Home Region:  Archipelago (Southeast Asia)

Mataram Sultanate

D G SC WF HS PT EQ 2020  id_mataram_k / IdMatrm

Preceding:
[continuity; Demak Sultanate] [continuity]   Update here
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
No Polity found. Add one here.

Mataram started out as a vassal to the kingdom of Pajang—itself one of a number of short-lived polities that emerged from the disintegration of the Demak Sultanate—and gradually established itself as the dominant polity in central Java between the end of the sixteenth and the beginning of the seventeenth centuries. [1] The polity’s heyday coincided with the rule of Agung Hanyokrokusumo (1613-1645), whose marriage alliances and military campaigns resulted in the polity’s greatest territorial expansion, annexing the Sultanate of Cirebon in the West and the kingdoms of Surabaya and Blambangan in the East. [2] Mataram went in decline shortly after Hanyokrokusumo’s death, succumbing to the Dutch East India Company in the first half of the eighteenth century. [1]
Population and political organization
The Sultan governed with the assistance of a number of functionaries, though the exact hierarchy of these functionaries remains unclear, as does their relationship to the bureaucratic systems in the polity’s administrative subdivisions, particularly its powerful trading centers on the coast. [3] It is worth noting, however, that Hanyokrokusumo enacted a sweeping reform of the judiciary system meant to integrate Islamic law into traditional customs. [4]
No demographic estimates have been found in the specialist literature, with the exception of Reid’s [5] conjecture that the polity’s population density corresponded to about thirty people per squared kilometer.

[1]: (Ooi 2004 864-866)

[2]: (Achmad & Nurcholis 2016, 41)

[3]: (Schrieke 1957, 190-207)

[4]: (Achmad & Nurcholis 2016)

[5]: (Reid in Tarling 1993, 463)

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
49 M  
Original Name:
Mataram Kingdom  
Capital:
Kota Gede  
Kartosuro  
Plered  
Karta  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[1,568 CE ➜ 1,703 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
UNCLEAR:    [continuity]  
Degree of Centralization:
loose  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Austronesian  
Language:
Javanese  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[90,000 to 110,000] km2  
Polity Population:
[3,000,000 to 3,500,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3  
Religious Level:
[1 to 3]  
Military Level:
5  
Administrative Level:
[2 to 5]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
present  
Judge:
inferred present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
inferred present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
unknown  
Irrigation System:
unknown  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
unknown  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Sacred Text:
unknown  
Religious Literature:
unknown  
Practical Literature:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown  
History:
present  
Fiction:
unknown  
Calendar:
unknown  
Information / Money
Paper Currency:
unknown  
Indigenous Coin:
unknown  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown  
  Modern Fortification:
unknown  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
present  
  Earth Rampart:
unknown  
  Ditch:
present  
  Complex Fortification:
present  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
unknown  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Sling Siege Engine:
inferred present  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
absent  
  Javelin:
unknown  
  Handheld Firearm:
present  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
unknown  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
unknown  
  Polearm:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
unknown  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
present  
  Donkey:
absent  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
unknown  
  Limb Protection:
unknown  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
inferred present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
unknown  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Mataram Sultanate (id_mataram_k) was in:
 (1568 CE 1703 CE)   Central Java
Home NGA: Central Java

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Mataram Kingdom

Capital:
Kota Gede

Kota Gede: 1587-1613; Karta: 1613-1645; Plered 1646-1680; Kartosuro: 1680-1755 [1]

[1]: (Santosa 2007, 4-10)

Capital:
Kartosuro

Kota Gede: 1587-1613; Karta: 1613-1645; Plered 1646-1680; Kartosuro: 1680-1755 [1]

[1]: (Santosa 2007, 4-10)

Capital:
Plered

Kota Gede: 1587-1613; Karta: 1613-1645; Plered 1646-1680; Kartosuro: 1680-1755 [1]

[1]: (Santosa 2007, 4-10)

Kota Gede: 1587-1613; Karta: 1613-1645; Plered 1646-1680; Kartosuro: 1680-1755 [1]

[1]: (Santosa 2007, 4-10)


Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[1,568 CE ➜ 1,703 CE]

Political and Cultural Relations
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

(gradual change) Gradual decline of Demak in the late sixteenth century allowed for the rise of other states including Mataram and Surabaya which emerged as the leading powers by 1600.


Preceding Entity:
Demak Sultanate

(gradual change) Gradual decline of Demak in the late sixteenth century allowed for the rise of other states including Mataram and Surabaya which emerged as the leading powers by 1600.


Degree of Centralization:
loose

Generally there was a rule of autonomous financing for all parts of the administration - it was a state governed by the ideal of non-interference, which in turn was in accord with the self-sufficiency of the agrarian life. Not much differentiation of occupation nor contact with the outside world was required, and the state became the guardian against disturbance, interfering only when there was a threat to tranquility. The punggawa, or official, within his region wielded the power of administrator, judge, and commander of the local contingent of troops. [1] Amangkurat I (Sultan Agung’s son) attempted to consolidate the empire and to centralise its administration and finances. He hoped to turn an empire which Sultan Agung had based on military might into a unified kingdom where resources were monopolised for the benefit of the king. However communication, population and geographical factors proved impossible to overcome and Amangkurat I brought about the greatest rebellion in the seventeenth century and allowed for the intervention of the VOC. [2]

[1]: (Moertono 2009, 88)

[2]: (Ricklefs 1993, 91)


Language
Linguistic Family:
Austronesian


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[90,000 to 110,000] km2

in squared kilometers
Estimated from map of Java. [1]

[1]: Gunawan Kartapranata / Wikimedia Commons / CC-BY-SA-3.0


Polity Population:
[3,000,000 to 3,500,000] people

People.
density of 30 people per km2. [1] -- was 4 million code the estimate made by the source or a calculation done by RA on basis of a polity area estimate?
Highest figure we get from a maximum polity territory of 110,000 at 30 per km2 is 3.3m.

[1]: (Reid in Tarling 1993, 463)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3

levels. Inferred continuity with preceding polity [1]
1.
2.3.

[1]: (Moertono 2009, 27)


Religious Level:
[1 to 3]

levels. Moertono says that generally the Islamic clergy did not have an organized hierarchical structure in the sense of the Christian church. However, once religious specialists began to be more intertwined with the state administration in later Mataram, some hierarchies of power did develop (see ’Administrative Levels’). [1]

[1]: (Moertono 2009, 84)


Military Level:
5

levels. Commander-in-chief; Subcommanders; Noble cavalry; Troops (composed of swordsman, archers and skirmishers). [1] Slaves used as auxiliaries. [2] Mataram often adopted fighting formations inspired by Indian astrological signs, including a huge crayfish. The feelers represented special troops of amok fighters, the body of the crayfish was the sovereign, preceded by sons and relatives, the commander and ministers, and other numbers represented troops of different nobles and officials. [3]
1. King
2. Commander-in-chief3. Sub-commander4. Officers?5. Individual soldiers

[1]: (Gaukroger and Scott 2009, 134)

[2]: (Schrieke 1957, 128)

[3]: (Reid 1988, 126)


Administrative Level:
[2 to 5]

levels. 5 levels inferred continuity with previous polity in region.
1. King
_Central government_
2. Top functionaries
3.
4.
5.
_Provincial government_
2.powerful coastal regions, and administrative structures within these regions [1]
3.
4.
Information on the administration of the Mataram Sultanate is very scarce. It seems that the Majapahit structure of the ruler and a few top functionaries with varying influence was retained. There were various different titles for functionaries, but it is unclear whether there was a particular hierarchical structure between them, and moreover the relationship of these functionaries to powerful coastal regions, and the administrative structures within these regions, is far from clear and there was probably much fluidity and development over time. [1] Moertono shows that in later Mataram (possibly after the VOC came to dominate) there was a ligion including rendering justice in disputes under the jurisdiction of Islamic law. Thseparate and more independent department, the reh pangulon, which was responsible for matters of ree institution of the penggulu (head of the clergy in the main mosque in the king’s capital) was gradually incorporated into the administrative system as head of a special division. The penggulu had his say about appointing lower penggulu naibs, who each administered the religious affairs of a certain number of villages. These lower officials were not thought of as belonging to the king’s administration, for unlike other royal officials they did not receive income from the king. [2]

[1]: (Schrieke 1957, 190-207)

[2]: (Moertono 2009, 84)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

Standing army fell at different points in the range between free and paid service. Indigenous guardsmen in Mataram did not represent a true stipendiary force, for they received income from land allotments and sustenance from the food grown on these lands, but were not paid directly by the court. Reliance on land allotments meant that the standing army was just as affected by drought and famine as the general population. [1] Only a minority of soldiers were professional. [2]

[1]: (Charney 2004, 231)

[2]: (Schrieke 1957, 127)


Professional Priesthood:
present

Full-time specialists


Professional Military Officer:
present

Warrior elite class.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

Full-time state administrators [1]

[1]: (Moertono 2009, 15)


Law
Professional Lawyer:
present

The royal court had public prosecutors, and the regional administration imitated this by employing their own in the eighteenth century. [1]

[1]: (Moertono 2009)


Judge:
present

Islamic law (fiqh) used extensively existed alongside older Hindu Javanese adat (customary law) which took precedence. [1] Oral tradition continued to be more important than the conduct of justice in Java, however. [2]

[1]: (Ooi 2004, 219)

[2]: (Reid 1988, 137)


Formal Legal Code:
present

Islamic law (fiqh) used extensively existed alongside older Hindu Javanese adat (customary law) which took precedence. [1] Oral tradition continued to be more important than the conduct of justice in Java, however. [2]

[1]: (Ooi 2004, 219)

[2]: (Reid 1988, 137)


Court:
present

Islamic law (fiqh) used extensively existed alongside older Hindu Javanese adat (customary law) which took precedence. [1] Oral tradition continued to be more important than the conduct of justice in Java, however. [2]

[1]: (Ooi 2004, 219)

[2]: (Reid 1988, 137)


Specialized Buildings: polity owned


Food Storage Site:
present

Rice stores were set up for troops marching to Batavia. [1]

[1]: (Moertono 2009, 89)


Transport Infrastructure

By the mid-seventeenth century (and probably before) where was a system of roads in Java with toll gates. [1]

[1]: (Ricklefs 1993, 92)


port at Jepara [1]

[1]: (Ooi 2004 864-866)


[1]

[1]: (Moertono 2009)


Bridge:
present

By the mid-seventeeenth century there were permanent bridges. [1]

[1]: (Ricklefs 1993, 92)


Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

Information / Kinds of Written Documents

Religious Literature:
unknown

Practical Literature:
present

Piwulangs were didactic writings which gave instruction of a moralistic nature. [1] . Pedagogical works of early Mataram court writers - Serat Manikmaja and Serat Nitisruti. [2]

[1]: (Moertono 2009, 23)

[2]: (Cohen 1971, 514)


Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown

History:
present

the babad-literature. Most are centred around and written for the benefit of a certain court or dynasty and may be considered to have a national character such as the Babad Tanah Djawi.




Information / Money



Information / Postal System

General Postal Service:
unknown

Courier:
unknown

The state had paid officials [1] but no specific details on whether specialist messengers existed.

[1]: (Moertono 2009, 15)


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications

Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown

Sultan Agung built a new capital at Plered which had "much greater walls" than the previous one. [1] The material the wall was made out of is not mentioned.

[1]: (Santosa 2007, 10) Revianto Budi Santosa. 2007. Kotagede: Life Between Walls. Penerbit PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Jakarta.


Stone Walls Mortared:
present

Introduced by the Dutch. What is the reference for this? Sultan Agung built a new capital at Plered which had "much greater walls" than the previous one. [1] The material the wall was made out of is not mentioned.

[1]: (Santosa 2007, 10) Revianto Budi Santosa. 2007. Kotagede: Life Between Walls. Penerbit PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Jakarta.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown



Fortified Camp:
present

Made of wood. [1]

[1]: (Schrieke 1957, 135)



[1]

[1]: (Charney 2004, 99)


Complex Fortification:
present

Turrets?


Military use of Metals

Historical records show "good quality Indian steel" was reaching Ethiopia in 200 BCE [1] - did they also export across the Bay of Bengal? Island South East Asia: ’Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [2]

[1]: (Biggs et al. 2013 citing Tripathi and Upadhyay 2009, p. 123) Lynn Biggs. Berenice Bellina. Marcos Martinon-Torres. Thomas Oliver Pryce. January 2013. Prehistoric iron production technologies in the Upper Thai-Malay Peninsula: metallography and slag inclusion analyses of iron artefacts from Khao Sam Kaeo and Phu Khao Thong. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences. Springer.

[2]: (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.


Island South East Asia: ’Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [1]

[1]: (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.


Island South East Asia: ’Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [1]

[1]: (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.


“Bronze metallurgy was practiced in at least Southern Vietnam, the islands surrounding the Sulu and Sulawesi seas, West Malaysia, South Sumatra, and especially Java and Bali." [1] Island South East Asia: ’Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [2]

[1]: (Bulbeck in Peregrine and Ember 2000, 85)

[2]: (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.


Projectiles
Sling Siege Engine:
present

Stones thrown at enemy. [1]

[1]: (Schrieke 1957, 124)



The bow and arrow would still have been used for hunting but fell out of use as a standard weapon among Javanese armies by 1590. [1]

[1]: (Charney 2004, 37)


Coded present based on this [1] source but no quote or description provided so we cannot be sure whether the reference was to thrown spear or handheld spear.

[1]: (Schrieke 1957, 122)


Handheld Firearm:
present

By 1624 Mataram had 4000 musketeers comprising 10-13% of troops. [1] At the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Javanese began to cast their own muskets, bases, and cannons, though according to Dutch observers in 1622, they were extremely bad at handling cannon and muskets. From 1726, they began to use firearms more frequently. [2]

[1]: (Charney 2004,67)

[2]: (Schrieke 1957, 122)


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present

Cannon are present, but were not specifically used in siege warfare until the Mataram laid siege to Batavia. [1] At the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Javanese began to cast their own muskets, bases, and cannons, though according to Dutch observers in 1622, they were extremely bad at handling cannon and muskets. [2]

[1]: (Charney 2004, 93)

[2]: (Schrieke 1957, 122)


The bow and arrow would still have been used for hunting but fell out of use as a standard weapon among Javanese armies by 1590. [1]

[1]: (Charney 2004, 37)


Composite Bow:
absent

The bow and arrow would still have been used for hunting but fell out of use as a standard weapon among Javanese armies by 1590. [1]

[1]: (Charney 2004, 37)


New World Weapon.


Handheld weapons

Broadsword. [1]

[1]: (Schrieke 1957, 122)


Coded present based on this source [1] but no quote or description provided so we cannot be sure whether the reference was to thrown spear or handheld spear.

[1]: (Charney 2004, 26)


Coded present based on this source [1] but no quote/description provided. Weapons consist chiefly of pikes, krises, and shields. [2]

[1]: (Charney 2004, 26)

[2]: (Schrieke 1957, 122)


The most common bladed weapon was still the kris [1]

[1]: (Charney 2004, 29)



Animals used in warfare

Mataram controlled the horse-breeding districts of Java. In 1678 the Dutch encountered a force of 240 Javanese horsemen, and Trunajaya used hundred of cavalry at the siege of Kediri in 1678. The importance of cavalry grew due to the difficulties of using elephants in battle against improved firearms. [1]

[1]: (Charney 2004, 170)


Over the course of the Mataram era, elephants were increasingly used to meet the increasing transportation demands of gunpowder. [1]

[1]: (Charney 2004, 132)


Not specified in list of animals used in warfare [1]

[1]: (Hall 2000, 65)


Not specified in list of animals used in warfare [1]

[1]: (Hall 2000, 65)


Not specified in list of animals used in warfare [1]

[1]: (Hall 2000, 65)


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
unknown

Not mentioned in Charney (2004) and more sophisticated armor is present.


Light leather shields using buffalo skin. [1]

[1]: (Charney 2004, 40)





Leather Cloth:
present

Buffalo hide. [1]

[1]: (Charney 2004, 40)



"Southeast Asian helmets or other forms of headgear were worn everywhere" [1]

[1]: (Charney 2004, 38)


Chainmail:
present

Worn by elite. [1]

[1]: (Charney 2004, 41)



Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

[1]

[1]: (Charney 2004, 105)


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present


Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions