Home Region:  Afghanistan (Central and Northern Eurasia)

Durrani Empire

EQ 2020  af_durrani_emp / AfDurrn

The Duranni Empire (1747-1826 CE) was a political entity that lasted 79 years by plundering its higher populated and wealthier neighbors. [1] Founded by a former soldier of the Afsharid Kingdom named Ahmad Shah Durrani, at its maximum extent it covered over 1.5 million KM2 of territory surrounding modern-day Afganistan. [1]
Ahmad Shah Durrani had been elected to the monarchy by an inter-tribal assembly called the Loya Jirga. [1] Following his death in 1772 CE , rebellion and internal strife led to a loss of power so that by 1818 CE, the Durrani controlled a small territory surrounding the capital of Kabul. [2] The regime was finally extinguished when Afghanistan fell into a period of sustained civil war. The eventual victors were members of the Barkzai dynasty, who came to power in 1837 CE . [2]
The Durrani state was an empire sustained and governed through the maintenance of a large number of armed horseman primarily recruited from the Pashtun peoples, although conquests in the period of 1747-1752 CE added horsemen from the Turkmen, Uzbek, Tajik, and Hazara tribes to the King’s army. [2] The army was organized under a hierarchical tribal confederacy. [3]
As a loose confederation of tribes there was not much in the way of an administration except for that possessed by conquered elites, who were largely left alone if they made their tribute payments. What short term central administrative posts that did exist were given to members of the governing tribes. [4] Soldiers received almost all the money: paid through generous land grants called Jegeirs, while the remaining revenue was spent on meeting the costs of the large army [5] which expanded rapidly from 16,000 in 1747 to about 120,000 in 1761 CE. [1]

[1]: (Barfield 2010, 97-109) Thomas Barfield. 2010. Afghanistan: a cultural and political history. Princeton University Press.

[2]: (Runion 2007, 69-73) Meredith L Runion. 2007. The history of Afghanistan. Greenwood Publishing Group.

[3]: (Barfield 2010, 100) Thomas Barfield. 2010. Afghanistan: a cultural and political history. Princeton University Press.

[4]: (Saikal 2006, 22-24) Amin Saikal. 2006 Modern Afghanistan: A struggle for Survival. I.B. Tauris.

[5]: Lothar Brock. Hans-Henrik Holm. Georg Sørensen. Michael Stohl. 2011. Fragile states. polity, 2011 comments on the problems of governing such a loose confederation; for a brief look at the decline, see http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/7798/Afghanistan/21395/Nadir-Shah

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
42 N  
Original Name:
Durrani Empire  
Capital:
Peshwar  
Kabul  
Herat  
Alternative Name:
Sadozai Kingdom  
Last Afghan Empire  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,761 CE  
Duration:
[1,747 CE ➜ 1,826 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
Succeeding Entity:
Barkzai Dynasty  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Afsharid Dynasty  
Degree of Centralization:
loose  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
Pashto  
Persian  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
1,792,000 km2 1772 CE
[1,790,000 to 490,000] km2 1800 CE
489,000 km2 1819 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[3 to 4]  
Religious Level:
[1 to 2]  
Military Level:
4  
Administrative Level:
5  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
absent  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
inferred absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent  
Examination System:
absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent  
Judge:
inferred absent  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
absent  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
inferred absent  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
absent  
Port:
absent  
Canal:
absent  
Bridge:
absent  
Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
unknown  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Token:
present  
Paper Currency:
present  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
absent  
General Postal Service:
absent  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
inferred present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred present  
  Modern Fortification:
present  
  Moat:
inferred present  
  Fortified Camp:
present  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
present  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
inferred present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
present  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
present  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present  
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
inferred absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
unknown  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Donkey:
present  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
present  
  Plate Armor:
present  
  Limb Protection:
present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
present  
  Helmet:
present  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Durrani Empire (af_durrani_emp) was in:
 (1748 CE 1826 CE)   Kachi Plain
Home NGA: Kachi Plain

General Variables
Identity and Location


Capital:
Peshwar

Kabul: 1747-1776 CE; Peshwar 1776-1818 CE; Herat 1818-1826 CE [1] [2]

[1]: Barfield, Thomas. Afghanistan: a cultural and political history. Princeton University Press, 2010. pp. 97-109

[2]: Runion, Meredith L. The history of Afghanistan. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007.pp. 69-73

Kabul: 1747-1776 CE; Peshwar 1776-1818 CE; Herat 1818-1826 CE [1] [2]

[1]: Barfield, Thomas. Afghanistan: a cultural and political history. Princeton University Press, 2010. pp. 97-109

[2]: Runion, Meredith L. The history of Afghanistan. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007.pp. 69-73

Kabul: 1747-1776 CE; Peshwar 1776-1818 CE; Herat 1818-1826 CE [1] [2]

[1]: Barfield, Thomas. Afghanistan: a cultural and political history. Princeton University Press, 2010. pp. 97-109

[2]: Runion, Meredith L. The history of Afghanistan. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007.pp. 69-73



Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,761 CE

Durrani power reached its peak in the aftermath of the Third Battle of Panipat during the reign of Ahmad Shah Durrani (1722 CE-1772 CE) [1]

[1]: Barfield, Thomas. Afghanistan: a cultural and political history. Princeton University Press, 2010. pp. 97-109


Duration:
[1,747 CE ➜ 1,826 CE]

The Dynasty was founded by a former soldier of the Afsharid kindgom, and eventual emir of Khorasan who conquered a large swath of territory. The Durrani dynasty was extinguished when Afghanistan fell into a period of sustained civil war in the period between 1818 CE-1826 CE. The British attempted to install a puppet from the family line but this was not successful. The eventual victor was the the Barkzai dynasty, which came to power in 1837. [1]

[1]: Barfield, Thomas. Afghanistan: a cultural and political history. Princeton University Press, 2010. pp. 97-109


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none

The Durrani Empire was independent of other kingdoms and empires, although there were attempts to bring Afghanistan under control of external power e.g. the British. [1]

[1]: Dani, Ahmad Hasan, V. M Masson, J Harmatta, Baij Nath Puri, G. F Etemadi, Boris Anatolʹevich Litvinskiĭ, Guangda Zhang, et al. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Vol. V The Sixteenth to the Mid-Nineteenth Centuries. Paris: Unesco, 1992., pp.288-301.



Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

The Dynasty was founded by a former soldier of the Afsharid kindgom, and eventual emir of Khorasan who conquered a large swath of territory. [1]

[1]: Barfield, Thomas. Afghanistan: a cultural and political history. Princeton University Press, 2010. pp. 97-109



Degree of Centralization:
loose

Ahmad Sh¯ah Durr¯an¯ı, Tim¯ ur Sh¯ah and later kings ruled through uniting the tribal groups in Afghanistan under them. However, there were internal rebellions from tribal chiefs and other ethnic groups. The kings after Tim¯ ur Sh¯ah were much less successful in holding the tribes together. [1]

[1]: Dani, Ahmad Hasan, V. M Masson, J Harmatta, Baij Nath Puri, G. F Etemadi, Boris Anatolʹevich Litvinskiĭ, Guangda Zhang, et al. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Vol. V The Sixteenth to the Mid-Nineteenth Centuries. Paris: Unesco, 1992., pp.288-301.


Language

Language:
Pashto

inferred from geographic region

Language:
Persian

inferred from geographic region


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
1,792,000 km2
1772 CE

squared kilometers. 1,792,327: 1772 CE; 489,172: 1819 CE Inferred: the 1772 CE estimate is an approximation based on the modern day territory of the component territories of Pakistan, Indian Kashmir, and the former Iranian province of Khorasan. The second date reflects the loss of external territories by the beginning of the nineteenth century. [1]
Conquests including former territory of the Mughal and Maratha Empires in India, the Afsharid Empire of Persia, and the Khanate of Bukhara. [2]
In 1757 CE, the Durrani sacked Delhi and dealt a deathblow to the formerly powerful Moghul Empire. This resulted in the conquest of Punjab, the Sindh, and the Kachi plains. [3]
After 1809 CE, the East India company signed the Treaty of Amritsar with a Sikh Maharaja named Ranjit Singh. Following an agreement to halt expansion southward, Singh conquered Multan and the Kachi plains in 1818 CE, Kashmir in 1819 CE, and finally Peshawar in 1823 CE. [3]

[1]: Barfield, Thomas. Afghanistan: a cultural and political history. pp. 99-100

[2]: Barfield, Thomas. Afghanistan: a cultural and political history. Princeton University Press, 2010. pp. 97-109

[3]: Qassem, Ahmad Shayeq. Afghanistan’s political stability: a dream unrealised. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2009. p. 24

Polity Territory:
[1,790,000 to 490,000] km2
1800 CE

squared kilometers. 1,792,327: 1772 CE; 489,172: 1819 CE Inferred: the 1772 CE estimate is an approximation based on the modern day territory of the component territories of Pakistan, Indian Kashmir, and the former Iranian province of Khorasan. The second date reflects the loss of external territories by the beginning of the nineteenth century. [1]
Conquests including former territory of the Mughal and Maratha Empires in India, the Afsharid Empire of Persia, and the Khanate of Bukhara. [2]
In 1757 CE, the Durrani sacked Delhi and dealt a deathblow to the formerly powerful Moghul Empire. This resulted in the conquest of Punjab, the Sindh, and the Kachi plains. [3]
After 1809 CE, the East India company signed the Treaty of Amritsar with a Sikh Maharaja named Ranjit Singh. Following an agreement to halt expansion southward, Singh conquered Multan and the Kachi plains in 1818 CE, Kashmir in 1819 CE, and finally Peshawar in 1823 CE. [3]

[1]: Barfield, Thomas. Afghanistan: a cultural and political history. pp. 99-100

[2]: Barfield, Thomas. Afghanistan: a cultural and political history. Princeton University Press, 2010. pp. 97-109

[3]: Qassem, Ahmad Shayeq. Afghanistan’s political stability: a dream unrealised. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2009. p. 24

Polity Territory:
489,000 km2
1819 CE

squared kilometers. 1,792,327: 1772 CE; 489,172: 1819 CE Inferred: the 1772 CE estimate is an approximation based on the modern day territory of the component territories of Pakistan, Indian Kashmir, and the former Iranian province of Khorasan. The second date reflects the loss of external territories by the beginning of the nineteenth century. [1]
Conquests including former territory of the Mughal and Maratha Empires in India, the Afsharid Empire of Persia, and the Khanate of Bukhara. [2]
In 1757 CE, the Durrani sacked Delhi and dealt a deathblow to the formerly powerful Moghul Empire. This resulted in the conquest of Punjab, the Sindh, and the Kachi plains. [3]
After 1809 CE, the East India company signed the Treaty of Amritsar with a Sikh Maharaja named Ranjit Singh. Following an agreement to halt expansion southward, Singh conquered Multan and the Kachi plains in 1818 CE, Kashmir in 1819 CE, and finally Peshawar in 1823 CE. [3]

[1]: Barfield, Thomas. Afghanistan: a cultural and political history. pp. 99-100

[2]: Barfield, Thomas. Afghanistan: a cultural and political history. Princeton University Press, 2010. pp. 97-109

[3]: Qassem, Ahmad Shayeq. Afghanistan’s political stability: a dream unrealised. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2009. p. 24


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[3 to 4]

3: 1766 CE; 1: 1779 CE. The Durrani ruled from the sparsely populated and rural Pashtun region of Afghanistan. As such, the settlement hierarchy was inverse to the majority of empires in that the large populated cities were underneath the power of a much smaller and extractive rural elite. After the death of the first Shah, internal conflict meant that effective control was limited to the city of Kabul and the surrounding countryside. [1]
1766 CE
1. Kandahār(capital)
2. Provincial capitals (Sind, Punjab, Kashmir, Khosasan, Turkistan)
3. towns
4. Villages
1779 CE
1. Kabul

[1]: Barfield, Thomas. Afghanistan: a cultural and political history. Princeton University Press, 2010. pp. 97-109


Religious Level:
[1 to 2]

1. Caliphate
2. All Muslims
In theory the Caliphate and governors were the head of the Sunni faith, but in practice local religious scholars (ulama) attracted the wider populace as definers of doctrine. Unlike the Orthodox or Catholic faith, the structure of the Islamic faiths were not clearly hierarchical as all were theoretically equal before Allah. [1]
1. Ruler
2. Imam

[1]: Lapidus 2002, p. 82, p. 215


Military Level:
4

The Army of the Durrani was organized under a hierarchical tribal confederacy. One third were regular troops largely made up of cavalry and some supporting artillery, with the remaining two thirds made up of irregular seasonal troops serving for a campaign. The standing army hierarchy is reflected below. They were paid in cash or with military fiefs in the rich provinces in India. Irregular troops were raised via a coercive levy imposed on subjected tribes, districts and chieftains, and these areas were required to equip the troops themselves. [1]
1. Shah
2. Tribal commanders
3. Permanent soldiers (cavalry and artillery)
4. Irregular seasonal levies (calvary and infantry)
The Army of the Durrani was organized under a hierarchical tribal confederacy. one third were regular troops largely made up of cavalry and some supporting artillery, with the remaining two thirds made up of seasonal irregulars serving for a campaign. [1]

[1]: Barfield, Thomas, Afghanistan: A Cultural and Political History p. 100


Administrative Level:
5

The Durrani empire was a loose confederation of tribes and principalities that evaded attempts to create or maintain central control. Military service was rewarded with the granting of autonomous land grants called Jegeirs that skimmed up to sixty percent of state revenues, with the remainder going to the maintenance of a large army. The local elites were mantained and largely autonomous if appropriate tribute was paid to the tribal elites. [1]
1. Shah
2. Immediate dynastic family and tribe
3. Tribal chieftains and holders of Jageirs (land grants)
4. Subjugated provincial elites
5. Local administrations of conquered territory

[1]: Brock, Lothar, Hans-Henrik Holm, Georg Sørensen, and Michael Stohl. Fragile states. polity, 2011 comments on the problems of governing such a loose confederation; for a brief look at the decline, see http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/7798/Afghanistan/21395/Nadir-Shah


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

Roughly one in three members of the Durrani military were full time professional fighters. [1]

[1]: Barfield, Thomas, Afghanistan: A Cultural and Political History pp. 98-99


Professional Priesthood:
absent

Sunni Islam did not have the equivalent of a professional priest. The leader of the daily prayers was given a special title and a person widely thought to be learned would be awarded a title of Imam, but this did not connote a hierarchy of belief. Certain originators of judiciary schools were awarded special titles, but these rare individuals were not the equivalent of saints. The increasing fractured nature of Sunni and Shiite religious controversy led to a divergence in the use of titles to members of the umma. In Afghanistan, local practice could be widely divergent from mainstream Islam. [1]

[1]: Lapidus, 2002, pp. 133-155


Professional Military Officer:
present

The founder of the Dynasty himself had originally been the head officer of Nadir Shah’s personal bodyguard and took the four thousand-strong horse cavalry he had commanded with him when he defected to Afghanistan. He also had access to the Turkish Shiite Qizilbash. [1]

[1]: Barfield, Thomas, Afghanistan: A Cultural and Political History pp. 98-99


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

In conquered territories the existing Persian and Indian specialized building were directly annexed into the Durrani empire. See entries of related polities for details. [1]

[1]: Dr. M. P. Singh, Towns, Markets, Mints & Ports in the Mughal Empire (2007)


Merit Promotion:
absent

Military skill and the fluid nature of the hierarchy in jurga meant ranks were very fluid. [1] This doesn’t correspond to regular, institutionalized procedures for promotion based on performance.

[1]: Saikal, Amin, Modern Afghanistan: A struggle for Survival pp. 22-24


Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent

The Duranni empire was based on the accretion of political power with-in a pre-existing authoritarian-tribal rule of the Abdali Pashtuns and the Shah as its unchallenged leader. It was not based on a defined permanent theory of statecraft, but rather a synthesis of of Islamic concepts of kingship. Governance took place in part through a loose council of Durrani Sadozai Chieftans. What short term Administrative post that did exist were given to members of the governing tribes. The Duranni were a nation in arms rather than bureaucrats. [1]

[1]: Saikal, Amin, Modern Afghanistan: A struggle for Survival pp. 22-24


Examination System:
absent

Inferred as the few administrative posts given according to membership of tribes, not merit or examination. [1]

[1]: Saikal, Amin, Modern Afghanistan: A struggle for Survival pp. 22-24


Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent

The code of Patshtunwali was a personal code of honor rather than a formalized code, with justice taking place between clans and individuals. [1]

[1]: Rosman, Abraham, Paula G. Rubel, and Maxine Weisgrau. The tapestry of culture: An introduction to cultural anthropology. Rowman Altamira, 2009. p.349


The Ulama were scholars of Islamic thought who also served as lawyers. [1] Not a specialized function.

[1]: Gommans, Jos JL. The Rise of the Indo-Afghan Empire: C. 1710-1780. Vol. 8. Brill, 1995. pp. 54-55


Formal Legal Code:
present

A legal code was inherited from conquered areas, but it is unclear if this was actually practiced. [1]
Shari’a law functioned at a local level, but an overarching legal structure was not present given the fractured nature of the empire and the focus on coercive extraction. Legal rights seem to have been, like the late Mugals, restricted to Muslims. Unbelievers were to be kept subdued, and be made to pay the traditional poll tax. [2] In legitimizing their conquest, the Durrani seem to have followed the Sunni school of law of maḏāhib. The presence of Shiite practioners in Khorasan seem to have been tolerated. Pitshtunwali, a legal and moral code that determines social order and responsibilities in Pashtun culture was at odds with the formalized Islamic code, having existed before the islamic conquest of the 7th century and enduring to the present day in the Pashtun border regions. [3]

[1]: Black, Antony. The History of Islamic Political Thought: From the Prophet to the Present. Edinburgh University Press, 2011. pp. 252-255

[2]: Black, Antony. The History of Islamic Political Thought: From the Prophet to the Present. Edinburgh University Press, 2011. p. 54

[3]: Gommans, Jos J.L. The Rise of the Indo-Afghan Empire: C. 1710-1780. Vol. 8. Brill, 1995. p. 54


There were no courts under Patshtunwali, rather ’justice’ took place outside of a formalized structure. [1]

[1]: Rosman, Abraham, Paula G. Rubel, and Maxine Weisgrau. The tapestry of culture: An introduction to cultural anthropology. Rowman Altamira, 2009. p.349


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Kandarhar was an important market city. [1]

[1]: Noelle, Christine. State and Tribe in Nineteenth-Century Afghanistan: The Reign of Amir Dost Muhammad Khan, 1826-1863. Psychology Press, 1997.


Irrigation System:
present

Taxes were used to maintain a vital irrigation network in the southern part of Afganistan. Furthermore, existing networks of irrigation were present in conquered areas. [1]

[1]: Noelle, Christine. State and Tribe in Nineteenth-Century Afghanistan: The Reign of Amir Dost Muhammad Khan, 1826-1863. Psychology Press, 1997.


Food Storage Site:
present

Granaries and chaff storage were present for cavalry forces. [1]

[1]: Noelle, Christine. State and Tribe in Nineteenth-Century Afghanistan: The Reign of Amir Dost Muhammad Khan, 1826-1863. Psychology Press, 1997.


Drinking Water Supply System:
absent

wells, inferred.


Transport Infrastructure

The Duranni ’state’ was not in a position to maintain infrastructure. It was a very loose institution. What maintenance or road building that was done was at the local level. In areas that were conquered these assets had been maintained by the previous state in areas like the Sind and India. [1]

[1]: Noelle, Christine. State and Tribe in Nineteenth-Century Afghanistan: The Reign of Amir Dost Muhammad Khan, 1826-1863. Psychology Press, 1997. section 4 , Dost Muhammed Khan’s Occupation of Qandahar and His Administration source is unpaginated.





Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

e.g. tribute tabulations and tax receipts. Or the commercial records kept by the Hindkis merchants. [1]

[1]: Hanifi, Shah Mahmoud. Connecting Histories in Afghanistan: Market Relations and State Formation on a Colonial Frontier. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2011, p.37.


Script:
present

Persian [1]

[1]: Spooner, Brian, and William L. Hanaway, eds. Literacy in the Persianate World: Writing and the Social Order. Univ of Pennsylvania Press, 2012. p. x


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

Persian is a phonetic language. [1]

[1]: Samare, Y. "Phonetics in Persian language." Tehran: Nashre Daneshgahi (1989).


Nonwritten Record:
unknown

e.g. tribute tabulations and tax receipts. Or the commercial records kept by the Hindkis merchants. [1]

[1]: Hanifi, Shah Mahmoud. Connecting Histories in Afghanistan: Market Relations and State Formation on a Colonial Frontier. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2011, p.37.



Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Sacred Text:
present

The Qu’ran [1]

[1]: McAuliffe, Jane Dammen, ed. The cambridge companion to the qur’an. Cambridge University Press, 2006.


Religious Literature:
present

The Ulaman, or religious scholars, were producing religious texts in Persian, Arabic and local dialects. [1]

[1]: Rahman, Tariq. "Islamic texts in the indigenous languages of Pakistan." Islamic studies 40, no. 1 (2001): 25-48.


Practical Literature:
present

In the sense of textbooks giving instructions to ordinary people on how to perform rituals and daily prayers. [1]

[1]: "Islamic texts in the indigenous languages of Pakistan." Islamic studies 40, no. 1 (2001): 25-48.


Philosophy:
present

Makhzan al-Isldm contains discussions of the reality of the phenomenal world. [1]

[1]: Islamic texts in the indigenous languages of Pakistan." Islamic studies 40, no. 1 (2001): 31.


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

These included tribute tabulations and tax receipts from India.


History:
present

Tarkikh-i Ahmad Shahi, a historical work. [1]

[1]: Spooner, Brian, and William L. Hanaway, eds. Literacy in the Persianate World:Writing and the Social Order. Univ of Pennsylvania Press, 2012. p. 244


Fiction:
present

Love poetry and romantic stories were present in written and oral form. [1]

[1]: "Islamic texts in the indigenous languages of Pakistan." Islamic studies 40, no. 1 (2001): 25-48.


Calendar:
present

The Lunar Arabic Calendar was used, although it had Pashtun replacements of some terminology. [1]

[1]: K. Ferdinand, Preliminary Notes on Hazāra Culture, Hist. Filos. Medd. Dan. Vid. Selsk. 37, no. 5, Copenhagen, 1959, esp. Appendix I, pp. 40-46.


Information / Money

[1]

[1]: Hanifi, Shah. Connecting Histories in Afghanistan: Market Relations and State Formation on a Colonial Frontier. Stanford University Press, 2011. pp. 44-54


Paper Currency:
present

Bills of exchange in Multan called hundi chalan. [1]

[1]: Hanifi, Shah. Connecting Histories in Afghanistan: Market Relations and State Formation on a Colonial Frontier. Stanford University Press, 2011. pp. 44-54


Indigenous Coin:
present

The coins produced at mints in the Durrani empire. [1]

[1]: Hanifi, Shah. Connecting Histories in Afghanistan: Market Relations and State Formation on a Colonial Frontier. Stanford University Press, 2011. pp. 44-54


Foreign Coin:
present

At least eight currencies were being circulated in the region [1]

[1]: Hanifi, Shah. Connecting Histories in Afghanistan: Market Relations and State Formation on a Colonial Frontier. Stanford University Press, 2011. pp. 44-54


Article:
present

[1] The Durrani empire produced coins at a number of mints in territories conquered during the initial expansion. Coins made of copper, gold, and silver were issued in Kandahar, Kabul, Peshawar, Attock, Dera Ghazi Khan, Multan, Sind, Lahore, and other regions in the local mints, leading to a wide dispersal of coinage. Multan served as a regional trade centre, with trade links between Afghanistan and the North, and links to access Chinese silk and caravans of indigo. [1]

[1]: Hanifi, Shah. Connecting Histories in Afghanistan: Market Relations and State Formation on a Colonial Frontier. Stanford University Press, 2011. pp. 44-54


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
absent

State was not providing either postal stations or a general postal service.


General Postal Service:
absent

State was not providing either postal stations or a general postal service.


Courier:
present

[1] Individual merchants may have had more advanced message capacities, but the state was not providing either postal stations or a general postal service.

[1]: Gommans, Jos JL. The Rise of the Indo-Afghan Empire: C. 1710-1780. p. 81


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
unknown

Mud brick palisades protected both private dwellings and larger communities. The lands conquered by the Durrani empire had long traditions of fortifications and modern fortifications were present in the Sind and Persia. [1]

[1]: Roy, Kaushik. War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740-1849. Taylor & Francis, 2011. pp. 37-45



Stone Walls Mortared:
present

Stone used in fortifications. [1] "Built on the grand scale by Ahmad Shah Durrani - the dashing young cavalryman who founded the great Durrani Empire - with huge walls surrounded by a moat and pierced by six massive gates, Kandahar was designed to impress the approaching traveller, friend or foe. The walls were pulled down in the 1940s..." [2]

[1]: Roy, Kaushik. War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740-1849. Taylor & Francis, 2011. pp. 30-35

[2]: (Gall 2012, 19) Sandy Gall. 2012. War Against the Taliban: Why It All Went Wrong in Afghanistan. Bloomsbury. London.



Modern Fortification:
present

[1]

[1]: Roy, Kaushik. War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740-1849. Taylor & Francis, 2011. pp. 30-35


"Built on the grand scale by Ahmad Shah Durrani - the dashing young cavalryman who founded the great Durrani Empire - with huge walls surrounded by a moat and pierced by six massive gates, Kandahar was designed to impress the approaching traveller, friend or foe. The walls were pulled down in the 1940s..." [1] Inferred because this is not a specialist source.

[1]: (Gall 2012, 19) Sandy Gall. 2012. War Against the Taliban: Why It All Went Wrong in Afghanistan. Bloomsbury. London.


Fortified Camp:
present

Armies did fortify their camps in this period. [1]

[1]: Roy, Kaushik. War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740-1849. Taylor & Francis, 2011. pp. 30-35


Earth Rampart:
present

The mud brick palisades used to defend smaller settlements. [1]

[1]: Roy, Kaushik. War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740-1849. Taylor & Francis, 2011. pp. 30-35



Complex Fortification:
present

The Citadel of Herat ’سکندرۍ کلا’ [1]

[1]: Alikuzai, Hamid Wahed. A Concise History of Afghanistan in 25 Volumes. Trafford Publishing. pp. 41-45



Military use of Metals

Steel used for armour. [1]

[1]: Roy, Kaushik. War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740-1849. Taylor & Francis, 2011. pp. 30-35


[1]

[1]: Roy, Kaushik. War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740-1849. Taylor & Francis, 2011. pp. 30-35


Copper:
present

Inferred from the presence of higher metals.


Bronze:
present

Inferred from the presence of higher metals.


Projectiles


[1]

[1]: J. Hanway, An Historical Account of the British Trade over the Caspian Sea, 4 vols., London, 1753 p. 252-4


Self Bow:
present

Uzbek contingents and others tribal groups equipped with bows. [1]

[1]: J. Hanway, An Historical Account of the British Trade over the Caspian Sea, 4 vols., London, 1753 p. 252-4


Javelin:
present

Uzbek contingents and others tribal groups equipped with spears. [1] The Durrani was a gunpowder empire. The other weapons listed below were available, but not a major component to battle. The Persian influx of ḵompāra pistols, the tapānča and żarbza cannons, the bādlīj and ṣaff-pūzan show the presence of antiquated firearms by European standards, but these weapons were sufficient for conquest in the region. High quality firearms were also taken from the Sind and Mughal territories. However, common soldiers and levies could be equipped with the small caliber Snaphance hunting rifle or more primitive arms. Uzbek contingents and others tribal groups went into battle equipped with spears, battle axes, bows and arrows, or a single pistol during the period. [1]

[1]: J. Hanway, An Historical Account of the British Trade over the Caspian Sea, 4 vols., London, 1753 p. 252-4


Handheld Firearm:
present

Primarily matchlocks, made in Kabul, the Sind and other areas. Domestic manufacture was possible, as well as importation of barrels from Constantinople. [1] The elite corps brought in from Persia by the founding Shah of the Durrani were equipped with flintlocks, as the wakīl personal body guard were armed with flintlocks. [2]

[1]: Elgood, Robert, ed. Firearms of the Islamic World: In the Tared Rajab Museum, Kuwait. IB Tauris Publishers, 1995. p. 161-181

[2]: J. Perry, Karim Khan Zand: A History of Iran, 1747-1779, Chicago, 1979. p. 280


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present

The Durrani utilized artillery in both siege craft and open battle. [1]

[1]: Indian Warfare and Afghan Innovation During the Eighteenth Century Studies in History August 1995 11: 261-280


Crossbow:
present

[1]

[1]: J. Hanway, An Historical Account of the British Trade over the Caspian Sea, 4 vols., London, 1753 p. 252-4


Composite Bow:
present

Uzbek contingents and others tribal groups equipped with bows, whic would have been compound bows. [1]

[1]: J. Hanway, An Historical Account of the British Trade over the Caspian Sea, 4 vols., London, 1753 p. 252-4


Atlatl:
absent

new world weapon


Handheld weapons

At Panipat 1761 CE the Afghans and Mahrattas "fought on both sides with spears, swords, battle-axes, and even daggers". [1]

[1]: (Egerton 2002, 28-29) Lord Egerton of Tatton. 2002 (1896). Indian and Oriental Arms and Armour. Dover Publications, Inc. Mineola.


At Panipat 1761 CE the Afghans and Mahrattas "fought on both sides with spears, swords, battle-axes, and even daggers". [1]

[1]: (Egerton 2002, 28-29) Lord Egerton of Tatton. 2002 (1896). Indian and Oriental Arms and Armour. Dover Publications, Inc. Mineola.



Dagger:
present

At Panipat 1761 CE the Afghans and Mahrattas "fought on both sides with spears, swords, battle-axes, and even daggers". [1]

[1]: (Egerton 2002, 28-29) Lord Egerton of Tatton. 2002 (1896). Indian and Oriental Arms and Armour. Dover Publications, Inc. Mineola.


Battle Axe:
present

At Panipat 1761 CE the Afghans and Mahrattas "fought on both sides with spears, swords, battle-axes, and even daggers". [1]

[1]: (Egerton 2002, 28-29) Lord Egerton of Tatton. 2002 (1896). Indian and Oriental Arms and Armour. Dover Publications, Inc. Mineola.


Animals used in warfare

[1] The Durrani state was an empire sustained and governed through the maintenance of a large number of armed horseman primarily recruited from the Pashtun peoples, a diverse group of ethnic groups linked through the use of the Pashto language. [2] Quick conquest in the period of 1747 CE-1752 CE added Turkmen, Uzbek, Tajik, and Hazara tribes to the growing number of horsemen in the King’s army. [2]

[1]: Indian Warfare and Afghan Innovation During the Eighteenth Century Studies in History August 1995 11: 261-280

[2]: Runion, Meredith L. The history of Afghanistan. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007.pp. 69-73


Donkey:
present

Actually Mules, a crossbreed between a donkey and a horse. [1]

[1]: Hanifi, Shah. Connecting Histories in Afghanistan: Market Relations and State Formation on a Colonial Frontier. Stanford University Press, 2011. pp. 44-54



zanbūrak (little bee), was a type of swivel gun mounted on the back of a camel (Plate I). Zanbūraks were often fired from a kneeling camel, but could be employed from a trotting one as well [1] Two musketeers armed with zamburaq (swivel gun) were mounted on the back of a camels. More often, shutrnals (what were they?) were mounted on camels. [2]

[1]: A. Dupré, Voyage en Perse fait dans les années 1807, 1808, 1809, en traversant la Natolie [sic] et la Mésopotamie, 2 vols., Paris, 1819. p. 297

[2]: (Egerton 2002, 28-29) Lord Egerton of Tatton. 2002 (1896). Indian and Oriental Arms and Armour. Dover Publications, Inc. Mineola.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

e.g. for shields. [1] From the late seventeenth century all armies in the region used varying amounts of personal protection. The infantry were armed with swords, spears and matchlocks, whereas the cavalry was equipped with steel Armour and steel armour. Plate was increasingly replaced with chain-mail and armoured helmets and was available for purchase of as booty. Poorer tribesmen would have been armored with looted materials or the cloth turbans and clothes on their backs. [2]

[1]: Roy, Kaushik. War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740-1849. Taylor & Francis, 2011. pp. 30-35

[2]: Roy, Kaushik. War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740-1849. Taylor & Francis, 2011. p.


Shield:
present

Shields in use by some soldiers. [1]

[1]: Roy, Kaushik. War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740-1849. Taylor & Francis, 2011. pp. 30-35


Scaled Armor:
present

Worn by cavalry. [1]

[1]: Roy, Kaushik. War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740-1849. Taylor & Francis, 2011. pp. 30-35


Plate Armor:
present

Worn by cavalry. [1]

[1]: Roy, Kaushik. War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740-1849. Taylor & Francis, 2011. pp. 30-35


Limb Protection:
present

Worn by cavalry. [1]

[1]: Roy, Kaushik. War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740-1849. Taylor & Francis, 2011. pp. 30-35


Leather Cloth:
present

e.g. for shields. [1]

[1]: Roy, Kaushik. War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740-1849. Taylor & Francis, 2011. pp. 30-35


Laminar Armor:
present

Worn by cavalry. [1]

[1]: Roy, Kaushik. War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740-1849. Taylor & Francis, 2011. pp. 30-35


Helmet:
present

Armoured helmets worn by cavalry. [1]

[1]: Roy, Kaushik. War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740-1849. Taylor & Francis, 2011. pp. 30-35


Breastplate:
present

Worn by cavalry. [1]

[1]: Roy, Kaushik. War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740-1849. Taylor & Francis, 2011. pp. 30-35


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

As the Durrani were a land based power, coded absent. [1]

[1]: Roy, Kaushik. War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740-1849. Taylor & Francis, 2011. pp. 30-35


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

The Durrani were a land based power, at most using river craft for logistical purposes. [1] As the Durrani were a land based power, coded absent. [2]

[1]: Indian Warfare and Afghan Innovation During the Eighteenth Century Studies in History August 1995 11: 261-280

[2]: Roy, Kaushik. War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740-1849. Taylor & Francis, 2011. pp. 30-35


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent

As the Durrani were a land based power, coded absent. [1]

[1]: Roy, Kaushik. War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740-1849. Taylor & Francis, 2011. pp. 30-35



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.