Home Region:  West Africa (Africa)

Saadi Sultanate

EQ 2020  ma_saadi_sultanate / MaSaadi

This polity represents the period in which Morocco was ruled by the Saadi dynasty. Although the dynasty itself was founded in 1511 CE, we date the beginning of the polity to 1554, when the Saadis took Fez from their dynastic rivals, the Wattasids, and united Morocco under their rule. As for the polity’s end, it seems most appropriate to date it to 1659, the year the last Saadi monarch was assassinated. Between 1554 and 1591, the boundaries of the Saadi Sultanate coincided with those of modern-day Morocco. Between 1591 and 1618, the Saadi also ruled over the Niger Inland Delta, though their control over this area seems to have been nominal. After the death of Sultan Ahmad Al-Mansur in 1603, the polity entered a period of instability that ultimately led to the loss of their Niger colony. [1]
Population and political organization
In the 16th and 17th centuries CE, the Saadis ruled through an Ottoman-style hierarchical regime. [2] Atop this hierarchy stood the sultan, followed by the wazir or vizier, usually the crown prince. Then came the sultan’s council, headed by the First Secretary, who fulfilled the roles of secretary of state, majordomo and treasurer. The vice-vizier was in charge of the army and the qadi al-qudat (chief religious judge) headed the judiciary and appointed regional qadis.
The Saadi Sultanate is likely to have had a population of no more than 3 million at its peak. This is based on the earliest available population estimate for Morocco, which dates to the 20th century. According to García-Arenal, ’[t]he figure can hardly have been higher in the late sixteenth century or during the seventeenth, given that the country was subject to regular and devastating epidemics of plague’. [3] However, it is worth noting that this estimate does not take into account the population of the Niger Inland Delta.



[1]: (El Fasi 1992, 200-32) M. El Fasi. 1992. ’Morocco’. In General History of Africa, vol. 5: Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries, edited by Bethwell Allan Ogot, 200-32. London: Heinemann.

[2]: (García-Arenal 2009, 57-58) Mercedes García-Arenal. 2009. Ahmad Al-Mansur: The Beginnings of Modern Morocco. Oxford: OneWorld.

[3]: (García-Arenal 2009, 41) Mercedes García-Arenal. 2009. Ahmad Al-Mansur: The Beginnings of Modern Morocco. Oxford: OneWorld.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
29 S  
Original Name:
Saadi Sultanate  
Capital:
Marrakesh  
Alternative Name:
Saadi Dynasty  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,578 CE ➜ 1,603 CE]  
Duration:
[1,554 CE ➜ 1,659 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Supracultural Entity:
Arabic  
Islamic  
Succeeding Entity:
Alaouite Dynasty  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
[4,500,000 to 5,000,000] km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Principality of Saadi  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
Arabic  
Berber  
Spanish  
Portuguese  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
125,000 people  
Polity Territory:
447,000 km2 1554 CE 1591 CE
476,000 km2 1591 CE 1618 CE
447,000 km2 1618 CE 1659 CE
Polity Population:
[2,000,000 to 3,000,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4  
Religious Level:
3  
Military Level:
6  
Administrative Level:
5  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
inferred present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
inferred present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
inferred present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
unknown  
Port:
present  
Canal:
unknown  
Bridge:
unknown  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
inferred present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
inferred present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
inferred present  
Calendar:
unknown  
Information / Money
Token:
unknown  
Precious Metal:
inferred present  
Paper Currency:
unknown  
Indigenous Coin:
inferred present  
Foreign Coin:
unknown  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown  
  Modern Fortification:
unknown  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
present  
  Earth Rampart:
inferred present  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
unknown  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
inferred present  
  Iron:
unknown  
  Copper:
unknown  
  Bronze:
unknown  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
unknown  
  Sling Siege Engine:
unknown  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
unknown  
  Javelin:
unknown  
  Handheld Firearm:
present  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present  
  Crossbow:
inferred present  
  Composite Bow:
inferred present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
inferred present  
  Battle Axe:
inferred present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
inferred absent  
  Donkey:
unknown  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
inferred present  
  Plate Armor:
inferred present  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
inferred present  
  Laminar Armor:
inferred present  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
unknown  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
present  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Saadi Sultanate (ma_saadi_sultanate) was in:
 (1591 CE 1618 CE)   Niger Inland Delta
Home NGA: Niger Inland Delta

General Variables
Identity and Location


Capital:
Marrakesh

[1]

[1]: M. El Fasi, Morocco, in B.A. Ogot (ed), General History of Africa, vol. 5: Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries (1992), pp. 200-232


Alternative Name:
Saadi Dynasty

[1]

[1]: M. El Fasi, Morocco, in B.A. Ogot (ed), General History of Africa, vol. 5: Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries (1992), pp. 200-232


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,578 CE ➜ 1,603 CE]

Morocco conquered the Niger Inland Delta in 1591 [1] The reign of Ahmad Al-Mansur was characterised by internal stability, greater prosperity (due to the revival of the sugar industry), lack of external threat (due to Morocco’s decisive victory against Portugal in the Battle of the Three Kings in 1578), and territorial expansion (most notably, in the Niger Inland Delta) [1] . Moreover, at this time a number of prominent Islamic scholars produced important works--most notably, Ahmad Baba wrote a collection of biographies on medieval Islamic scholars, and a seminal legal treaty on legal issues surrounding slavery [2] .

[1]: M. El Fasi, Morocco, in B.A. Ogot (ed), General History of Africa, vol. 5: Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries (1992), pp. 200-232

[2]: N. Creighton, Ahmad Baba al-Massufi al-Tinbukti, in E.K. Akyeampong and H.L. Gates, Jr. (eds), Dictionary of African Biography (2012), pp. 124-125


Duration:
[1,554 CE ➜ 1,659 CE]

1554 is the year that the whole of Morocco was united under the rule of the Saadi--previously, it had been divided between the latter and the Wattasid-Marinid dynasty--while 1659 is the year the last Saadi ruler was assassinated [1] .

[1]: M. El Fasi, Morocco, in B.A. Ogot (ed), General History of Africa, vol. 5: Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries (1992), pp. 200-232


Political and Cultural Relations

Succeeding Entity:
Alaouite Dynasty

In core region, Morocco, were succeeded by Alaouite Dynasty.


Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
[4,500,000 to 5,000,000] km2

km squared.


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

In core region, Morocco, preceding polity was the Principality of Saadi.


Preceding Entity:
Principality of Saadi

Degree of Centralization:
unitary state

[1]

[1]: M. El Fasi, Morocco, in B.A. Ogot (ed), General History of Africa, vol. 5: Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries (1992), pp. 200-232


Language

Language:
Arabic

[1]

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 41

Language:
Berber

[1]

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 41

Language:
Spanish

[1]

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 41

Language:
Portuguese

[1]

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 41


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
125,000 people

Inhabitants. Estimate for Marrakesh in 1600 CE [1]

[1]: Chase-Dunn spreadsheet (2011), available at Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet


Polity Territory:
447,000 km2
1554 CE 1591 CE

in squared kilometers. 446,550: 1554-1591 CE; 476,000: 1591-1618 CE; 446,500: 1618-1659 CE. For the period before the conquest of the Niger Inland Delta, the Sultanate’s limits "coincide[d] with the borders of the present-day Morocco" [1] . For the period between 1591 and 1618, the area of the Niger Inland Delta is added. Once the Sultanate lost control of the Delta, it is inferred that it returned to covering more or less the same area of modern-day Morocco.

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 40

Polity Territory:
476,000 km2
1591 CE 1618 CE

in squared kilometers. 446,550: 1554-1591 CE; 476,000: 1591-1618 CE; 446,500: 1618-1659 CE. For the period before the conquest of the Niger Inland Delta, the Sultanate’s limits "coincide[d] with the borders of the present-day Morocco" [1] . For the period between 1591 and 1618, the area of the Niger Inland Delta is added. Once the Sultanate lost control of the Delta, it is inferred that it returned to covering more or less the same area of modern-day Morocco.

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 40

Polity Territory:
447,000 km2
1618 CE 1659 CE

in squared kilometers. 446,550: 1554-1591 CE; 476,000: 1591-1618 CE; 446,500: 1618-1659 CE. For the period before the conquest of the Niger Inland Delta, the Sultanate’s limits "coincide[d] with the borders of the present-day Morocco" [1] . For the period between 1591 and 1618, the area of the Niger Inland Delta is added. Once the Sultanate lost control of the Delta, it is inferred that it returned to covering more or less the same area of modern-day Morocco.

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 40


Polity Population:
[2,000,000 to 3,000,000] people

People. 1591-1618: no data. [2,000,000-3,000,000]: 1554-1591 CE; [2,000,000-3,000,000]: 1618-1659 CE. The figure of 3 million inhabitants corresponds to the earliest available population estimate for Morocco: this estimate dates to the early twentieth century, but "[t]he figure can hardly have been higher in the late sixteenth century or during the seventeenth, given that the country was subject to regular and devastating epidemics of plague" [1] . The population must have risen with the annexation of the Niger Inland Delta, but no demographic data could be found regarding the latter.

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 41


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4

levels.
1. Capital city
2. Provincial cities?3. Towns?4. Villages/hamlets?


Religious Level:
3

levels.
There were, apparently, three hierarchical levels in Sufi brotherhoods [1] :
1. Sheikh
2. Marabout
3. Novice
However, Sufi brotherhoods were only one aspect of Islamic practice in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Morocco [2] , and indeed Islam does not technically have a priestly hierarchy [3] .

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), pp. 50-51

[2]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), pp. 50-54

[3]: J. Hunwick, Timbuktu and the Songhay Empire (2003), p. lv


Military Level:
6

levels.
1. Sultan
2. Sultan’s personal guardMostly made up of Renegades [1]
2. WazirAlso known as the viceroy, governor of Fez, crown prince, or vizir [2] .
3. Vice-wazirDirectly supervised higher officers [2] .
4. Higher officersThe sultan’s other sons, brothers and relatives with command over the cavalry, firearm forces and the Sultan’s personal guard [2] .
5. Lesser officersNot mentioned by sources but implied by the sources’ mention of "higher officers" [2] .
6. Regular soldiers

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), pp. 55-57

[2]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), pp. 57-58


Administrative Level:
5

levels.
1. Sultan
The Saadis had an Ottoman-style palace government ruled by a Sultan. [1]
_Central government_
2. WazirAlso known as the viceroy, governor of Fez, crown prince, or vizir [2] .
2. Sultan’s councilComprising the chancellor of the seal, the chancellor in charge of protocol and ceremony, one in charge of the Sultan’s horses and camels, and one in charge of administration and division of rents and taxes [2]
3. bureaucrat in charge of rents inferred level4. Scribe or sub-manager
3. bureaucrat in charge of taxes inferred level4. Scribe or sub-manager inferred level5. Tax collector [3]
2. First secretaryHead of Sultan’s council, secretary of state, majordomo, treasurer [2]
2. Qadi al-qudatThe main qadi, head of the judiciary, whose task it was to assign qadis to different cities and regions [2] .
Petty bureaucrats
Tax collectors, clerics, secretaries, and qadis [3] .
_Regional government_
2.
3.
4.

[1]: (García-Arenal 2009, 57-58) Mercedes García-Arenal. 2009. Ahmad Al-Mansur: The Beginnings of Modern Morocco. Oxford: OneWorld.

[2]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), pp. 57-58

[3]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), pp. 48-58


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

[1]

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 55


Professional Priesthood:
present

Full-time specialists


Professional Military Officer:
present

[1]

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 58


Bureaucracy Characteristics

Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

Secretaries and clerics educated at state-funded Muslim madrassas [1] .

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 48


Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown

Islamic lawyers?


Informal (Islamic scholars or ’ulama) and formal (qadi) [1] .

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), pp. 46-47


Formal Legal Code:
present

Islamic law [1] .

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), pp. 46-47


Court:
present

Islamic courts?


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

For example, at Fez and Marrakesh [1] .

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 43


Irrigation System:
present

Inferred from García-Arenal’s [1] reference to the "irrigable lands of the Sous river".

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 40




Transport Infrastructure

For example, Agadir [1] .

[1]: M. El Fasi, Morocco, in B.A. Ogot (ed), General History of Africa, vol. 5: Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries (1992), pp. 200-232




Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

Silver and copper mines in the Saharan valleys [1] .

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 40


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

For example, a copious epistolary literature [1] .

[1]: M. El Fasi, Morocco, in B.A. Ogot (ed), General History of Africa, vol. 5: Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries (1992), pp. 200-232




Nonwritten Record:
present

For example, a copious epistolary literature [1] .

[1]: M. El Fasi, Morocco, in B.A. Ogot (ed), General History of Africa, vol. 5: Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries (1992), pp. 200-232


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

"Muley Ahmad was a ‘modern’ monarch with an interest in novelties, from whatever source. In both European and Moroccan chronicles, he emerges as a man with an interest in knowledge, intellectually curious and with a well-trained memory. He received an extensive education in Islamic religious and secular sciences, including theology, law, poetry, grammar, lexicography, exegesis, geometry, arithmetics and algebra, and astronomy. " [1]

[1]: (García-Arenal 2008, 35)


Sacred Text:
present

Koran, not mentioned by sources but inferred from the fact that the Saadi were Muslim [1] .

[1]: M. El Fasi, Morocco, in B.A. Ogot (ed), General History of Africa, vol. 5: Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries (1992), pp. 200-232


Religious Literature:
present

"Muley Ahmad was a ‘modern’ monarch with an interest in novelties, from whatever source. In both European and Moroccan chronicles, he emerges as a man with an interest in knowledge, intellectually curious and with a well-trained memory. He received an extensive education in Islamic religious and secular sciences, including theology, law, poetry, grammar, lexicography, exegesis, geometry, arithmetics and algebra, and astronomy. " [1]

[1]: (García-Arenal 2008, 35)


Practical Literature:
present

Ahmad Baba’s treatises on Arabic grammar and the legality of slavery [1] .

[1]: N. Creighton, Ahmad Baba al-Massufi al-Tinbukti, in E.K. Akyeampong and H.L. Gates, Jr. (eds), Dictionary of African Biography (2012), pp. 124-125


Philosophy:
present

There was an intellectual culture.


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

State bureaucracy.


History:
present

Ahmad Baba’s manuscript collecting biographical information on prominent medieval Islamic scholars [1] .

[1]: N. Creighton, Ahmad Baba al-Massufi al-Tinbukti, in E.K. Akyeampong and H.L. Gates, Jr. (eds), Dictionary of African Biography (2012), pp. 124-125


Fiction:
present

Al-Mansur secluded himself within his palace, even concealing himself behind a curtain when giving an audience. To placate religious leaders and maintain his standing as a sharif, he hosted large official ceremonies on the feast of Muhammad’s birthday. These would include the recitation of poetry in honor of the prophet - and the sultan- along with generous gift-giving by the sultan. Al-Mansur was famous for his love of poetry and books. Though Marrakech was a Berber city, the Sa’adians welcomed Arab poetry and scholarship." [1]

[1]: (Ring et al 1996, 471)



Information / Money

Precious Metal:
present

After the conquest of Sudan, Elmansour decided to pay his administrators in metal (inferred gold) and dinars. Golden coins were minted everyday in front of his palace. [1]

[1]: (Muhammad Sagir al-Ifrani, translated by Houdas 1889, 167)



Indigenous Coin:
present

After the conquest of Sudan, Elmansour decided to pay his administrators in metal (inferred gold) and dinars. Golden coins were minted everyday in front of his palace. [1]

[1]: (Muhammad Sagir al-Ifrani, translated by Houdas 1889, 167)




Information / Postal System



Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications






Fortified Camp:
present

Permanent garrisons near key river port.s [1] .

[1]: M. Abitbol, The end of the Songhay empire, in in B.A. Ogot (ed), General History of Africa, vol. 5: Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries (1992), pp. 300-326


Earth Rampart:
present

A parapet walk corresponding to the ramparts is mentioned by Sagir al-Ifrani. A squad of qabdjiya walked along it every night. "Chaque nuit, une escouade de qabdjiya montait la garde et parcourait le chemin de ronde des remparts qui entouraient la ville." [1]

[1]: (Mohammed Sagir al-Ifrani translated by Houdas 1889, 197)




Military use of Metals
Steel:
present

Islamic polities in the West Mediterranean seem to have been well acquainted with fine steel: Al-Zuhri, writing in the 12th century CE, "said that Seville produces ’Indian steel’." [1]

[1]: (Williams 2012, 35) Alan Williams. 2012. The Sword and the Crucible: A History of the Metallurgy of European Swords Up to the 16th Century. BRILL. Leiden.





Projectiles





Handheld Firearm:
present

Rifles and harquebuses. [1] . Sultanate of Banu Wattas (Wattasid Sultanate) in Morocco between 1465-1554 CE: "Then, in the 1490s, despite the belittling comments of European observers, we again get glimpses of Moroccan gunpowder weapons in action, starting with a mention by Africanus that the Wattasid Sultan installed 100 makhzan arquebusiers at Larache after the Graciosa campaign. ... Also, in Morocco’s deep south, beyond the reach of both Portuguese imperial order and Wattasid makhzan, Leo found a new development - the proliferation of firearms among tribes and polities who would submit to neither Lisbon nor Fez nor any other aspiring outside dominator." [2]

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 56

[2]: Sandra Alvarez. February 23, 2014. Warfare and Firearms in Fifteenth Century Morocco, 1400-1492. Weston F. Cook Jr. War and Society: v.11 (1993). Site accessed 24 October 2018: http://deremilitari.org/2014/02/warfare-and-firearms-in-fifteenth-century-morocco-1400-1492/


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present

Low-calibre cannon. [1] . Reference for earlier polity in the region: "The battle of Ma’mura, in which the Portuguese naval and land forces were dealt a severe defeat, indicated that the Moroccan state was modernizing its military forces." [2] By the time of the 1456 CE siege of Ceuta the Marinids (earlier polity) "possessed a distinct, fulltime artillery corps." [3] "Morocco’s first foundry did not appear until the 1530s." [3]

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 57

[2]: (Ilahiane 2006, 139) Hsain Ilahiane. 2006. Historical Dictionary of the Berbers (Imazighen). Scarecrow Press. Lanham.

[3]: Sandra Alvarez. February 23, 2014. Warfare and Firearms in Fifteenth Century Morocco, 1400-1492. Weston F. Cook Jr. War and Society: v.11 (1993). Site accessed 24 October 2018: http://deremilitari.org/2014/02/warfare-and-firearms-in-fifteenth-century-morocco-1400-1492/


Crossbow:
present

Reference for 1456 CE siege of Ceuta (Marinid Sultanate): "Crossbowmen served with the crews to fire on the walls, forcing the Portuguese to shelter their own gun emplacements so that they could not target Moroccan positions as well." [1]

[1]: Sandra Alvarez. February 23, 2014. Warfare and Firearms in Fifteenth Century Morocco, 1400-1492. Weston F. Cook Jr. War and Society: v.11 (1993). Site accessed 24 October 2018: http://deremilitari.org/2014/02/warfare-and-firearms-in-fifteenth-century-morocco-1400-1492/


Composite Bow:
present

Present in Egypt at this time - the regime in the Morocco probably used weapons similar to those of its neighbours. We could also check - as yet unconsulted - references for Christians in contemporary Iberia who may have been used as mercenaries.


New World weapon.


Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

Present in Egypt at this time [1] - the regime in the Morocco probably used weapons similar to those of its neighbours. We could also check - as yet unconsulted - references for Christians in contemporary Iberia who may have been used as mercenaries.

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Sabres [1] .

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 56


5 metres long [1] .

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 56



Dagger:
present

Present in Egypt at this time [1] - the regime in the Morocco probably used weapons similar to those of its neighbours. We could also check - as yet unconsulted - references for Christians in contemporary Iberia who may have been used as mercenaries.

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Battle Axe:
present

Present in Egypt at this time [1] - the regime in the Morocco probably used weapons similar to those of its neighbours. We could also check - as yet unconsulted - references for Christians in contemporary Iberia who may have been used as mercenaries.

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Animals used in warfare

[1]

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 56





[1]

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 57


Armor

Shield:
present

[1]

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 56


Scaled Armor:
present

Present in Egypt at this time - the regime in the Morocco probably used weapons similar to those of its neighbours. We could also check - as yet unconsulted - references for Christians in contemporary Iberia who may have been used as mercenaries.


Plate Armor:
present

Present in Egypt at this time - the regime in the Morocco probably used weapons similar to those of its neighbours. We could also check - as yet unconsulted - references for Christians in contemporary Iberia who may have been used as mercenaries.


Limb Protection:
present

Present in Egypt at this time - the regime in the Morocco probably used weapons similar to those of its neighbours. We could also check - as yet unconsulted - references for Christians in contemporary Iberia who may have been used as mercenaries.


Leather Cloth:
present

Present in Egypt at this time - the regime in the Morocco probably used weapons similar to those of its neighbours. We could also check - as yet unconsulted - references for Christians in contemporary Iberia who may have been used as mercenaries.


Laminar Armor:
present

Present in Egypt at this time - the regime in the Morocco probably used weapons similar to those of its neighbours. We could also check - as yet unconsulted - references for Christians in contemporary Iberia who may have been used as mercenaries.


Helmet:
present

[1]

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 56


Chainmail:
present

[1] 1000-1650 CE period: "Mail was common in North Africa among the Berbers and Moors." [2]

[1]: M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 56

[2]: (Nolan 2006, 27) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.



Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

Present. [1] Did this reference provide any more detail? Reference for earlier polity in the region: "The battle of Ma’mura, in which the Portuguese naval and land forces were dealt a severe defeat, indicated that the Moroccan state was modernizing its military forces." [2]

[1]: M. El Fasi, Morocco, in B.A. Ogot (ed), General History of Africa, vol. 5: Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries (1992), pp. 200-232

[2]: (Ilahiane 2006, 139) Hsain Ilahiane. 2006. Historical Dictionary of the Berbers (Imazighen). Scarecrow Press. Lanham.



Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
present

"The state budgets of the 16th century were not designed to sustain the expense of the continuous upkeep of large professional navies. Use was therefore made of the private profit motive. Individual adventurers, known as privateers or corsairs, were authorised to equip and man armed vessels. These might then attack the shipping of states with which the government of their owners was at war and make a profit from disposing of the booty taken. The proceeds were divided in legally fixed proportions between the owner, the government, the officers, and the crew; in this way war was made to pay for itself. In national emergencies this shipping and the crews formed a reserve for enlarging such regular forces as the state might possess. Captured privateers enjoyed the rights of prisoners of war. The finance might be provided by the monarch himself, by individuals, or by a syndicate. Officially such activities could only be carried on with previous permission of some national authority, against shipping belonging to enemies of the state and in accordance with internationally recognised conventions, modified or amplified by bilateral treaties between the states concerned." [1]

[1]: (Barbour 1969, 99) Nevill Barbour. North West Africa From the 15th to 19th Centuries. H K Kissling. F R C Bagley. N Barbour. J S Trimingham. H Braun. B Spuler. H Hartel. eds. 1969. The Muslim World. A Historical Survey. Part III. The Last Great Muslim Empires. EJ BRILL. Leiden.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.