town certainly existed 400-900 CE and it "developed greatly during the following period, from 900 to 1400." Important centre for regional trade, not linked to Saharan trade. [2]

[1]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 16)

[2]: (Devisse 1988, 417)


Political and Cultural Relations

Supracultural Entity:
Jenne Culture

Earlier coded as Sahel Tell Culture. In this more developed phase there presumably developed a more distinct local identity, so the supracultural entity will be a much smaller area. Al Sa’di’s describes the territory of Jenne as "from Lake Debo in the north to the Volta Bend in the south, and borders on the Bandiagara highlands to the east. It is not clear whether Jenne’s territory was defined by political suzerainty, economic domination, or some other means entirely." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 6)



Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
25,000 km2

km squared. Al Sa’di’s describes the territory of Jenne as "from Lake Debo in the north to the Volta Bend in the south, and borders on the Bandiagara highlands to the east. It is not clear whether Jenne’s territory was defined by political suzerainty, economic domination, or some other means entirely." [1] With Google area calculator this works out at about 25,000 km2.

[1]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 6)




Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity

There is no evidence of a hierarchical social system and centralized control [1]
Jenne-jeno was "a large, complex, but non-coercive urban settlement." [2] "the demands of specialization pushed groups apart while the requirements of a generalized economy pulled them together ... created a dynamism that ensured growth and the establishment of urban settlements. And they were non-coercive settlements. Groups congregated by choice. This is an instance of transformation from a rural to an urban society that did not establish a hierarchical society and coercive centralized control... The process in the delta and at Jenne-jeno in particular, was one of ’complexification’ rather than centralization." [3]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 219)

[2]: (Reader 1998, 225)

[3]: (Reader 1998, 228)


Language

Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[7,000 to 8,000] people

Inhabitants. The most up-to-date source [1] cites S. McIntosh’s 1995 population estimate for the wider Jenne-jeno area: "Archaeologists shrink (with justification) from making population estimates; let us just guess at a low-end figure of 10,000 to 26,000 people in Jenne-jeno and the 1-kilometer radius satellites (see below) by AD 800 (S. McIntosh 1995: 395)." [2] . As for Jenne-jeno itself, the 1995 document suggests a population of about 7,300 [3]
"At its most densely populated (around AD 800) Jenne-jeno housed up to 27,000 people. [4]
Estimate hectare size phase II:
settlement size "possibly exceeding 10 hectares" [5]
1977 archaeological investigation established the 3rd century BCE date and showed that by the eighth-ninth century it had become "an urban center of considerable proportions" [6]
Estimated hectare size early phase III:
"by 450 C.E., the settlement had expanded to at least 25 hectares (over 60 acres)." [7]
Estimate size at height phase III/phase IV:
"The total surface area of Jenne-jeno and its satellites was 69 hectares; the total population when most densely occupied approached 27,000." [8]
"At its most densely populated (around AD 800) Jenne-jeno housed up to 27,000 people. [4]
33 hectares. 9 hectare Hambarketolo connects to Jenne-jeno via an earthern dike. [5] this maximum area extent by 900-1000 CE [9]
"During this time, the settlement continued to grow, reaching its maximum area of 33 hectares by 850 C.E. We know that this is so because sherds of the distinctive painted pottery that was produced at Jenne-jeno only between 450-850 C.E. are present in all our excavation units, even those near the edge of the mound. And we find them at the neighboring mound of Hambarketolo, too, suggesting that these two connected sites totaling 41 hectares (100 acres) functioned as part of a single town complex (Pl. 4). [7]
modern town of Jenne (to be distinguished from ancient Jenne-jeno) was occupied by 500 CE. [10]

[1]: (McIntosh 2006, 174-175) Roderick McIntosh. 2006. “Ancient Middle Niger”. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[2]: (McIntosh 2006, 175) Roderick McIntosh. 2006. “Ancient Middle Niger”. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[3]: (McIntosh 1995, 374) Susan McIntosh. 1995. Excavations at Jenné-Jeno, Hambarketolo, and Kaniana (Inland Niger Delta, Mali): the 1981 season. Berkeley; London: University of California Press.

[4]: (Reader 1998, 219)

[5]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 16)

[6]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 1)

[7]: (Susan Keech McIntosh and Roderick J. McIntosh "Jenne-jeno, an ancient African city" http://anthropology.rice.edu/Content.aspx?id=500)

[8]: (Reader 1998, 230)

[9]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 19)

[10]: (Reader 1998, 232)


Polity Territory:
1,100 km2

in squared kilometers
1,100 square kilometer hinterland [1]
"over 60 archaeological sites rise from the floodplain within a 4 kilometer radius of the modern town" [2]
"The mound that rose from the Niger floodplain with the growth of Jenne-jeno did not stand alone. Indeed, it was surrounded by twenty-five smaller mounds, all within a distance of one kilometre, all occupied simultaneously. The total surface area of Jenne-jeno and its satellites was 69 hectares; the total population when most densely occupied approached 27,000." [3]

[1]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 22)

[2]: (Susan Keech McIntosh and Roderick J. McIntosh "Jenne-jeno, an ancient African city" http://anthropology.rice.edu/Content.aspx?id=500)

[3]: (Reader 1998, 230)


Polity Population:
[10,000 to 26,000] people

People. According to the most up-to-date estimate. "Archaeologists shrink (with justification) from making population estimates; let us just guess at a low-end figure of 10,000 to 26,000 people in Jenne-jeno and the 1-kilometer radius satellites (see below) by AD 800 (S. McIntosh 1995: 395)." [1] .
"The mound that rose from the Niger floodplain with the growth of Jenne-jeno did not stand alone. Indeed, it was surrounded by twenty-five smaller mounds, all within a distance of one kilometre, all occupied simultaneously. The total surface area of Jenne-jeno and its satellites was 69 hectares; the total population when most densely occupied approached 27,000." [2]
"At its most densely populated (around AD 800) Jenne-jeno housed up to 27,000 people. [3]

[1]: (McIntosh 2006, 175) Roderick McIntosh. 2006. “Ancient Middle Niger”. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[2]: (Reader 1998, 230)

[3]: (Reader 1998, 219)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3

levels.
1. Town (20,000-30,000 people)
2. Large village (2,000 people)3. Small agricultural settlement
"During the late first millennium A.D., several nearby settlements comparable in size to Jenne-jeno existed, and the density of rural settlements may have been as great as ten times the density of villages in the hinterland today." [1]
"The mound that rose from the Niger floodplain with the growth of Jenne-jeno did not stand alone. Indeed, it was surrounded by twenty-five smaller mounds, all within a distance of one kilometre, all occupied simultaneously." [2]
"people were kept apart by virtue of their occupations and their ethnic identities. Sedentary communities, though clustered were dispersed." [3]
"Sudanic societies were built on small agricultural villages or herding communities, sometimes but not always integrated into larger tribal and linguistic groups." [4]
"In the deposits dated from the fifth century, there are definite indications that the organization of society is changing... The round houses at Jenne-jeno were constructed with tauf, or puddled mud, foundations, from the fifth to the ninth century." [5]
"As we currently understand the archaeology of the entire Jenne region, where over 60 archaeological sites rise from the floodplain within a 4 kilometer radius of the modern town (Pl. 7) , many of these sites were occupied at the time of Jenne-jeno’s floruit between 800-1000 C.E.. We have suggested that extraordinary settlement clustering resulted from a clumping of population around a rare conjunction of highly desirable features (Pl. 8) : excellent rice-growing soils, levees for pasture in the flood season, deep basin for pasture in the dry season and access to both major river channels and the entire inland system of secondary and tertiary marigots from communication and trade." [5]

[1]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 22)

[2]: (Reader 1998, 230)

[3]: (Reader 1998, 242)

[4]: (Lapidus 2012, 590)

[5]: (Susan Keech McIntosh and Roderick J. McIntosh "Jenne-jeno, an ancient African city" http://anthropology.rice.edu/Content.aspx?id=500)


Administrative Level:
[1 to 2]

levels.
At this time, polities in the Niger Inland Delta may have been organized ’heterarchically’ rather than hierarchically: divided into multiple components, each deriving authority from separate or overlapping sources, with mechanisms in place to prevent any one group from monopolizing power. [1]
There is no evidence of a hierarchical social system [2] Jenne-jeno was "a large, complex, but non-coercive urban settlement." [3] "the demands of specialization pushed groups apart while the requirements of a generalized economy pulled them together ... created a dynamism that ensured growth and the establishment of urban settlements. And they were non-coercive settlements. Groups congregated by choice. This is an instance of transformation from a rural to an urban society that did not establish a hierarchical society and coercive centralized control... The process in the delta and at Jenne-jeno in particular, was one of ’complexification’ rather than centralization." [4]
Clan
(General reference for West African states) "the basic social and political unit appears in the past to have been the small local group, bound together by ties of kinship. When a number of groups came together they formed a clan. The heads of local clans were usually responsible for certain religious rites connected with the land." [5]
Kinship group
(General reference for West African states) "the basic social and political unit appears in the past to have been the small local group, bound together by ties of kinship. When a number of groups came together they formed a clan. The heads of local clans were usually responsible for certain religious rites connected with the land." [5]
In West Africa "Early states were simple in their government ... Some were ruled by a single chief or king and his counsellors. Others were governed by a council of chiefs or elders. Others again were formed by several neighbouring peoples whose chiefs were bound in loyalty to one another. Elsewhere, at the same time, there were people who found it better to get along without any chiefs." [6]
"Traditional groups such as clans ... or age-sets of people born at about the same time, had influence in these early states, as in later times, because they could underpin a system of law and order." [6]

[1]: (McIntosh 2006, 228-29) Roderick McIntosh. 2006. Ancient Middle Niger. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[2]: (Reader 1998, 219)

[3]: (Reader 1998, 225)

[4]: (Reader 1998, 228)

[5]: (Bovill 1958, 53)

[6]: (Davidson 1998, 13) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


Professions

Professional Priesthood:
absent

At Jenne-jeno no evidence of "social ranking or authoritarian institutions such as a ’temple elite’ has been found. [1] ’In several decades of excavation, clear evidence for hierarchies of any kind has yet to be unearthed: it seems that Jenne-jeno had no palaces, rich tombs, temples, public buildings, or monumental architecture. Indeed, the city’s very layout ‒ an assemblage of dispersed clusters - suggests a resistance to centralization.’ [2]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 230)

[2]: (McIntosh 2006, 189) Roderick McIntosh. 2006. Ancient Middle Niger. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Professional Military Officer:
absent

Full-time specialists


Bureaucracy Characteristics


Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent

At Jenne-jeno no evidence of "social ranking or authoritarian institutions such as a ’temple elite’ has been found. [1]
’In several decades of excavation, clear evidence for hierarchies of any kind has yet to be unearthed: it seems that Jenne-jeno had no palaces, rich tombs, temples, public buildings, or monumental architecture. Indeed, the city’s very layout ‒ an assemblage of dispersed clusters - suggests a resistance to centralization.’ [2]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 230)

[2]: (McIntosh 2006, 189) Roderick McIntosh. 2006. Ancient Middle Niger. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.



Law

’In several decades of excavation, clear evidence for hierarchies of any kind has yet to be unearthed: it seems that Jenne-jeno had no palaces, rich tombs, temples, public buildings, or monumental architecture. Indeed, the city’s very layout ‒ an assemblage of dispersed clusters - suggests a resistance to centralization.’ [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2006, 189) Roderick McIntosh. 2006. Ancient Middle Niger. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.



’In several decades of excavation, clear evidence for hierarchies of any kind has yet to be unearthed: it seems that Jenne-jeno had no palaces, rich tombs, temples, public buildings, or monumental architecture. Indeed, the city’s very layout ‒ an assemblage of dispersed clusters - suggests a resistance to centralization.’ [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2006, 189) Roderick McIntosh. 2006. Ancient Middle Niger. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

"There may have been an open market place in a central location. The whole residential sector was enclosed by a wall built of solid rows of cylindrical mud brick, 3.6 meters wide at the base." c800 CE. [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 229-230)


Irrigation System:
present

50-400 CE West African rice (Oryza glaberrima) domesticated. [1] In the Inland Delta region irrigation systems are unnecessary due to the annual inundation of the Niger river. Domesticated rice planted before the flood grows high enough to sprout above the flood waters. However, "Archaeological evidence affirms that the building of terraces and irrigation canals in sub-Saharan Africa pre-dates external influence..." [2] which suggests that irrigation systems are present in the archaeological sub-tradition.

[1]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 16)

[2]: (Reader 1998, 248 cite: Adams 1989)


Food Storage Site:
present

Level of urbanism and domestication of rice and irrigation systems might suggest agricultural surpluses may have been possible and these could have been stored.



Transport Infrastructure

"The middle section of the Niger, linking Timbuktu to Djenne (about 400 km upstream), and to Gao (about the same distance downstream), was the busiest inland waterway in West Africa... With its development, water transport transformed the middle Niger into one of the great centres of indigenous trade in Africa. It encouraged the growth of specialized occupations, such as the building and operation of canoes; it lead to the development of specialized ports on the water-ways; and it contributed to the political and economic homogeneity of the region." [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 271)




Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

iron mining [1] stone quarries, copper mines [2] Iron Age from 600 BCE in West Africa (e.g. Benue valley in Nigeria and upper Niger River) "the development and spread of the basic technologies of metal production and the forging and smithing of metal tools, notably in iron." [3]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 22)

[2]: (Posnansky 1981, 723, 719)

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 8) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent

"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent

"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


Nonwritten Record:
present

oral tradition sources. [1]

[1]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 9)


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.



Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent

"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


Sacred Text:
absent

"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


Religious Literature:
absent

"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


Practical Literature:
absent

"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


Philosophy:
absent

"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


Lists Tables and Classification:
absent

"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


History:
absent

"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


Fiction:
absent

"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


Calendar:
absent

"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


Information / Money

check for cowrie shells.






Article:
present

barter economy and no professional merchants. "The non-essential items and foreign durables found at sites remote from their point of origin were traded from village to village, in relays, as part of what was certainly a vigorous trade in essential goods between local centres." [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 261)


Information / Postal System


Courier:
unknown

Level of urbanism and economic development (e.g. market and port) might suggest a messenger would have been necessary.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
absent

no evidence of "external threats to Jenne-jeno" [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 230)


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent

hypothesised non-defensive functional wall was built with mud [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 229-230)


Stone Walls Mortared:
absent

hypothesised non-defensive functional wall was built with mud [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 229-230)


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
absent

no evidence of "external threats to Jenne-jeno, so if the wall was built for defensive purposes, it probably was with the intention of protecting the settlement from high and destructive floods; or else the wall served to control access to the market place and trade." [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 230)



no evidence of "external threats to Jenne-jeno" [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 230)


Fortified Camp:
absent

no evidence of "external threats to Jenne-jeno" [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 230)


Earth Rampart:
absent

no evidence of "external threats to Jenne-jeno" [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 230)


no evidence of "external threats to Jenne-jeno" [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 230)


Complex Fortification:
absent

no citadel [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 219)



Military use of Metals

Iron Age from 600 BCE in West Africa (e.g. Benue valley in Nigeria and upper Niger River) "the development and spread of the basic technologies of metal production and the forging and smithing of metal tools, notably in iron." [1] "Iron-headed hoes, probably invented some time after iron-pointed spears." [2] "Iron also brought, from about 600 BC onwards, a new source of military power." [3]

[1]: (Davidson 1998, 8) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.

[2]: (Davidson 1998, 12) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 13) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.

Iron Age from 600 BCE in West Africa (e.g. Benue valley in Nigeria and upper Niger River) "the development and spread of the basic technologies of metal production and the forging and smithing of metal tools, notably in iron." [1] "Iron-headed hoes, probably invented some time after iron-pointed spears." [2] "Iron also brought, from about 600 BC onwards, a new source of military power." [3]

[1]: (Davidson 1998, 8) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.

[2]: (Davidson 1998, 12) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 13) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.




Projectiles



weapons: "clubs, bows and arrows, and spears" however they were most often used to acquire food [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 260)

weapons: "clubs, bows and arrows, and spears" however they were most often used to acquire food [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 260)


weapons: "clubs, bows and arrows, and spears" however they were most often used to acquire food [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 260)

weapons: "clubs, bows and arrows, and spears" however they were most often used to acquire food [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 260)







Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

weapons: "clubs, bows and arrows, and spears" however they were most often used to acquire food [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 260)



Inferred from the absence of spears in previous and subsequent polities in the Niger Inland Delta.


Polearm:
absent

Inferred from the absence of polearms in previous and subsequent polities in the Niger Inland Delta.


Dagger:
absent

Inferred from the absence of daggers in previous and subsequent polities in the Niger Inland Delta.



Animals used in warfare

"The earliest irrefutable evidence of horses in sub-Saharan Africa comes from the Arabic texts, beginning with the writings of Al-Muhallabi from about AD 985. By then, however, the horse was a highly valued prestige animal, and camels were the vehicle of trans-Saharan trade." [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 266)





"The earliest irrefutable evidence of horses in sub-Saharan Africa comes from the Arabic texts, beginning with the writings of Al-Muhallabi from about AD 985. By then, however, the horse was a highly valued prestige animal, and camels were the vehicle of trans-Saharan trade." [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 266)



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.