Home Region:  Anatolia-Caucasus (Southwest Asia)

Phrygian Kingdom

EQ 2020  tr_phrygian_k / TrPhryg

The Phrygian Kingdom (c900-695 BCE) came into existence after the migration of a people to Anatolia in the early Iron Age, after the fall of the Hittite Empire. [1] The name the people called themselves is unknown because there are no Phrygian sources telling us about it. ’Phrygian’ is a Greek name while Assyrian texts refer to a Muški kingdom [2] "a fierce, aggressive, tribal people" who could be a separate people or a people who formed a union with the Phrygians in the 8th century. [3] The kingdom’s most developed phase occurred under king Midas who ruled from the city of Gordium in the late 8th century. [4]
We cannot say much about the organization of Phrygia at its peak development except that it was a monarchy that ruled from Gordium, a town of perhaps 20,000 inhabitants. The capital of Midas’s hypothesized Mushki-Phrygian union is assumed to have been named after Midas’s father. Earlier names in the dynasty are unknown. [4] Archaeologist know of three political documents but have not been able to decipher them. The Phrygian language is not known, and its similarity to Greek languages has only allowed for fragments of texts to be understood.
While we nothing about a central (palace based?) administration that may have been present archaeologists believe that other cities in Phrygia had their own governments [5] and a great deal of autonomy. [5] The biggest cities had governors. [5]
The beginning date for the Phrygian period is somewhat arbitrary, based on archaeological records. The end of the Phrygian period, however, is clearly marked by a conquest - it is the year when the Phrygian Kingdom was conquered by the Lydian Kingdom, which de facto put an end to the existence of the Phrygian period.

[1]: (Bryce 2002, 39-40) T Bryce. 2002. ‘’Life and Society in the Hittite World’’. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[2]: (Roller 2011, 563) L Roller. 2011. "Phrygian and the Phrygians" Oxford Handbook of Ancien Anatolia

[3]: (Bryce 2002, 40)

[4]: (Bryce 2002, 41) T Bryce. 2002. ‘’Life and Society in the Hittite World’’. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[5]: (Atasoy 1982, 158) Buluç E A Atasoy. 1982. "Metallurgical and Archaeological Examination of Phrygian Objects". Anatolian Studies. Vol. 32.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
36 S  
Original Name:
Phrygian Kingdom  
Capital:
Gordion  
Alternative Name:
Phrygie  
Frygia  
Muski  
Phrygien  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[738 BCE ➜ 696 BCE]  
Duration:
[900 BCE ➜ 695 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]  
Succeeding Entity:
Konya Plain - Cimmerian Period  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Tabal Kingdoms  
Degree of Centralization:
loose  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
Phrygian  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Phrygian Religions  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[15,000 to 20,000] people  
Polity Territory:
100,000 km2  
Polity Population:
[1,000,000 to 1,500,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3  
Religious Level:
[1 to 3]  
Military Level:
4  
Administrative Level:
[4 to 5]  
Professions
Professional Priesthood:
unknown  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown  
Merit Promotion:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
unknown  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
inferred present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Canal:
unknown  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
inferred present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
inferred present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
inferred present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
unknown  
Sacred Text:
unknown  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
unknown  
Lists Tables and Classification:
inferred present  
History:
unknown  
Fiction:
unknown  
Calendar:
inferred present  
Information / Money
Paper Currency:
unknown  
Indigenous Coin:
unknown  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
present  
  Long Wall:
7 km  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
inferred present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
inferred present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
unknown  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
inferred present  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
present  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
unknown  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
unknown  
  Scaled Armor:
present  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
unknown  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
unknown  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Phrygian Kingdom (tr_phrygian_k) was in:
 (836 BCE 696 BCE)   Konya Plain
Home NGA: Konya Plain

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Phrygian Kingdom

Phrygian is a Greek name and name of kingdom Muški appeared in Assyrian texts [1] . Original name is unknown because there is no Phrygian sources telling about it.

[1]: Roller, L., "Phrygian and the Phrygians" Oxford Handbook of Ancien Anatolia (2011):563


Capital:
Gordion

Capital of Midas’s kingdom (Mushki-Phrygian union) at Gordium, assumed to have been named after Midas’s father. Earlier names are unknown. [1]

[1]: (Bryce 2002, 41)


Alternative Name:
Phrygie

... this is not machine readable.

Alternative Name:
Frygia

... this is not machine readable.

Alternative Name:
Muski

... this is not machine readable.

Alternative Name:
Phrygien

... this is not machine readable.


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[738 BCE ➜ 696 BCE]

The period when the king of Phrygia was Midas. It is the period when Assyrian sources tell about this kingdom, and Phrygia won the war against Assyria [1] . "Like the kingdom over which it ruled, Gordium reached the peak of its development during Midas’s reign." [2]

[1]: Ziółkowski, A., 2009, General History: Antiquity, pg:348

[2]: (Bryce 2002, 41)


Duration:
[900 BCE ➜ 695 BCE]

"The New Chronology of Iron Age Gordion argues that the history and archaeology of the site of Gordion, in central Turkey, have been misunderstood since the beginning of its excavation in the 1950s. The first excavation director, Rodney Young, found evidence for substantial destruction during the first decade of fieldwork; this was interpreted as proof that Gordion had been destroyed ca. 700 B.C. by the Kimmerians, a group of invaders from the Caucusus/Black Sea region, as attested in several ancient literary sources. During the last decade, however, renewed research on the archaeological evidence, within, above, and below the destruction level indicated that the catastrophe that destroyed much of Gordion occurred 100 years earlier, in 800 B.C., and was the result of a fire that quickly got out of control rather than a foreign invasion." [1]
"According to Greek tradition, the earliest Phrygians were immigrants from Macedon and Thrace. ... In all probability, the references to the Phrygians in the Iliad are anachronistic. The arrival of this people in Anatolia almost certainly dates to the early Iron Age, to the decade immediately following the Hittite kingdom’s collapse early in the 12th century. ... Probably by the end of the millennium, a Phrygian state had begun to evolve." [2]
From the beginning of Early Phrygian period, according to Gordion stratigraphy [3] , to the conquest by Lydian Kingdom [4] .
Conquest by Lydia after Gordion sacked by Cimmerians 695 BCE.
695 BCE: sacked by Cimmerians. Then subject to Lydia. Not a Neo-Hittite state.

[1]: (Publisher’s monograph) C Brian Rose. Gareth Darbyshire. Eds. 2011. The New Chronology of Iron Age Gordion (Gordion Special Studies). University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.

[2]: (Bryce 2002, 39-40)

[3]: Voigt, M., "Gordion: the Changing Political and Economic Roles of a First Millenium B.C.E. City" Oxford Handbook of Ancien Anatolia (2011), pg:1075

[4]: Ziółkowski, A., 2009, General History: Antiquity, pg:351


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]

Alliance
"union between the Phrygians and an eastern Anatolian people called the Mushki. ... a fierce, aggressive, tribal people..." Not all scholars agree there was a union "But the balance of scholarly opinion favours the assumption of a united Mushki-Phrygian kingdom, formed some time in the 8th century." [1]

[1]: (Bryce 2002, 40)


Succeeding Entity:
Konya Plain - Cimmerian Period

Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

"According to Greek tradition, the earliest Phrygians were immigrants from Macedon and Thrace. ... In all probability, the references to the Phrygians in the Iliad are anachronistic. The arrival of this people in Anatolia almost certainly dates to the early Iron Age, to the decade immediately following the Hittite kingdom’s collapse early in the 12th century. ... Probably by the end of the millennium, a Phrygian state had begun to evolve." [1]

[1]: (Bryce 2002, 39-40)


Preceding Entity:
Tabal Kingdoms

"According to Greek tradition, the earliest Phrygians were immigrants from Macedon and Thrace. ... In all probability, the references to the Phrygians in the Iliad are anachronistic. The arrival of this people in Anatolia almost certainly dates to the early Iron Age, to the decade immediately following the Hittite kingdom’s collapse early in the 12th century. ... Probably by the end of the millennium, a Phrygian state had begun to evolve." [1]

[1]: (Bryce 2002, 39-40)


Degree of Centralization:
loose

Cities had autonomy, however they stayed in Phrygian Kingdom [1] .

[1]: Atasoy, E., S. Buluç, 1982, "Metallurgical and Archaeological Examination of Phrygian Objects", Anatolian Studies, Vol. 32, pg:158


Language

Language:
Phrygian

Indo-European language family, uses Greek alphabetic script [1] . Phrygian language. Indo-European. [2]

[1]: Roller, L., "Phrygian and the Phrygians" Oxford Handbook of Ancien Anatolia (2011)pg:565

[2]: (Bryce 2002, 42)


Religion



Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[15,000 to 20,000] people

Gordion. 100 ha * 200 per ha is 20,000.
Gordion: total settlement area at peak (eighth century BCE) 1 km2. [1]

[1]: (Voigt 2011, 1070) Voigt, Mary M. in Steadman, Sharon R. McMahon, Gregory. eds. 2011. The Oxord Handbook of Ancient Anatolia. Oxford University Press.


Polity Territory:
100,000 km2

squared kilometers. It is a hypothetical number calculated from the map of Phrygia.


Polity Population:
[1,000,000 to 1,500,000] people

By 500 BC, Turkey contained 3 million Phyrgians and Neo-Hittites (Lydians, Carians). [1]

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 133) McEvedy, Colin. Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd. London.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3

1. Capital
2. Town3.
The number of settlements and their sizes are unknown. We can just identify two big cities (Gordion, Ankyra), and some other sites with Phrygian layers, but their function in settlement net is unknown [1] .

[1]: Atasoy, E., S. Buluç, 1982, "Metallurgical and Archaeological Examination of Phrygian Objects", Anatolian Studies, Vol. 32, pg:158


Religious Level:
[1 to 3]

1.
2.3.
We do not know a lot about the cult and we know nothing about its organisation [1] .

[1]: Berndt-Ersöz, S., 1998, “Phrygian Rock-Cut Cult Façades: A Study of the Function of the So-Called Shaft Monuments”, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 48, pg:92-94


Military Level:
4

Likely had at the least king - commander - officer - individual soldier.


Administrative Level:
[4 to 5]

1. King
2. Central administration?3.4.
2. Governors of biggest cities [1] .3. Local governmentThere was a king in Gordion, and the other cities had local authorities and governments [1]
4.5.

[1]: Atasoy, E., S. Buluç, 1982, "Metallurgical and Archaeological Examination of Phrygian Objects", Anatolian Studies, Vol. 32, pg:158


Professions

Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown

There was a king in Gordion, and the other cities had local authorities and governments, [1] but this does not necessarily mean there were specialized government buildings.

[1]: Atasoy, E., S. Buluç, 1982, "Metallurgical and Archaeological Examination of Phrygian Objects", Anatolian Studies, Vol. 32, pg:158



Full Time Bureaucrat:
unknown

There was a king in Gordion, and the other cities had local authorities and governments, [1] but this does not necessarily mean there were full-time bureaucrats.

[1]: Atasoy, E., S. Buluç, 1982, "Metallurgical and Archaeological Examination of Phrygian Objects", Anatolian Studies, Vol. 32, pg:158



Law
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Irrigation System:
present

Known from Gordion economy [1] .

[1]: Miller, N., M. Zeder, S. Arter, 2009, From Food and Fuel to Farms and Flocks: The Integration of Plant and Animal Remains in the Study of the Agropastoral Economy at Gordion, Turkey, Current Anthropology, Vol. 50, No 6, p:921


Food Storage Site:
present

at Gordion?


Transport Infrastructure

Road conducted to Gordion [1] .

[1]: Voigt, M., R. Henrickson, 2000, “Reviewed Formation of the Phrygian State: The Early Iron Age at Gordion”, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 50, pg:48



Bridge:
present

Bridges known near the capital city [1] .

[1]: Voigt, M., R. Henrickson, 2000, “Reviewed Formation of the Phrygian State: The Early Iron Age at Gordion”, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 50, pg:49


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

Rock-cut shrines [1] .

[1]: Berndt-Ersöz, S., 1998, “Phrygian Rock-Cut Cult Façades: A Study of the Function of the So-Called Shaft Monuments”, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 48, pg:87-107


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

[1]

[1]: Roller, L., "Phrygian and the Phrygians" Oxford Handbook of Ancien Anatolia (2011)pg:565-568


Script:
present

Greek alphabetic script [1]

[1]: Roller, L., "Phrygian and the Phrygians" Oxford Handbook of Ancien Anatolia (2011)pg:565


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

They used the Greek alphabet [1] .

[1]: Roller, L., "Phrygian and the Phrygians" Oxford Handbook of Ancien Anatolia (2011)pg:565


Nonwritten Record:
present

[1]

[1]: Roller, L., "Phrygian and the Phrygians" Oxford Handbook of Ancien Anatolia (2011)pg:565-568


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

Greek alphabetic [1] .

[1]: Roller, L., "Phrygian and the Phrygians" Oxford Handbook of Ancien Anatolia (2011)pg:565


Information / Kinds of Written Documents


Religious Literature:
present

Dedication to Matar [1] Votive inscriptions [1]

[1]: Roller, L., "Phrygian and the Phrygians" Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia (2011)pg:566


Practical Literature:
present

Political documents, epitaphs [1]

[1]: Roller, L., "Phrygian and the Phrygians" Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia (2011)pg:566



Lists Tables and Classification:
present

literacy + government




Calendar:
present

literacy + government


Information / Money


Article:
present

Elites took taxes by goods [1] .

[1]: Roller, L., "Phrygian and the Phrygians" Oxford Handbook of Ancien Anatolia (2011)pg:562


Information / Postal System


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications

Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present

Urartu’s craftsmen used iron picks and hammers to forge horizontal planes out of bedrock on which to erect the empire’s numerous and imposing stone fortresses. [1] ‘Brian Rose provided a better definition of the walled Lower Town to the south of the Citadel and confirmed the presence of a similar area to the north that had been suspected based on massive stone walls in the Sakarya River bed’ [2]

[1]: Lori Khatchadourian, ‘The Iron Age in Eastern Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 480

[2]: Mary M. Voigt, ‘Gordion: The Changing Political and Economic Roles of a First Millennium B.C.E. City’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 1074


Stone Walls Mortared:
absent

Around the citadel in Gordion, but stone walls appear to have been shaped with iron picks and hammers rather than mortar. [1] .

[1]: DeVries, K., 1993, “The Gordion Excavation Seasons of 1969-1973 and Subsequent Research”, American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 94, No. 3, pg:374


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

A citadel in Gordion [1] .

[1]: DeVries, K., 1993, “The Gordion Excavation Seasons of 1969-1973 and Subsequent Research”, American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 94, No. 3, pg:374


Modern Fortification:
absent

Cannon equipped reinforced star forts are not yet in use


not mentioned in the literature



Earth Rampart:
present

Yassıhöyük ‘To the northwest of the Citadel lies a large Outer Town partially or completely enclosed by an earth rampart.’ [1]

[1]: Mary M. Voigt, ‘Gordion: The Changing Political and Economic Roles of a First Millennium B.C.E. City’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 1070


not mentioned in the literature


Complex Fortification:
present

Citadel in Gordion.



Military use of Metals

Not known to have been in use here yet


iron swords have been uncovered in Anatolia during this time [1]

[1]: Altan Çilingiroğlu, ‘Ayanis: An Iron age Site in the East’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 1060


Copper:
present

used in bronze


Bronze:
present

bronze swords have been uncovered in Anatolia during this time [1]

[1]: Altan Çilingiroğlu, ‘Ayanis: An Iron age Site in the East’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 1060


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

In Anatolia siege warfare was mentioned in Old Hittite records. [1] Presumably at this time the catapult was not used? In India, according to Jain texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone". [2] Marsden (1969) said archaeological records exist before the 4th century BCE. [3] The Achaemenids (c400 BCE?) are assumed to have had the catapult because the Macedonians did. [4] Pollard and Berry (2012) say torsion catapults first came into widespread use in the Hellenistic period 4th - 1st centuries BCE. [5] The Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE which encouraged the development of large tension-powered weapons. [6] There is no direct evidence for catapults for this time/location. The aforementioned evidence we currently have covering the wider ancient world suggests they were probably not used at this time, perhaps because effective machines had not been invented yet.

[1]: Siegelova I. and H. Tsumoto (2011) Metals and Metallurgy in Hittite Anatolia, pp. 278 [In:] H. Genz and D. P. Mielke (ed.) Insights Into Hittite History And Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven, Paris, Walpole MA: PEETERS, pp. 275-300

[2]: (Singh 2008, 272) Upinder Singh. 2008. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Longman. Delhi.

[3]: (Marsden 1969, 5, 16, 66.) Marsden, E. W. 1969. Greek and Roman Artillery: The Historical Development. Toronto: Oxford University Press.

[4]: (Dandamaev 1989, 314) Dandamaev, M A. 1989. A Political History of the Achaemenid Empire. Brill.

[5]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 45) Pollard, N, Berry, J (2012) The Complete Roman Legions, Thames and Hudson, London Rives, J (2006) Religion in the Roman Empire, Wiley

[6]: (Keyser and Irby-Massie 2006, 260) Paul T Keyser. Georgia Irby-Massie. Science, Medicine, And Technology. Glenn R Bugh. ed. 2006. The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

The counter-weight trebuchet was first used by the Byzantines in 1165 CE.



Self Bow:
present

Known from Phrygian drawings [1] . ‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region. [2]

[1]: Roller, L., 1999, “Early Phrygian Drawings from Gordion and the Elements of Phrygian Artistic Style”, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 49, pg:145

[2]: Lori Khatchadourian, ‘The Iron Age in Eastern Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 480


Javelin:
present

Gaebel (referring to New Kingdom Hittites) thinks it is "probable that the Hittite chariots carried javelin throwers and archers." [1] We currently have no closer reference than this, except for Lydia which follows.

[1]: (Gaebel 2002, 37) Robert E Gaebel. 2002. Cavalry Operations in the Ancient Greek World. University of Oklahoma Press. Norman.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

Not invented yet


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Not invented yet


Crossbow:
absent

Not invented yet


Composite Bow:
present

"Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders." [1]

[1]: Sergey A Nefedov, RAN Institute of History and Archaeology, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. January 2018.


weapon of the Americas


Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

Present, but appear only in the context of hunting [1] .

[1]: Roller, L., 1999, “Early Phrygian Drawings from Gordion and the Elements of Phrygian Artistic Style”, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 49, pg:145


Known from Phrygian drawings. [1] . ‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region. [2] "All armies after the seventeenth century B.C.E. carried the sword, but in none was it a major weapon of close combat; rather, it was used when the soldier’s primary weapons, the spear and axe, were lost or broken." [3]

[1]: Roller, L., 1999, “Early Phrygian Drawings from Gordion and the Elements of Phrygian Artistic Style”, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 49, pg:145

[2]: Lori Khatchadourian, ‘The Iron Age in Eastern Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 480

[3]: (Gabriel 2002, 26-27) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Known from Phrygian drawings. [1] ‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region. [2] Spear-using phalanx first used in Sumer 2500 BCE. The phalanx was in use until the 1st century BCE. [3]

[1]: Roller, L., 1999, “Early Phrygian Drawings from Gordion and the Elements of Phrygian Artistic Style”, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 49, pg:145

[2]: Lori Khatchadourian, ‘The Iron Age in Eastern Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 480

[3]: (Gabriel 2002, 25) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Polearm:
unknown

no record of such weapons


Dagger:
present

‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region. [1]

[1]: Lori Khatchadourian, ‘The Iron Age in Eastern Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 480



Animals used in warfare
Horse:
present

Based on previous polities, it is clear horses were a large part of warfare in the region, particularly chariots


Elephant:
absent

No evidence for use in warfare yet, so I changed the code from unknown to absent


Donkey:
present

use as Pack Animals appears by around 7000 BC onward [1]

[1]: (Leverani 2014, 41) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.


Dogs are known only from drawings depicting hunting [1] .

[1]: Roller, L., 1999, “Early Phrygian Drawings from Gordion and the Elements of Phrygian Artistic Style”, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 49, pg:145


Bactrian Camels’ first used in battle 853 BC by the nearby Assyrians, but no evidence of use in Tabal [1]

[1]: Gabriel, Richard A. (2007). Soldiers’ Lives Through History: The Ancient World. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. xvi


Armor


Scaled Armor:
present

‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region. [1]

[1]: Lori Khatchadourian, ‘The Iron Age in Eastern Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 480


Plate Armor:
absent

Technology not yet available


Limb Protection:
present

Closest reference in Anatolia is the Hittite period. [1] In Greece c1600 BCE: "Early Mycenaean and Minoan charioteers wore an arrangement of bronze armor that almost fully enclosed the soldier, the famous Dendra panoply." [2] Mesopotamia (the Assyrians) c800 BCE?: iron plates used for shin protection. [3]

[1]: Bryce T. (2007) Hittite Warrior, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, pp. 15

[2]: (Gabriel 2007, 78) Richard A Gabriel. 2007. Soldiers’ Lives Through History: The Ancient World. Greenwood Press. Westport.

[3]: (Gabriel and Metz 1991, 51) Richard A Gabriel. Karen S Metz. 1991. The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies. Greenwood Press. Westport.



Laminar Armor:
absent

Technology not yet available


Helmet:
present

Rounded helmet with a high crest [1] . ‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region. [2] Which polity does this quote reference?

[1]: Roller, L., 1999, “Early Phrygian Drawings from Gordion and the Elements of Phrygian Artistic Style”, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 49, pg:146

[2]: Lori Khatchadourian, ‘The Iron Age in Eastern Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 480


Chainmail:
absent

Iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples. [1]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.



Naval technology

Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

boats had been in use for thousands of years in this NGA




Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.