Home Region:  Western Europe (Europe)

Hallstatt D

EQ 2020  fr_hallstatt_d / FrHallD

The Hallstatt culture, named after an archaeological site in Austria and traditionally divided into four phases, was the main cultural complex in Western Europe during the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age. It coincides with the North Alpine complex, extending over modern-day central and southern Germany, northern Italy, and Switzerland. [1]
Population and political organization
The Hallstatt D period (c. 600-475 BCE) [2] saw the intensification of processes that had been occurring throughout the Hallstatt era. Some polities disintegrated while others gained power. Thus, the number of hillforts decreased but they grew in size; [3] Mont Lassois is a prime example. [4] Chiefs controlled the prestige economy at the local level, trading with their Mediterranean counterparts. Extreme social differentiation can be observed in burials; [2] the lavish Vix Burial, a cairn 42 metres wide and 6 metres high associated with the site of Mont Lassois, [5] includes gold and bronze objects as well as prestigious imports.
This period was also marked by the rise of urban centres specializing in administrative and mercantile activities, including colonies and entrepôts established for the purpose of long-distance trade. [6] Population estimates are more easily accessible for the Hallstatt D period. The Heuneburg, a hillfort reaching c. 100 hectares in the mid-6th century BCE, may have been home to about 5000 inhabitants. [7]

[1]: (Brun 1995, 14) Brun, Patrice. 1995. “From Chiefdom to State Organization in Celtic Europe.” In Celtic Chiefdom, Celtic State: The Evolution of Complex Social Systems in Prehistoric Europe, edited by Bettina Arnold and D. Blair Gibson, Cambridge University Press, 13-25. Cambridge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RZWRCEPH.

[2]: (Collis 1995, 75) Collis, John. 1995. “States without Centers? The Middle La Tène Period in Temperate Europe.” In Celtic Chiefdom, Celtic State: The Evolution of Complex Social Systems in Prehistoric Europe, edited by Bettina Arnold and D. Blair Gibson, 75-80. Cambridge University Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QFU68CIQ.

[3]: (Allen 2007, 26-27) Allen, Stephen. 2007. Lords of Battle: The World of the Celtic Warrior. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F9D9PI8A.

[4]: (Collis 1984, 16) Collis, John. 1984. The European Iron Age. London; New York: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2HS6EBNS.

[5]: (Collis 1984, 16, 95) Collis, John. 1984. The European Iron Age. London; New York: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2HS6EBNS.

[6]: (Collis 1984, 22) Collis, John. 1984. The European Iron Age. London; New York: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2HS6EBNS

[7]: (Fernández Götz and Krausse 2012, 31) Fernández-Götz, Manuel, and Dirk Krausse. 2012. “Heuneburg. First City North of the Alps.” Current World Archaeology, no. 55: 28-34. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/PMS9IF2F.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
31 U  
Original Name:
Hallstatt D  
Capital:
Mont Lassois  
Heuneburg  
Alternative Name:
Senones  
Early Celts  
Western Hallstatt  
Hallstatt D  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[600 BCE ➜ 475 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
vassalage to [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
Hallstatt  
Succeeding Entity:
La Tene A-B1  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Hallstatt C  
Degree of Centralization:
loose  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Celtic  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
5,000 people  
Polity Territory:
[7,000 to 8,000] km2  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[2 to 3]  
Religious Level:
1  
Military Level:
2  
Administrative Level:
[3 to 4]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred absent  
Professional Priesthood:
unknown  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred absent  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
inferred absent  
Merit Promotion:
inferred absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
inferred absent  
Examination System:
inferred absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown  
Judge:
unknown  
Formal Legal Code:
unknown  
Court:
unknown  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
inferred present  
Irrigation System:
unknown  
Food Storage Site:
inferred present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
unknown  
Port:
unknown  
Canal:
unknown  
Bridge:
unknown  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
unknown  
Script:
unknown  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
unknown  
Nonwritten Record:
unknown  
Non Phonetic Writing:
unknown  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
unknown  
Sacred Text:
unknown  
Religious Literature:
unknown  
Practical Literature:
unknown  
Philosophy:
unknown  
Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown  
History:
unknown  
Fiction:
unknown  
Calendar:
unknown  
Information / Money
Token:
unknown  
Precious Metal:
unknown  
Paper Currency:
unknown  
Indigenous Coin:
unknown  
Foreign Coin:
inferred absent  
Article:
inferred present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
inferred absent  
  Fortified Camp:
absent  
  Earth Rampart:
inferred present  
  Ditch:
inferred present  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
present 600 BCE 475 BCE
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
inferred present  
  Javelin:
inferred present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
inferred absent  
  Composite Bow:
inferred absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
inferred present  
  Polearm:
inferred present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
inferred present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
unknown  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
inferred present  
  Shield:
inferred present  
  Scaled Armor:
absent  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
unknown  
  Leather Cloth:
inferred present  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
inferred present  
  Chainmail:
unknown  
  Breastplate:
inferred present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Hallstatt D (fr_hallstatt_d) was in:
 (600 BCE 475 BCE)   Paris Basin
Home NGA: Paris Basin

General Variables
Identity and Location


Capital:
Mont Lassois

"The appearance of urban ‘central places’ was one of the major innovations in Europe of the first millennium BC. Even if we reject centres such as the Heuneburg as truly urban, despite the concentration of wealth, trade and industry on them (the social structure would have prevented the full de- velopment of exchange as we know it on later sites), we still have a number of different urban types; administrative centres, market centres, colonies, and entrepôts for long-distance trade including ports-of-trade. Each of these classes would have its own characteristics in terms of who was resident, what public amenities were present, and in the spatial layout of the town." [1] "In less developed forms we may detect centralised control on the sites of the late Hallstatt period of the sixth century BC, sites such as the Heuneburg and Mont Lassois in western Europe." [2]

[1]: (Collis 1984, 22)

[2]: (Collis 1984, 16)

Capital:
Heuneburg

"The appearance of urban ‘central places’ was one of the major innovations in Europe of the first millennium BC. Even if we reject centres such as the Heuneburg as truly urban, despite the concentration of wealth, trade and industry on them (the social structure would have prevented the full de- velopment of exchange as we know it on later sites), we still have a number of different urban types; administrative centres, market centres, colonies, and entrepôts for long-distance trade including ports-of-trade. Each of these classes would have its own characteristics in terms of who was resident, what public amenities were present, and in the spatial layout of the town." [1] "In less developed forms we may detect centralised control on the sites of the late Hallstatt period of the sixth century BC, sites such as the Heuneburg and Mont Lassois in western Europe." [2]

[1]: (Collis 1984, 22)

[2]: (Collis 1984, 16)


Alternative Name:
Senones

"In European archaeology today the term "early Celts" refers to late Hallstatt culture, part of early La Tene culture, Hallstatt D and La Tene A of Paul Reinecke’s nomenclature, or the time of the sixth and fifth centuries BC." [1]
Senones in Champagne: "From the beginning of the fourth century, numerous Celtic groups, organized under the authority of aristocratic chiefs, were established in northern Italy. The first, the Senones, probably came from Champagne." [2]

[1]: (Fischer 1995, 34)

[2]: (Brun 1995, 16)

Alternative Name:
Early Celts

"In European archaeology today the term "early Celts" refers to late Hallstatt culture, part of early La Tene culture, Hallstatt D and La Tene A of Paul Reinecke’s nomenclature, or the time of the sixth and fifth centuries BC." [1]
Senones in Champagne: "From the beginning of the fourth century, numerous Celtic groups, organized under the authority of aristocratic chiefs, were established in northern Italy. The first, the Senones, probably came from Champagne." [2]

[1]: (Fischer 1995, 34)

[2]: (Brun 1995, 16)

Alternative Name:
Western Hallstatt

"In European archaeology today the term "early Celts" refers to late Hallstatt culture, part of early La Tene culture, Hallstatt D and La Tene A of Paul Reinecke’s nomenclature, or the time of the sixth and fifth centuries BC." [1]
Senones in Champagne: "From the beginning of the fourth century, numerous Celtic groups, organized under the authority of aristocratic chiefs, were established in northern Italy. The first, the Senones, probably came from Champagne." [2]

[1]: (Fischer 1995, 34)

[2]: (Brun 1995, 16)

Alternative Name:
Hallstatt D

"In European archaeology today the term "early Celts" refers to late Hallstatt culture, part of early La Tene culture, Hallstatt D and La Tene A of Paul Reinecke’s nomenclature, or the time of the sixth and fifth centuries BC." [1]
Senones in Champagne: "From the beginning of the fourth century, numerous Celtic groups, organized under the authority of aristocratic chiefs, were established in northern Italy. The first, the Senones, probably came from Champagne." [2]

[1]: (Fischer 1995, 34)

[2]: (Brun 1995, 16)


Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[600 BCE ➜ 475 BCE]

Later Hallstatt culture (600-475 BCE) based in France, in the Massalia border region. Extended as far as Vix / Mount Lassois (Châtillon-sur-Seine), the northwest edge of what archaeologists consider the Western Hallstatt zone.


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
vassalage to [---]

Consequence of the "intensification of Greek-led trade" in the 6th century passing through Massalia: "hillforts became fewer in number but more massive in size. The number of elite burials also fell, but those which have survived intact display extraordinary riches. The term ’Halstatt Princedoms’ has been coined to describe these communities whose elites were able to control the flow of the exotic Mediterranean products..." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 26-27)


Supracultural Entity:
Hallstatt

"During Hallstatt D times ... contact with the Graeco-Etruscan world was instrumental in bringing about important changes in the social organization of west central Europe." [1]

[1]: (Brun 1995, 15)





Degree of Centralization:
loose

"late Hallstatt society was in a liminal phase, on the threshold between a chiefdom and a state." [1]
While from 900-600 "a north-south axis of exchange gradually superseded all other axes" it involved mainly "the eastern part of the North-Alpine Complex." During the sixth century BC, the founding of the Greek colony at Massalia introduced exotic products to "chiefs that were located directly on the principal communication routes." Thus "In the framework of a prestige economy, they gained in power, reinforcing their control of exchange with the Mediterranean civilizations, monopolizing redistribution, and finally subjugating neighbouring chiefs. In this manner, centralized political units of a scale previously unknown in Europe were formed." [2]
The princedoms "disintegrated in the fifth century BC" when other communities "situated at the north-western periphery of the area held by the princedoms" became more powerful: the Tessin community; Hunsruck-Eifel region; Aisne-Marne region; Berry region." [3]

[1]: (Arnold 1995, 44)

[2]: (Brun 1995, 15-16)

[3]: (Brun 1995, 16)


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
5,000 people

Inhabitants. "Rather than a small hillfort of just a few hectares, as once believed, we can now see that in the first half of the 6th century BC Heuneburg was an enormous settlement of 100 ha and at least 5,000 inhabitants." [1]

[1]: (Fernández Götz and Krausse 2012, 31)


Polity Territory:
[7,000 to 8,000] km2

in squared kilometers Around 500 BCE, politically independent polities in the northern alpine region (which includes central France [1] ) had a radius of about 50 km, which gives an area of about 7,854 sq kilometers. [2]
[2]
Territorial scale: "The economic foundations put in place in the ninth and eighth centuries BC were ... incapable of supporting a political scale of integration greater than tens of square kilometers." [3]
"The primacy of this site was short-lived, but by Hallstatt D2 Asperg and the Heuneburg had become centres of ‘complex chiefdoms.’ Within a 5- 10km radius of a central defended site is a cluster of rich burials, characterised by massive mounds, timber-lined graves, wagons, gold objects, bronze vessels, and imported Mediterranean goods." [4]

[1]: (Brun 2007, 380)

[2]: (Brun 2007, 381)

[3]: (Brun 1995, 24)

[4]: (Collis 1984, 82)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[2 to 3]

levels.
"The period between 600 and 500 BC in west central Europe was characterized by rapid, regionally specific changes in social organization which are documented directly in the burial record and indirectly in the settlement evidence ... The increase in social complexity does not seem to have survived the late Hallstatt/early La Tene transition, although the late La Tene Viereckschanzen and relatively rapid appearance of many Late Lat Tene oppida from a dispersed settlement base (Murray forthcoming) indicate that continuity was maintained throughout this time." [1]
relationship between small dispersed settlements and hilltop settlements unclear [2]

[1]: (Arnold 1995, 51)

[2]: (Arnold 1995, 52)


Religious Level:
1

levels.
Same as earlier period as no new information to code higher.


Military Level:
2

levels.
Warrior society implies at least 2 levels of military hierarchy.


Administrative Level:
[3 to 4]

levels.
"In their influential paper, Frankenstein and Rowlands [propose] the existence of a four-tiered hierarchy of chieftains, consisting of a paramount chieftain, "vassal chiefs," "sub-chiefs," and "village chiefs." Bintliff (1984) agreed with this suggesting "the spacing of centres suggests large territories and even "proto-state" structures, to be linked perhaps to the emergence of paramount chiefs or princes from an aristocratic stratum scattered throughout the region. The paramounts associated with the major putative centres and their particularly impressive burials, seem to have dominated numerous district chiefs whose rich tumuli are found at various points around the suggested territory of each princedom." [1]
1. Paramount chieftain

2. Vassal chief
3. Sub-chief
4. Village chief

[1]: (Arnold and Gibson 1995, 6-7)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
absent

Full-time specialists


Professional Priesthood:
unknown

When did druids appear?


Professional Military Officer:
absent

Warrior aristocracy probably lived on own resources?


Bureaucracy Characteristics


Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent

Full-time specialists



Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

"The late Hallstatt hillforts were probably functionally analogous to early Irish sites, such as Tara or Tailtiu, which hosted the regional "fairs" or oenachs. These gatherings served more than the secular purpose of exchanging goods." [1]

[1]: (Arnold 1995, 47)


Irrigation System:
unknown


previous code: inferred present | primitive irrigation system known from Beaker culture. "Silo" present during this time period. [1] Does this refer to food storage? Surplus production might also indicate irrigation systems.

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)


Food Storage Site:
present

"Silo" present during this time period. [1] Does this refer to food storage?

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)



Transport Infrastructure

"Voire" or road is known in France in this period [1] but the two cases are far from the Paris basin region, apparently associated with the Mediterranean and Alps trade.

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)





Information / Writing System






Information / Kinds of Written Documents









Information / Money




Foreign Coin:
absent

monnaie de Marsaille and monnaie gauloise finds within France 560-500 BCE but not close to Paris Bain region. [1]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)



Information / Postal System


Courier:
unknown

Not implausible, but not mentioned by sources.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications

Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent

"Rempart en pierres seches" finds within France but not close to the Paris Basin region. [1]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)


Stone Walls Mortared:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

Villeneuve-Saint Germaine [1] is an oppidium just outside (NE) of the Paris basin NGA. 70 ha area. From medium-late Hallstatt (Ha D).EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://www.oppida.org/page.php?lg=fr&rub=00&id_oppidum=168

[1]: (Buchsenschutz 1995, 55)


Modern Fortification:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.



Fortified Camp:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Earth Rampart:
present

"Mur terre" finds within France but not close to the Paris Basin region. [1] Hillforts: "large fortified hilltop sites often enclosed by an intricate system of earth banks and ditches." [2] NOTE: undated reference - does the code apply to this time period?

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 21)


Ditch:
present

Hillforts: "large fortified hilltop sites often enclosed by an intricate system of earth banks and ditches." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 21)


Complex Fortification:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.



Military use of Metals

"The general impression of the Celtic swords, here covering a period from roughly 650 to 100 B.C., is that the blade was normally manufactured from a single iron bar of no particularly good quality. The same material could as well have been utilized for nails. ... Common to all the Celtic swords is the extensive coldwork that has taken place. ... evidently the finishing part of the blacksmith’s usual hotwork, only that he continued hammering in the temperature range 800-600C ... Significant coldwork at room temperature must also have taken place, since the metal is work-hardened to high hardness and displays slip lines and Neumann bands. ... The 24 swords do not show any metallurgical development with time, except for one, the oldest, from Hallstatt. That one seems to be a rather mediocre sword based on an improper ore and an inexperienced blacksmith. ... three of them ... of superior quality, being pearlitic-ferritic and probably representing the famous Noric steel. If this argument, based on slag composition and structure - and an inscription on No. 510 - holds true, the manufacture of Noric steel began as early as 300 B.C." [1] "Almost all the Celtic swords here examined were of good quality and would undoubtedly have yielded good service." [2] Not sure of the reason for the contradiction between "no particularly good quality" and "of good quality" but we have the 300 BCE date for Noric steel.

[1]: (Buchwald 2005, 122-124) Vagn Fabritius Buchwald. 2005. Iron and steel in ancient times. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab.

[2]: (Buchwald 2005, 125-127) Vagn Fabritius Buchwald. 2005. Iron and steel in ancient times. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab.


Iron:
present
600 BCE 475 BCE

[1]

[1]: (Buchwald 2005, 122-124) Vagn Fabritius Buchwald. 2005. Iron and steel in ancient times. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab.


Copper:
present

"In the Halstatt and early La Tene periods, helmets were made of bronze. Iron helmets first appeared in the 4th century BC and gradually replaced the softer alloy, possibly in response to the development of the long slashing sword." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 119)


Bronze:
present

"In the Halstatt and early La Tene periods, helmets were made of bronze. Iron helmets first appeared in the 4th century BC and gradually replaced the softer alloy, possibly in response to the development of the long slashing sword." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 119)


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Mainly used in the British Isles at this time. [1]

[1]: (Koch ed. 2006, 1469) John T. Koch ed. Celtic Culture. A historical Encyclopedia. Volume I. A-Celti. ABC-CLIO. Santa Barbara.


Self Bow:
present

Finds close to Paris Basin region. [1] Bows used on the continent. [2]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)

[2]: (Koch ed. 2006, 1469) John T. Koch ed. Celtic Culture. A historical Encyclopedia. Volume I. A-Celti. ABC-CLIO. Santa Barbara.


Javelin:
present

Finds within France during this time period but not close to Paris Basin region. [1] Javelins used on the continent. [2]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)

[2]: (Koch ed. 2006, 1469) John T. Koch ed. Celtic Culture. A historical Encyclopedia. Volume I. A-Celti. ABC-CLIO. Santa Barbara.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Crossbow:
absent

Inferred from the absence of composite bows in past and future polities in Paris Basin


Composite Bow:
absent

Inferred from the absence of composite bows in past and future polities in Paris Basin


Not mentioned in the literature.


Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

Inferred from previous and subsequent (quasi)polities.


Finds close to Paris Basin region. [1] "long slashing swords representative of the aristocratic warrior" from 8th century onwards. [2] Battle axe more common in the East Hallstatt area while in the Western Hallstatt region use of the dagger and sword was more common. [3]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 22)

[3]: (Koch ed. 2006, 1469) John T. Koch ed. Celtic Culture. A historical Encyclopedia. Volume I. A-Celti. ABC-CLIO. Santa Barbara.


Spear:
present

6th century scabbard illustration shows Hallstatt warriors with spears and shields [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 22)


Polearm:
present

Inferred from previous and subsequent (quasi)polities.


Dagger:
present

Finds close to Paris Basin region. [1] Battle axe more common in the East Hallstatt area while in the Western Hallstatt region use of the dagger and sword was more common. [2]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)

[2]: (Koch ed. 2006, 1469) John T. Koch ed. Celtic Culture. A historical Encyclopedia. Volume I. A-Celti. ABC-CLIO. Santa Barbara.


Battle Axe:
present

Finds within France during this time period but not close to Paris Basin region. [1]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)


Animals used in warfare

"From the 8th century BC onwards, the graves of the Halstatt aristocracy are characterized by four-wheeled vehicles together with bits and other items of horse harness" [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 22)



Donkey:
unknown

Not mentioned in the literature.’


Not mentioned in the literature.



Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

Wicker-work likely. Organic/metal armour, shields, helmets. [1]

[1]: (Koch ed. 2006, 1469) John T. Koch ed. Celtic Culture. A historical Encyclopedia. Volume I. A-Celti. ABC-CLIO. Santa Barbara.


Shield:
present

No finds within France until 620-560 BCE. ("Umbo" = shield boss?) [1] 6th century scabbard illustration shows Hallstatt warriors with spears and shields [2] Organic/metal armour, shields, helmets. [3]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 22)

[3]: (Koch ed. 2006, 1469) John T. Koch ed. Celtic Culture. A historical Encyclopedia. Volume I. A-Celti. ABC-CLIO. Santa Barbara.


Scaled Armor:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Plate Armor:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Limb Protection:
unknown

Not mentioned in the literature.


Leather Cloth:
present

Leather likely. Organic/metal armour, shields, helmets. [1]

[1]: (Koch ed. 2006, 1469) John T. Koch ed. Celtic Culture. A historical Encyclopedia. Volume I. A-Celti. ABC-CLIO. Santa Barbara.


Laminar Armor:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Helmet:
present

Finds within France during this time period but not close to Paris Basin region. [1] Organic/metal armour, shields, helmets. [2]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)

[2]: (Koch ed. 2006, 1469) John T. Koch ed. Celtic Culture. A historical Encyclopedia. Volume I. A-Celti. ABC-CLIO. Santa Barbara.


Chainmail:
unknown

"Chaîne de suspension" present. Is this chainmail? [1] Iron chain mail was introduced in the third century BCE, probably by the Celtic peoples. [2]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Breastplate:
present

"Early Halstatt bronze cuirass from Marmesse, northern France, dated to the 8th century BC. The style is reminiscent of the early Greek ’bell’ cuirass." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 19)


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

Mediterranean amphore close to Paris Bain shows long-distant trade. [1]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.