Home Region:  Western Europe (Europe)

La Tene A-B1

EQ 2020  fr_la_tene_a_b1 / FrTeneA

La Tene (A-B1) was an early Iron Age culture in Europe named after an archaeological site at Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland. [1]
The territory centered on ancient Gaul and at its height spanned areas in modern day France, Belgium, Switzerland, Austria, Southern Germany, Czechia, parts of Northern Italy, Slovenia, Hungary, and adjacent parts of the Netherlands, Slovakia, Croatia, western Romania, and western Ukraine.
Settlements during this period included larger towns (indicating a degree of centralization), villages and farmsteads spread throughout their territories. [2]
Population figures are difficult to trace, but according to our expert some estimates put the largest settlement areas during the beginning of this period at 5,000-7,000 people.

[1]: (Collis 2003, 172, 217-218)

[2]: (Wells 1999, 45-47)

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
31 U  
Original Name:
La Tene A-B1  
Capital:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Alternative Name:
Early La Tene  
La Tene Gaul  
Celtic Gaul  
Gaul  
Iron Age Gaul  
Celtic Empire  
La Tene  
La Tene culture  
Galli  
Celts  
Gauls  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
450 BCE  
Duration:
[475 BCE ➜ 325 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
La Tene  
Succeeding Entity:
La Tene B2-C1  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
population migration  
Preceding Entity:
Hallstatt D  
Degree of Centralization:
confederated state  
loose  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Celtic  
Language:
Gallic  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[5,000 to 7,000] people 475 BCE 400 BCE
50 people 399 BCE 325 BCE
Polity Territory:
1,250 km2 400 BCE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[2 to 3]  
Religious Level:
-  
Military Level:
3  
Administrative Level:
3  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
unknown  
Professional Priesthood:
unknown  
Professional Military Officer:
unknown  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown  
Merit Promotion:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
unknown  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown  
Judge:
unknown  
Formal Legal Code:
inferred absent  
Court:
unknown  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
inferred present  
Irrigation System:
unknown  
Food Storage Site:
unknown  
Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
inferred present  
Bridge:
unknown  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
unknown  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
inferred absent  
Script:
inferred absent  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
inferred absent  
Nonwritten Record:
unknown  
Non Phonetic Writing:
inferred absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
inferred absent  
Sacred Text:
inferred absent  
Religious Literature:
inferred absent  
Practical Literature:
inferred absent  
Philosophy:
inferred absent  
Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown  
History:
inferred absent  
Fiction:
inferred absent  
Calendar:
inferred absent  
Information / Money
Token:
unknown  
Precious Metal:
unknown  
Paper Currency:
unknown  
Indigenous Coin:
absent  
inferred present  
Foreign Coin:
inferred absent  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
absent  
  Earth Rampart:
unknown  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
inferred absent  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
inferred present  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
inferred absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
inferred present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
unknown  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
inferred absent  
  Plate Armor:
inferred absent  
  Limb Protection:
unknown  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
inferred absent  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
unknown  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range La Tene A-B1 (fr_la_tene_a_b1) was in:
 (474 BCE 325 BCE)   Paris Basin
Home NGA: Paris Basin

General Variables
Identity and Location


Capital:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI

No capitals.


Alternative Name:
Early La Tene

La Tene culture is named after an archaeological site at Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland. Hallstatt - La Tene was a major cultural transition in Gaul 5th Century BCE. Overlaps in time depending on region. [1]
"The term ’Celts’ - Keltoi in Greek and Celtae in Latin - was first used by the Greek geographer Hecataeus of Miletus to describe the barbarian tribes living near the Greek colony of Massalia, the modern French city of Marseille ..." [2] The origin of the term Keltoi may be from the Celtic peoples themselves. [2] Galli "was used by the Romans from the beginning of the 4th century BC to describe the Celts who invaded Italy, and later those who lived beyond the Alps in present day France." [3]

[1]: (Collis 2003, 172, 217-218)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 6)

[3]: (Allen 2007, 8)

Alternative Name:
La Tene Gaul

La Tene culture is named after an archaeological site at Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland. Hallstatt - La Tene was a major cultural transition in Gaul 5th Century BCE. Overlaps in time depending on region. [1]
"The term ’Celts’ - Keltoi in Greek and Celtae in Latin - was first used by the Greek geographer Hecataeus of Miletus to describe the barbarian tribes living near the Greek colony of Massalia, the modern French city of Marseille ..." [2] The origin of the term Keltoi may be from the Celtic peoples themselves. [2] Galli "was used by the Romans from the beginning of the 4th century BC to describe the Celts who invaded Italy, and later those who lived beyond the Alps in present day France." [3]

[1]: (Collis 2003, 172, 217-218)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 6)

[3]: (Allen 2007, 8)

Alternative Name:
Celtic Gaul

La Tene culture is named after an archaeological site at Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland. Hallstatt - La Tene was a major cultural transition in Gaul 5th Century BCE. Overlaps in time depending on region. [1]
"The term ’Celts’ - Keltoi in Greek and Celtae in Latin - was first used by the Greek geographer Hecataeus of Miletus to describe the barbarian tribes living near the Greek colony of Massalia, the modern French city of Marseille ..." [2] The origin of the term Keltoi may be from the Celtic peoples themselves. [2] Galli "was used by the Romans from the beginning of the 4th century BC to describe the Celts who invaded Italy, and later those who lived beyond the Alps in present day France." [3]

[1]: (Collis 2003, 172, 217-218)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 6)

[3]: (Allen 2007, 8)

Alternative Name:
Gaul

La Tene culture is named after an archaeological site at Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland. Hallstatt - La Tene was a major cultural transition in Gaul 5th Century BCE. Overlaps in time depending on region. [1]
"The term ’Celts’ - Keltoi in Greek and Celtae in Latin - was first used by the Greek geographer Hecataeus of Miletus to describe the barbarian tribes living near the Greek colony of Massalia, the modern French city of Marseille ..." [2] The origin of the term Keltoi may be from the Celtic peoples themselves. [2] Galli "was used by the Romans from the beginning of the 4th century BC to describe the Celts who invaded Italy, and later those who lived beyond the Alps in present day France." [3]

[1]: (Collis 2003, 172, 217-218)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 6)

[3]: (Allen 2007, 8)

Alternative Name:
Iron Age Gaul

La Tene culture is named after an archaeological site at Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland. Hallstatt - La Tene was a major cultural transition in Gaul 5th Century BCE. Overlaps in time depending on region. [1]
"The term ’Celts’ - Keltoi in Greek and Celtae in Latin - was first used by the Greek geographer Hecataeus of Miletus to describe the barbarian tribes living near the Greek colony of Massalia, the modern French city of Marseille ..." [2] The origin of the term Keltoi may be from the Celtic peoples themselves. [2] Galli "was used by the Romans from the beginning of the 4th century BC to describe the Celts who invaded Italy, and later those who lived beyond the Alps in present day France." [3]

[1]: (Collis 2003, 172, 217-218)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 6)

[3]: (Allen 2007, 8)

Alternative Name:
Celtic Empire

La Tene culture is named after an archaeological site at Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland. Hallstatt - La Tene was a major cultural transition in Gaul 5th Century BCE. Overlaps in time depending on region. [1]
"The term ’Celts’ - Keltoi in Greek and Celtae in Latin - was first used by the Greek geographer Hecataeus of Miletus to describe the barbarian tribes living near the Greek colony of Massalia, the modern French city of Marseille ..." [2] The origin of the term Keltoi may be from the Celtic peoples themselves. [2] Galli "was used by the Romans from the beginning of the 4th century BC to describe the Celts who invaded Italy, and later those who lived beyond the Alps in present day France." [3]

[1]: (Collis 2003, 172, 217-218)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 6)

[3]: (Allen 2007, 8)

Alternative Name:
La Tene

La Tene culture is named after an archaeological site at Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland. Hallstatt - La Tene was a major cultural transition in Gaul 5th Century BCE. Overlaps in time depending on region. [1]
"The term ’Celts’ - Keltoi in Greek and Celtae in Latin - was first used by the Greek geographer Hecataeus of Miletus to describe the barbarian tribes living near the Greek colony of Massalia, the modern French city of Marseille ..." [2] The origin of the term Keltoi may be from the Celtic peoples themselves. [2] Galli "was used by the Romans from the beginning of the 4th century BC to describe the Celts who invaded Italy, and later those who lived beyond the Alps in present day France." [3]

[1]: (Collis 2003, 172, 217-218)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 6)

[3]: (Allen 2007, 8)

Alternative Name:
La Tene culture

La Tene culture is named after an archaeological site at Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland. Hallstatt - La Tene was a major cultural transition in Gaul 5th Century BCE. Overlaps in time depending on region. [1]
"The term ’Celts’ - Keltoi in Greek and Celtae in Latin - was first used by the Greek geographer Hecataeus of Miletus to describe the barbarian tribes living near the Greek colony of Massalia, the modern French city of Marseille ..." [2] The origin of the term Keltoi may be from the Celtic peoples themselves. [2] Galli "was used by the Romans from the beginning of the 4th century BC to describe the Celts who invaded Italy, and later those who lived beyond the Alps in present day France." [3]

[1]: (Collis 2003, 172, 217-218)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 6)

[3]: (Allen 2007, 8)

Alternative Name:
Galli

La Tene culture is named after an archaeological site at Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland. Hallstatt - La Tene was a major cultural transition in Gaul 5th Century BCE. Overlaps in time depending on region. [1]
"The term ’Celts’ - Keltoi in Greek and Celtae in Latin - was first used by the Greek geographer Hecataeus of Miletus to describe the barbarian tribes living near the Greek colony of Massalia, the modern French city of Marseille ..." [2] The origin of the term Keltoi may be from the Celtic peoples themselves. [2] Galli "was used by the Romans from the beginning of the 4th century BC to describe the Celts who invaded Italy, and later those who lived beyond the Alps in present day France." [3]

[1]: (Collis 2003, 172, 217-218)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 6)

[3]: (Allen 2007, 8)

Alternative Name:
Celts

La Tene culture is named after an archaeological site at Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland. Hallstatt - La Tene was a major cultural transition in Gaul 5th Century BCE. Overlaps in time depending on region. [1]
"The term ’Celts’ - Keltoi in Greek and Celtae in Latin - was first used by the Greek geographer Hecataeus of Miletus to describe the barbarian tribes living near the Greek colony of Massalia, the modern French city of Marseille ..." [2] The origin of the term Keltoi may be from the Celtic peoples themselves. [2] Galli "was used by the Romans from the beginning of the 4th century BC to describe the Celts who invaded Italy, and later those who lived beyond the Alps in present day France." [3]

[1]: (Collis 2003, 172, 217-218)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 6)

[3]: (Allen 2007, 8)

Alternative Name:
Gauls

La Tene culture is named after an archaeological site at Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland. Hallstatt - La Tene was a major cultural transition in Gaul 5th Century BCE. Overlaps in time depending on region. [1]
"The term ’Celts’ - Keltoi in Greek and Celtae in Latin - was first used by the Greek geographer Hecataeus of Miletus to describe the barbarian tribes living near the Greek colony of Massalia, the modern French city of Marseille ..." [2] The origin of the term Keltoi may be from the Celtic peoples themselves. [2] Galli "was used by the Romans from the beginning of the 4th century BC to describe the Celts who invaded Italy, and later those who lived beyond the Alps in present day France." [3]

[1]: (Collis 2003, 172, 217-218)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 6)

[3]: (Allen 2007, 8)


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
450 BCE

Early Iron Age.



Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]

Tribes formed alliances with other tribes.
450-250 BCE Migration Period: "The migrations that these warrior societies undertook over the next 200 years effectively broke the bond between tribe and its ancestral territory. The institution of kingship declined among the continental Celts throughout the Migration Period as tribes split up and coalesced into new communities." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 61)




Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

"That there was a significant degree of continuity between the Late Hallstatt and Early La Tène social systems is evident." [1] also population migration?

[1]: (Cunliffe 2000, 64)

Relationship to Preceding Entity:
population migration

"That there was a significant degree of continuity between the Late Hallstatt and Early La Tène social systems is evident." [1] also population migration?

[1]: (Cunliffe 2000, 64)



Degree of Centralization:
confederated state

In the early La Tene: "The import of exotic luxury items accentuated an already existing trend towards increased social stratification among Celtic-speaking communities, accelerating the development of centralized chiefdoms and the formation of an elite class which controlled and monopolized the flow of trade." [1]
Early Iron Age settlements had large towns [2] so there was some degree of centralization. However, after 400 CE there were no large towns on the scale of the Early Iron Age settlements. Small communities predominated, hamlets and farmsteads typically had a population of about 50. [2]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 34)

[2]: (Wells 1999, 45-47)

Degree of Centralization:
loose

In the early La Tene: "The import of exotic luxury items accentuated an already existing trend towards increased social stratification among Celtic-speaking communities, accelerating the development of centralized chiefdoms and the formation of an elite class which controlled and monopolized the flow of trade." [1]
Early Iron Age settlements had large towns [2] so there was some degree of centralization. However, after 400 CE there were no large towns on the scale of the Early Iron Age settlements. Small communities predominated, hamlets and farmsteads typically had a population of about 50. [2]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 34)

[2]: (Wells 1999, 45-47)


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[5,000 to 7,000] people
475 BCE 400 BCE

My own estimates. 50 based on quote from Wells about typical small communities, not offering estimate of large fortified settlement
475-400 BCE
Early Iron Age settlements had large towns [1] which collapsed c450-400 BCE.
For comparison: Oppida excavated Manching, Bavaria - Late Iron Age (2nd-3rd centuries BCE) Est. 3,000-10,000 people [2]
400-200 BCE
The distinctive large urban fortified settlements did not appear until the mid-second century. Between 400-200 BCE agricultural burials were smaller, less differentiated and there were no large towns on the scale of the Early Iron Age settlements. Small communities predominated, hamlets and farmsteads typically had a population of about 50. [1]
"By the Late Iron Age Europe’s population had risen to between 15 and 30 million, with Italy and Greece being the most densely settled regions. The majority of settlements in the rest of Europe still housed fewer than 50 people. Earlier Iron Age hillforts and other more substantial settlements may have had populations, in some cases, of as many as 1,000 people, and some of the oppida that emerged in the last centuries B.C. may have accommodated as many as 10,000 people, though others were smaller." [3]

[1]: (Wells 1999, 45-47)

[2]: (Wells 1999, 31)

[3]: (McIntosh 2006, 349)

Population of the Largest Settlement:
50 people
399 BCE 325 BCE

My own estimates. 50 based on quote from Wells about typical small communities, not offering estimate of large fortified settlement
475-400 BCE
Early Iron Age settlements had large towns [1] which collapsed c450-400 BCE.
For comparison: Oppida excavated Manching, Bavaria - Late Iron Age (2nd-3rd centuries BCE) Est. 3,000-10,000 people [2]
400-200 BCE
The distinctive large urban fortified settlements did not appear until the mid-second century. Between 400-200 BCE agricultural burials were smaller, less differentiated and there were no large towns on the scale of the Early Iron Age settlements. Small communities predominated, hamlets and farmsteads typically had a population of about 50. [1]
"By the Late Iron Age Europe’s population had risen to between 15 and 30 million, with Italy and Greece being the most densely settled regions. The majority of settlements in the rest of Europe still housed fewer than 50 people. Earlier Iron Age hillforts and other more substantial settlements may have had populations, in some cases, of as many as 1,000 people, and some of the oppida that emerged in the last centuries B.C. may have accommodated as many as 10,000 people, though others were smaller." [3]

[1]: (Wells 1999, 45-47)

[2]: (Wells 1999, 31)

[3]: (McIntosh 2006, 349)


Polity Territory:
1,250 km2
400 BCE

in squared kilometers Around 400 BCE, politically independent polities in the northern alpine region (which includes central France [1] ) had a radius of about 20 km, which gives an area of about 1,250 sq kilometers. [2]
[2]

[1]: (Brun 2007, 380)

[2]: (Brun 2007, 381)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[2 to 3]

levels.
1. Town (possibly becoming fortified later in time period)
Early Iron Age settlements had large towns [1] which then collapsed 450 - 400 BCE
"Small fortified cities became common in the fourth and third centuries BC." [2]
"All oppida are characterized by household units composed of individual houses plus ancillary structures (granary, cellar, pit) centered around a palisaded courtyard. This household cluster evokes, in reduced form, contemporary farms. Thus, the traditional architectural organization was still the structural basis of the later settlements." [3]
2. Hamlets and villages
Small communities predominated, hamlets and farmsteads typically had a population of about 50. [1]
3. Farmstead
"Agricultural complexes inhabited by single extended families (up to perhaps fifteen people)" [4]

[1]: (Wells 1999, 45-47)

[2]: (Brun 1995, 16)

[3]: (Brun 1995, 18)

[4]: (Wells 1999, 57)



Military Level:
3

levels.
"The Halstatt Princedoms of continental Europe were brought down during the 5th century BC by the rise of groups of Celtic peoples whose social structure was dominated by a warrior aristocracy." [1]
Lead into battle by chieftains such as Brennas at the Battle of the Allia (390 BCE) against Rome. [2]
Military: "Deployment would probably have been by tribal contingents. Within these contingents, clans would deploy as separate bodies ... To identify each grouping in the battle line and to act as rallying points, the guardian deities of tribe and clan were carried into battle as standards topped with carved or cast figures of their animal forms." [3]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 61)

[2]: (Kruta 2004, 66)

[3]: (Allen 2007, 123)


Administrative Level:
3

levels.
1. King
Had a retinue of military/legal assistants
2. Tribal chiefTribes
3. Clan chiefPagus (Clan) / Family group [1]
Galatians, who migrated to Asia minor 279 BCE, also provide a possible insight into Gaulish social structure as they were closely observed by the Greeks. Chieftains (called a tetrach by the Greeks) lead each of the tribes each of which were divided into clans. Supra-tribal level of cooperation: the clans of all the tribes together appointed 300 senators "to attend an annual assembly at a shrine." However they were rarely unified and eventually the chieftains became kings. The chieftains "were assisted by three military advisers and a judge." [2]
"At its lowest level, Celtic society was made up of extended families or clans that were grouped together to form territorially based tribes." If Ireland is representative, 3 levels of hierarchy: 1. family unit = fine. 2. five family units = clan. A number of clans in the same region = 3. tuath (tribe) ruled by a king." [3]

[1]: (Collis 2003, 195)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 79-80)

[3]: (Allen 2007, 62)


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown


previous code: inferred present | Indigenous coins are present, so we can infer that mints are present?





Law


Formal Legal Code:
absent

Customary law?
Honour price was "the equivalent of the Anglo-Saxon custom of wergild, the amount payable by a third party in the event of unlawful injury or death." "The concept of honour price was fundamental to the legal system of the Celts. It dictated the conduct of all judicial cases, since the value of an individual’s oath or evidence was determined by his honour price. To bring a lawsuit against someone with a higher honour price required the intervention of a patron of higher rank, creating an environment in which the support of the richest and most influential members of the elite was constantly sought after." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 65)



Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

"The late Hallstatt hillforts were probably functionally analogous to early Irish sites, such as Tara or Tailtiu, which hosted the regional "fairs" or oenachs. These gatherings served more than the secular purpose of exchanging goods." [1]

[1]: (Arnold 1995, 47)


Irrigation System:
unknown


previous code: inferred present | primitive irrigation system known from Beaker culture. "Silo" present during this time period. [1] Does this refer to food storage? Surplus production might also indicate irrigation systems. DH: is there evidence or reason to believe Beaker irrigation, if existed, remained?

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)


Food Storage Site:
unknown

"Silo" present during this time period. [1] Does this refer to food storage?

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)



Transport Infrastructure

Roads present close to Paris Basin region between 475-400 BCE. [1]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)


Brittany had trading links to Ireland and Britain. [1] c600 BCE the Phoencians had founded trading colony/port at Massilia. [2] However, this wasn’t directly owned/controlled by the Gauls.

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 38)

[2]: (Kruta 2004, 35)



Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent

"Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 100)


Script:
absent

"Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 100)


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent

"Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 100)


Nonwritten Record:
unknown

"Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 100)


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

"Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 100)


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent

" Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 100)




Practical Literature:
absent

" Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 100)


Philosophy:
absent

" Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 100)



History:
absent

" Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 100)


Fiction:
absent

" Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 100)


Calendar:
absent

"Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 100)


Information / Money



Indigenous Coin:
absent

monnaie gauloise [1] This site does not offer clear evidence of indigenous coin production Some possible indication of 4th century coin production [2] , though many suggest indigenous coins in area not appear until mid-3rd c BCE [3]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)

[2]: (Boardman 1993, 308) Boardman, J. 1993. The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity. Princeton: Princeton University Press

[3]: (Wells 1999) Wells, P S. 1999. The Barbarians Speak: How The Conquered Peoples Shaped Roman Europe. Princeton University Press. Princeton.

Indigenous Coin:
present

monnaie gauloise [1] This site does not offer clear evidence of indigenous coin production Some possible indication of 4th century coin production [2] , though many suggest indigenous coins in area not appear until mid-3rd c BCE [3]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)

[2]: (Boardman 1993, 308) Boardman, J. 1993. The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity. Princeton: Princeton University Press

[3]: (Wells 1999) Wells, P S. 1999. The Barbarians Speak: How The Conquered Peoples Shaped Roman Europe. Princeton University Press. Princeton.


Foreign Coin:
absent

No Greek, Roman or Other coins currently present on chronocarto database until 250-175 BCE period. [1]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)


Article:
present

Barter economy before coinage. [1]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 100)


Information / Postal System


Courier:
unknown

Not implausible, but not mentioned by sources.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications

Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown

Not mentioned in the literature.


Stone Walls Mortared:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.



Modern Fortification:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Not mentioned in the literature.


Fortified Camp:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Earth Rampart:
unknown

Not mentioned in the literature.


Not mentioned in the literature.


Complex Fortification:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.



Military use of Metals

"The Hallstatt civilisation knew case-hardening only, but the Celts had various methods of ’steeling’ such as the false-damascening which consisted in welding harder and weaker strips together. Some of the natural steel quite free of of sulphur and phosphorus must have been difficult to forge as it was liable to form cracks." [1] "The general impression of the Celtic swords, here covering a period from roughly 650 to 100 B.C., is that the blade was normally manufactured from a single iron bar of no particularly good quality. The same material could as well have been utilized for nails. ... Common to all the Celtic swords is the extensive coldwork that has taken place. ... evidently the finishing part of the blacksmith’s usual hotwork, only that he continued hammering in the temperature range 800-600C ... Significant coldwork at room temperature must also have taken place, since the metal is work-hardened to high hardness and displays slip lines and Neumann bands. ... The 24 swords do not show any metallurgical development with time, except for one, the oldest, from Hallstatt. That one seems to be a rather mediocre sword based on an improper ore and an inexperienced blacksmith. ... three of them ... of superior quality, being pearlitic-ferritic and probably representing the famous Noric steel. If this argument, based on slag composition and structure - and an inscription on No. 510 - holds true, the manufacture of Noric steel began as early as 300 B.C." [2] "Almost all the Celtic swords here examined were of good quality and would undoubtedly have yielded good service." [3] Not sure of the reason for the contradiction between "no particularly good quality" and "of good quality" but we have the 300 BCE date for Noric steel.

[1]: (Forbes 1950, 464) Robert James Forbes. 1950. Metallurgy in Antiquity: A Notebook for Archaeologists and Technologists. E J BRILL. Leiden.

[2]: (Buchwald 2005, 122-124) Vagn Fabritius Buchwald. 2005. Iron and steel in ancient times. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab.

[3]: (Buchwald 2005, 125-127) Vagn Fabritius Buchwald. 2005. Iron and steel in ancient times. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab.


Diodorus Siculus mentions iron breastplates. [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 115)


Copper:
present

"In the Halstatt and early La Tene periods, helmets were made of bronze. Iron helmets first appeared in the 4th century BC and gradually replaced the softer alloy, possibly in response to the development of the long slashing sword." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 119)


Bronze:
present

"Bronze Italo-Celtic helmet with elaborate crest fitting for plumes or feathers, mid-4th century BC." [1] "In the Halstatt and early La Tene periods, helmets were made of bronze. Iron helmets first appeared in the 4th century BC and gradually replaced the softer alloy, possibly in response to the development of the long slashing sword." [2]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 41)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 119)


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Sling:
present

Stockpiles of sling stones found at hillforts in Britain. Archers may have been used to defend fortified sites. [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 117-118)



Javelin:
present

"The Greek writer Strabo commented that the Celtic warrior carried two types of spear: a larger, heavier one for thrusting, and a smaller, lighter javelin that could be thrown and used at close quarters." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 116)


Handheld Firearm:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Crossbow:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Composite Bow:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Spears are described, but not spear-throwers.


Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

Inferred from previous and subsequent (quasi)polities.


400-200 BCE: warrior culture, burials with iron swords, helmets, spears, shields. [1] "The basic equipment of the Celtic warrior was spear and shield. To this could be added a sword, a helmet and a mailshirt." [2]

[1]: (Wells 1999, 45-47)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 115)


"The basic equipment of the Celtic warrior was spear and shield. To this could be added a sword, a helmet and a mailshirt." [1] "The Greek writer Strabo commented that the Celtic warrior carried two types of spear: a larger, heavier one for thrusting, and a smaller, lighter javelin that could be thrown and used at close quarters." [2]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 115)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 116)


Polearm:
present

Inferred from previous and subsequent (quasi)polities.


Dagger:
present

Iron dagger "from a Halstatt tomb, mid-5th century BC" [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 32)



Animals used in warfare

First documented war-chariot Battle of Sentinum (295 BCE). [1] Pulled a two-wheeled chariot which replaced the Hallstatt era four-wheeled wagon. [2]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 198)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 32)


Elephant:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Donkey:
unknown

"There seems no trace of the use of donkeys and mules before contact with the Italian peninsula." [1] Does this source say when this contact considered to have begun? My guess of the meaning is the Roman invasion but I don’t know the context the sentence was written in.

[1]: (Ellis 1998, 109) Peter Berresford Ellis. 1998. The ancient world of the Celts. Constable.


Not mentioned in the literature.


Not mentioned in the literature.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

"Celtic shields were generally oval in shape or sometimes and elongated hexagon. They were made of thin planks of oak or lime wood covered in leather." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 118)


Shield:
present

400-200 BCE: warrior culture, burials with iron swords, helmets, spears, shields. [1] "The basic equipment of the Celtic warrior was spear and shield. To this could be added a sword, a helmet and a mailshirt." [2]

[1]: (Wells 1999, 45-47)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 115)


Scaled Armor:
absent

The only mention of armour is chainmail. "Diodorus also mentions that some warriors wear iron breast plates of chain mail. Seated figures of stone from the sanctuary of Roquepertuse (Fig.163) and a stone statue of a Gaul from Vachères (Basse-Alpes) (Pl. VI), dating to the late first century BC, are shown wearing chain mail, and actual examples have been found in a few burials, including that of the warrior provided with the bird-crested helmet, who was buried at Ciumesti. One of the features of Celtic warfare which impressed itself upon the Classical mind was the fact that some warriors fought naked except for the sword belt and a gold neck torc." [1]

[1]: (Cunliffe 2000, 98-99)


Plate Armor:
absent

The only mention of armour is chainmail. "Diodorus also mentions that some warriors wear iron breast plates of chain mail. Seated figures of stone from the sanctuary of Roquepertuse (Fig.163) and a stone statue of a Gaul from Vachères (Basse-Alpes) (Pl. VI), dating to the late first century BC, are shown wearing chain mail, and actual examples have been found in a few burials, including that of the warrior provided with the bird-crested helmet, who was buried at Ciumesti. One of the features of Celtic warfare which impressed itself upon the Classical mind was the fact that some warriors fought naked except for the sword belt and a gold neck torc." [1]

[1]: (Cunliffe 2000, 98-99)


Limb Protection:
unknown

Not mentioned in the literature.


Leather Cloth:
present

Glauberg, Germany c400 BCE. [1] Warrior statue from Glauburg shows armor "reminiscent of Greek or Etruscan styles." [2] The photograph shows an oval-shaped shield and what appears to be a fabric?/leather body armor.

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 60)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 20)


Laminar Armor:
absent

The only mention of armour is chainmail. "Diodorus also mentions that some warriors wear iron breast plates of chain mail. Seated figures of stone from the sanctuary of Roquepertuse (Fig.163) and a stone statue of a Gaul from Vachères (Basse-Alpes) (Pl. VI), dating to the late first century BC, are shown wearing chain mail, and actual examples have been found in a few burials, including that of the warrior provided with the bird-crested helmet, who was buried at Ciumesti. One of the features of Celtic warfare which impressed itself upon the Classical mind was the fact that some warriors fought naked except for the sword belt and a gold neck torc." [1]

[1]: (Cunliffe 2000, 98-99)


Helmet:
present

Glauberg, Germany c400 BCE. [1] "The basic equipment of the Celtic warrior was spear and shield. To this could be added a sword, a helmet and a mailshirt." [2]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 60)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 115)


Chainmail:
unknown

"The basic equipment of the Celtic warrior was spear and shield. To this could be added a sword, a helmet and a mailshirt." [1] Iron chain mail was introduced in the third century BCE, probably by the Celtic peoples. [2]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 115)

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Breastplate:
present

Glauberg, Germany c400 BCE. [1] "Bronze statuette of a warrior from Liechtenstein dated to the 5th century BC. Note the Greek/Etruscan-style cuirass." [2] Diodorus Siculus mentions iron breastplates. [3]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 60)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 24)

[3]: (Allen 2007, 115)


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown

Not mentioned in the literature.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

"Similarities between the logboats and plank boats of the period 600 BC to AD 600 and those of earlier times suggest that the roots of Celtic boatbuilding lie in the second millennium BC or earlier." [1] However there is no geographical or temporal resolution in this statement, even if the term ’Celtic’ implies La Tène and Hallstatt.

[1]: (Green 1995, 271)


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown

Not mentioned in the literature.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.