Home Region:  Anatolia-Caucasus (Southwest Asia)

Tabal Kingdoms

EQ 2020  tr_tabal_k / TrTabal

During the 900-730 BCE period the region of the Konya Plain was occupied by small independent states, that likely first evolved during the Neo-Hittite period. After the Assyrian invasion they became tribute-sending states to the Mesopotamian Empire but were otherwise "free to rule their states in whatever manner they wished, without interference from the Assyrian king". [1]
Known as the kingdoms of ’Tabal’, the term an Assyrian administrative designation rather than a political one [2] [2] , there were, according to Assyrian records, 24 of them in the mid-9th century BCE. This number had reduced by the middle of the 8th century, which suggests that the states conquered each other or had otherwise joined together to become larger kingdoms. [3] Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III in the mid-late 8th century listed five tributaries he possessed in Tabal: Tabal, Atuna, Tuhana, Ishtu(a)nda, and Hupishna. [4] Bryce (2012) adds a sixth kingdom to Tabal, Shinuhtu, which is "attested both in Luwian and Assyrian inscriptions dating to the reign of Sargon II. Shinuhtu’s ruler at that time was a man called Kiyakiya (Assyrian Kiakki)." [4]
The best-known Tabalean principality was Tuhana. Its capital was at the city later known as Tyana whose ruins lie in the modern Turkish village of Kemerhisar; here a stela of king Warpalawas was found in 1860. [5]

[1]: (Bryce 2012, 243) T Bryce. 2012. The World of The Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: Competition, and Conflict in a Contested Periphery." in Richardson, Seth. ed. 2010. Rebellions and Peripheries in the Mesopotamian World. American Oriental Series 91. Eisenbrauns. Winona Lake.

[3]: (Bryce 2002, 43) T Bryce. 2002. Life and Society in the Hittite World. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[4]: (Bryce 2012, 141) T Bryce. 2012. The World of The Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[5]: (Radner 2013) Karen Radner. 2013. Tabal and Phrygia: problem neighbours in the West. Assyrian empire builders. University College London http://www.ucl.ac.uk/sargon/essentials/countries/tabalandphrygia/

General Variables
Identity and Location
Original Name:
Tabal Kingdoms  
Capital:
Artulu  
Tyana  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[900 BCE ➜ 730 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
nominal allegiance to [---]  
alliance with [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
Neo-Hittite  
Succeeding Entity:
Assyrian Empire  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Neo-Hittite Kingdoms  
Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
Luwian  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[4,000 to 6,000] km2  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3  
Military Level:
[3 to 4]  
Administrative Level:
[3 to 4]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
unknown  
Professional Military Officer:
unknown  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
unknown  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Transport Infrastructure
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
inferred present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Practical Literature:
unknown  
Lists Tables and Classification:
inferred present  
Information / Money
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
inferred absent  
Foreign Coin:
inferred absent  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Courier:
inferred present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
unknown  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
present  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
inferred present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
inferred present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
unknown  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
unknown  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
inferred present  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
present  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
unknown  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
unknown  
  Scaled Armor:
present  
  Plate Armor:
unknown  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
unknown  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
unknown  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Tabal Kingdoms (tr_tabal_k) was in:
 (900 BCE 837 BCE)   Konya Plain
Home NGA: Konya Plain

General Variables
Identity and Location
Original Name:
Tabal Kingdoms

"The term ’Tabal’ is something of an Assyrian administrative convenience. A regional designator rather than a political one, Tabal encompassed a number of city-states, whose porous, shifting borders no doubt made the generalization expedient." [1] [2] "Beyond the Taurus there was Tabal, a confederation of minor kingdoms, which at times managed to gain independence. All these states were concentrated in the valleys and the plains between the mountains, and were separated from each other by the Taurus Mountains. Therefore, the states were located in key positions, allowing control over cultivated areas, the necessary routes for communication, and access to those natural resources necessary for the manufacture of iron." [3] "Tabal is employed as a blanket designation in an Assyrian administrative note written sometime between 743 and 738 BC, which lists the tribute payments of nine kings of Tabal" [4]

[1]: (Melville 2010, 87-109) Melville, Sarah. "Kings of Tabal: Politics

[2]: Competition, and Conflict in a Contested Periphery." in Richardson, Seth. ed. 2010. Rebellions and Peripheries in the Mesopotamian World. American Oriental Series 91. Eisenbrauns. Winona Lake.

[3]: (Liverani 2014, 451) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.

[4]: Radner, Karen. 2013. Tabal and Phrygia: problem neighbours in the West. Assyrian empire builders. University College London http://www.ucl.ac.uk/sargon/essentials/countries/tabalandphrygia/


Capital:
Artulu

Northern Tabal: "Its capital may have been located on the site of modern Kululu, which lies 30 km north-east of Kayseri." c837 BCE the capital was probably the royal city, Artulu. [1] Tuwana: "Its capital is probably to be identified with Classical Tyana (Kemerhisar), 20 km south-west of modern Nigde, though at one time the royal seat ay have been located at Nahitiya, on the site of Nigde itself." [2]
"Tuhana is the best known of the Tabalean principalities. Its capital of the same name can be safely identified with the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine city of Tyana whose ruins lie in the modern Turkish village of Kemerhisar, south of Nigde, where a stela of king Warpalawas was found in 1860. Rock monuments in nearby Ivriz and Bulgarmaden mention this king of Tuhana, the latter as the overlord of a local ruler. Finds of Luwian inscriptions suggest the region of Kayseri as the location of Bit-Purutaš/Tabal; the site of Kululu, where monuments of a number of kings of Tabal have been found, is the most likely to correspond to its capital." [3]

[1]: (Bryce 2012, 142)

[2]: (Bryce 2012, 148)

[3]: Radner, Karen. 2013. Tabal and Phrygia: problem neighbours in the West. Assyrian empire builders. University College London http://www.ucl.ac.uk/sargon/essentials/countries/tabalandphrygia/

Northern Tabal: "Its capital may have been located on the site of modern Kululu, which lies 30 km north-east of Kayseri." c837 BCE the capital was probably the royal city, Artulu. [1] Tuwana: "Its capital is probably to be identified with Classical Tyana (Kemerhisar), 20 km south-west of modern Nigde, though at one time the royal seat ay have been located at Nahitiya, on the site of Nigde itself." [2]
"Tuhana is the best known of the Tabalean principalities. Its capital of the same name can be safely identified with the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine city of Tyana whose ruins lie in the modern Turkish village of Kemerhisar, south of Nigde, where a stela of king Warpalawas was found in 1860. Rock monuments in nearby Ivriz and Bulgarmaden mention this king of Tuhana, the latter as the overlord of a local ruler. Finds of Luwian inscriptions suggest the region of Kayseri as the location of Bit-Purutaš/Tabal; the site of Kululu, where monuments of a number of kings of Tabal have been found, is the most likely to correspond to its capital." [3]

[1]: (Bryce 2012, 142)

[2]: (Bryce 2012, 148)

[3]: Radner, Karen. 2013. Tabal and Phrygia: problem neighbours in the West. Assyrian empire builders. University College London http://www.ucl.ac.uk/sargon/essentials/countries/tabalandphrygia/


Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[900 BCE ➜ 730 BCE]

ruling line possibly dates to mid-9th century BCE but could be earlier [1]
Northern Tabal: probably an Assyrian tributary from 837 BCE?? until 730 BCE when Tiglath-Pileser deposed and replaced king Wasusarma. [2]

[1]: (Bryce 2012, 142)

[2]: (Bryce 2012, 144)


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
nominal allegiance to [---]

mid-9th century BCE Assyrian records suggest Tabal "consisted of a number of small independent states (which may have evolved several centuries earlier) whose rulers became tributaries of Assyria. Shalmaneser claims to have received gifts from twenty-four kings of Tabal during a campaign which he conducted in the region in 837 ... However, by the middle of the following century, many of the states were apparently consolidated into a small number of larger kingdoms." [1]
Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III lists five kingdoms of Tabal "among his tributaries": Tabal (’Proper’) ... Atuna, Tuhana (Luwian Tuwana), Ishtu(a)nda, and Hupishna ..." [2] "To this list of kingdoms in the Tabal region we can add a sixth, Shinuhtu, attested both in Luwian and Assyrian inscriptions dating to the reign of Sargon II. Shinuhtu’s ruler at that time was a man called Kiyakiya (Assyrian Kiakki)." [2]
"...generally speaking, local rulers were free to rule their states in whatever manner they wished, without interference from the Assyrian king, unless they took actions which were prejudicial to Assyrian interests, such as participation in an anti-Assyrian alliance with other rulers." [3]
alliances negotiated between Neo-Hittite kingdoms against one another and against the Assyrians [4]
"What precisely was the nature of Assyrian authority in the west as a consequence of Shalmaneser’s many campaigns there? At this stage, direct Assyrian rule over the local kingdoms had not yet been established. It would be another century or so before these kingdoms were absorbed into the Assyrian provincial system. By and large, the imposition of Assyrian authority over the local states meant that their kings accepted tributary status and made regular payments, in one form or another, into the Assyrian royal coffers, and (or else) conceded the Assyrians access to resource-rich regions, particularly the forested areas of the Levantine and northern Syrian coast. We do not know whether the relationship between a local ruler and the Assyrian king was formalized by a written pact - though in at least some instances there may well have been some form of agreement drawn up. But generally speaking, local rulers were free to rule their states in whatever manner they wished, without interference from the Assyrian king, unless they took actions which were prejudicial to Assyrian interests, such as participation in an anti-Assyrian alliance with other rulers." [3]

[1]: (Bryce 2002, 43)

[2]: (Bryce 2012, 141)

[3]: (Bryce 2012, 243)

[4]: (Thuesen 2002, 46)

Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]

mid-9th century BCE Assyrian records suggest Tabal "consisted of a number of small independent states (which may have evolved several centuries earlier) whose rulers became tributaries of Assyria. Shalmaneser claims to have received gifts from twenty-four kings of Tabal during a campaign which he conducted in the region in 837 ... However, by the middle of the following century, many of the states were apparently consolidated into a small number of larger kingdoms." [1]
Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III lists five kingdoms of Tabal "among his tributaries": Tabal (’Proper’) ... Atuna, Tuhana (Luwian Tuwana), Ishtu(a)nda, and Hupishna ..." [2] "To this list of kingdoms in the Tabal region we can add a sixth, Shinuhtu, attested both in Luwian and Assyrian inscriptions dating to the reign of Sargon II. Shinuhtu’s ruler at that time was a man called Kiyakiya (Assyrian Kiakki)." [2]
"...generally speaking, local rulers were free to rule their states in whatever manner they wished, without interference from the Assyrian king, unless they took actions which were prejudicial to Assyrian interests, such as participation in an anti-Assyrian alliance with other rulers." [3]
alliances negotiated between Neo-Hittite kingdoms against one another and against the Assyrians [4]
"What precisely was the nature of Assyrian authority in the west as a consequence of Shalmaneser’s many campaigns there? At this stage, direct Assyrian rule over the local kingdoms had not yet been established. It would be another century or so before these kingdoms were absorbed into the Assyrian provincial system. By and large, the imposition of Assyrian authority over the local states meant that their kings accepted tributary status and made regular payments, in one form or another, into the Assyrian royal coffers, and (or else) conceded the Assyrians access to resource-rich regions, particularly the forested areas of the Levantine and northern Syrian coast. We do not know whether the relationship between a local ruler and the Assyrian king was formalized by a written pact - though in at least some instances there may well have been some form of agreement drawn up. But generally speaking, local rulers were free to rule their states in whatever manner they wished, without interference from the Assyrian king, unless they took actions which were prejudicial to Assyrian interests, such as participation in an anti-Assyrian alliance with other rulers." [3]

[1]: (Bryce 2002, 43)

[2]: (Bryce 2012, 141)

[3]: (Bryce 2012, 243)

[4]: (Thuesen 2002, 46)




Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

Tabal region: "There is nothing in the material record to indicate that it was significantly affected by the upheavals at the end of the Late Bronze Age, or by the collapse of the Hittite empire. Certainly there is no evidence of a shift of peoples from it in this period." [1] Tuwana: "Conceivably, the kingdom arose in the wake of the Hittite empire’s fall, with a population perhaps largely made up of Luwian elements from Tuwanuwa." [2]

[1]: (Bryce 2002, 43)

[2]: (Bryce 2012, 148)


Preceding Entity:
Neo-Hittite Kingdoms

Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity

mid-9th century BCE Assyrian records suggest Tabal "consisted of a number of small independent states (which may have evolved several centuries earlier) whose rulers became tributaries of Assyria. Shalmaneser claims to have received gifts from twenty-four kings of Tabal during a campaign which he conducted in the region in 837 ... However, by the middle of the following century, many of the states were apparently consolidated into a small number of larger kingdoms." [1]
"from the time written records begin for the individual states that lay within the land called Hatti in Iron Age texts, it is clear that there was no sense of these states constituting a single political entity, or any form of political federation. Each was entirely independent from the others, each had its own autonomous ruler." [2]

[1]: (Bryce 2002, 43)

[2]: (Bryce 2012, 52)


Language

Language:
Luwian

"According to a proposal recently made by I. Yakibovich, the core area of Luwian population was located in central Anatolia, in the region of the Konya Plain..." [1]

[1]: (Bryce 2012, 17)


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[4,000 to 6,000] km2

in squared kilometers. Total area divided by 20 (approximate number of kings). 110,000 / 20 = 5,500 km2 for size of average polity.
Assyrian annals refer to about 20 kings paying tribute following the invasion of 836 BCE and this number roughly corresponds to the number of early Iron Age sites found in the region. "The large number of kings mentioned implies that the area was divided into city-states controlled by autonomous or semi-autonomous rulers. Since Tuatti is referred to by name and apparently held sway over several towns, one suspects that he was the most powerful of these kings." [1] [2]
"The exact location and extent of the ancient polities remain stubbornly elusive, but sources indicate that greater Tabal was bounded in the north by the southern bend of the Halys River, in the west by Phrygia, in the east by Tilgarimmu, Melid, and Urartu, and in the south by Hilakku and Quwe." [1] [2]
"The region called Tabal in the Iron Age extended over a large part of south-eastern Anatolia, southwards from the southern curve of the Halys river (Kizil Irmak) toward the Taurus mountains, westwards to the Konya Plain and eastwards towards the anti-Taurus range. The population of the region was very likely a predominantly Luwian one, as it had been throughout the Late Bronze Age and perhaps already in the early second millennium." [3]
"Tabal covered much of what was called the Lower Land in Late Bronze Age Hittite texts, including the territory of the Classical Tyanitis. Westwards, it extended to the Konya Plain, encompassing the sites now known as Kizildag and Karadag." [4]
"The Neo-Hittite states varied considerably in size, from a few to several hundred square kilometres. The smaller Tabalian kingdoms are examples of the former, Hamath and Bit-Burutash of the latter." [5]
Northern Tabal (Tabal ’Proper’) was the largest of the Tabal kingdoms, probably contained sub-regions, "it corresponded roughly to the modern provinces of Kayseri and Nigde." [6] [7]

[1]: (Melville 2010, 87-109) Melville, Sarah. "Kings of Tabal: Politics

[2]: Competition, and Conflict in a Contested Periphery." in Richardson, Seth. ed. 2010. Rebellions and Peripheries in the Mesopotamian World. American Oriental Series 91. Eisenbrauns. Winona Lake.

[3]: (Bryce 2012, 141)

[4]: (Bryce 2002, 43)

[5]: (Bryce 2012, 80)

[6]: (Bryce 2012, 142)

[7]: (Bryce 2012, 141-142)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3

levels.
1. City
2. Town"Since Tuatti is referred to by name and apparently held sway over several towns, one suspects that he was the most powerfulof these kings." [1] [2]
3. Village

[1]: (Melville 2010, 87-109) Melville, Sarah. "Kings of Tabal: Politics

[2]: Competition, and Conflict in a Contested Periphery." in Richardson, Seth. ed. 2010. Rebellions and Peripheries in the Mesopotamian World. American Oriental Series 91. Eisenbrauns. Winona Lake.


Military Level:
[3 to 4]

levels.
The Assyrians in 836 BCE found the local settlements fortified "so it is likely that fortifications were built in response to local conditions, rather than foreign invasion." [1] [2] The armed forces, likewise, might equally have been well-organized, albeit on a small scale.
1. King
2. Chief officer, general, or head retainer3. Another level of command?4. Individual soldier

[1]: (Melville 2010, 87-109) Melville, Sarah. "Kings of Tabal: Politics

[2]: Competition, and Conflict in a Contested Periphery." in Richardson, Seth. ed. 2010. Rebellions and Peripheries in the Mesopotamian World. American Oriental Series 91. Eisenbrauns. Winona Lake.


Administrative Level:
[3 to 4]

levels.
Assyrian annals refer to about 20 kings paying tribute following the invasion of 836 BCE and this number roughly corresponds to the number of early Iron Age sites found in the region. "The large number of kings mentioned implies that the area was divided into city-states controlled by autonomous or semi-autonomous rulers. Since Tuatti is referred to by name and apparently held sway over several towns, one suspects that he was the most powerfulof these kings." [1] [2]
1. King
Rulers of Northern Tabal claimed the ruling titles "Great King" and "Hero" [3]
_Central administration_

2.Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: "The focus of each state was an administrative centre where the royal seat was located." [4]
3.
4.
_Provincial government_
2. Sub-kingNorthern Tabal (Tabal ’Proper’): the largest of the kingdoms, probably contained sub-regions [5]
Tuwana: "Tuwana’s importance in the 8th century, if not also earlier, is indicated by the fact that it contained at least one sub-kingdom, as attested in the inscription CHLI I: X.45. BULGARMADEN (521-5)." [6]
3. Local leader

[1]: (Melville 2010, 87-109) Melville, Sarah. "Kings of Tabal: Politics

[2]: Competition, and Conflict in a Contested Periphery." in Richardson, Seth. ed. 2010. Rebellions and Peripheries in the Mesopotamian World. American Oriental Series 91. Eisenbrauns. Winona Lake.

[3]: (Bryce 2012, 142)

[4]: (Bryce 2012, 80)

[5]: (Bryce 2012, 141-142)

[6]: (Bryce 2012, 148)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
unknown

The Assyrians in 836 BCE found the local settlements fortified "so it is likely that fortifications were built in response to local conditions, rather than foreign invasion." [1] [2] The armed forces, likewise, might equally have been well-organized, albeit on a small scale, but the evidence is not conclusive.

[1]: (Melville 2010, 87-109) Melville, Sarah. "Kings of Tabal: Politics

[2]: Competition, and Conflict in a Contested Periphery." in Richardson, Seth. ed. 2010. Rebellions and Peripheries in the Mesopotamian World. American Oriental Series 91. Eisenbrauns. Winona Lake.


Professional Military Officer:
unknown

unknown. The Assyrians in 836 BCE found the local settlements fortified "so it is likely that fortifications were built in response to local conditions, rather than foreign invasion." [1] [2] The armed forces, likewise, might equally have been well-organized, albeit on a small scale. However, this does not mean the chief officers were full-time, specialist military officers, who did not also have other jobs.

[1]: (Melville 2010, 87-109) Melville, Sarah. "Kings of Tabal: Politics

[2]: Competition, and Conflict in a Contested Periphery." in Richardson, Seth. ed. 2010. Rebellions and Peripheries in the Mesopotamian World. American Oriental Series 91. Eisenbrauns. Winona Lake.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown

Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: "The focus of each state was an administrative centre where the royal seat was located", [1] but this does not tell us whether there were specialized government buildings.

[1]: (Bryce 2012, 80)


Full Time Bureaucrat:
unknown

Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: "The focus of each state was an administrative centre where the royal seat was located", [1] but this does not tell us whether bureaucrats were full-time professionals.

[1]: (Bryce 2012, 80)


Examination System:
unknown

City-states must have had small scale administrations and were unlikely to have needed examination system to sort candidates even if such a concept existed at the time, of which we do not know.


Law
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Transport Infrastructure
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

early Iron age sites surrounded by mountains and natural resources. [1]

[1]: (Liverani 2014, 454) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Location very close to Tabal kingdoms: "A unique document marking this final phase of independence is the bilingual inscription(in Phoenician and Luwian hieroglyphs) from Karatepe. It was written in the second half of the eighth century BC. The inscription belongs to a certain Asatiwata, who celebrated the construction of his fortress, Asatiwatiya (Karatepe) .. Asatiwata was not an independent ruler, but a vassal of Urikki of the ’House of Mopsos’, a king of Que (known as Adana in Hittite and Danunim in Phoenician)" [1]

[1]: (Liverani 2014, 453-454) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.


Script:
present

Luwian inscriptions [1] "shared cultural traditions that are best demonstrated by the numerous Luwian inscriptions and rock reliefs found in the Western Taurus." [2]

[1]: (Bryce 2002, 43)

[2]: Radner, Karen. 2013. Tabal and Phrygia: problem neighbours in the West. Assyrian empire builders. University College London http://www.ucl.ac.uk/sargon/essentials/countries/tabalandphrygia/


Information / Kinds of Written Documents

Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: "The focus of each state was an administrative centre where the royal seat was located." [1]

[1]: (Bryce 2012, 80)


Information / Money

Indigenous Coin:
absent

No coinage in region until Lydia.


Foreign Coin:
absent

No coinage in region until Lydia.



Information / Postal System

Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
unknown

not mentioned in literature


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present

’Urartu’s craftsmen used iron picks and hammers to forge horizontal planes out of bedrock on which to erect the empire’s numerous and imposing stone fortresses.’ [1]

[1]: Lori Khatchadourian, ‘The Iron Age in Eastern Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 480


Stone Walls Mortared:
absent

the stone is shaped with iron picks and hammers, not bound together with mortar. ’Urartu’s craftsmen used iron picks and hammers to forge horizontal planes out of bedrock on which to erect the empire’s numerous and imposing stone fortresses.’ [1]

[1]: Lori Khatchadourian, ‘The Iron Age in Eastern Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 480


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

Urartu’s craftsmen used iron picks and hammers to forge horizontal planes out of bedrock on which to erect the empire’s numerous and imposing stone fortresses. [1]

[1]: Lori Khatchadourian, ‘The Iron Age in Eastern Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 480


Modern Fortification:
absent

Cannon equipped reinforced star forts are not yet in use


not mentioned in literature


Fortified Camp:
unknown

Not mentioned in sources


Earth Rampart:
unknown

not mentioned in literature


not mentioned in literature


Complex Fortification:
present

Based on previous polity fortifications and the stone fortresses built in this time, it seems safe to say the history of complex fortifications continue here



Military use of Metals

Not known to have been in use here yet


This code was previously omitted so I added it here and coded as present as bronze had been in use by the previous polity and iron swords have been uncovered in Anatolia during this time [1]

[1]: Altan Çilingiroğlu, ‘Ayanis: An Iron age Site in the East’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 1060


Copper:
present

present as used in bronze


Bronze:
present

bronze had long been in use and bronze swords have been uncovered in Anatolia during this time [1]

[1]: Altan Çilingiroğlu, ‘Ayanis: An Iron age Site in the East’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 1060


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

In Anatolia siege warfare was mentioned in Old Hittite records. [1] Presumably at this time the catapult was not used? In India, according to Jain texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone". [2] Marsden (1969) said archaeological records exist before the 4th century BCE. [3] The Achaemenids (c400 BCE?) are assumed to have had the catapult because the Macedonians did. [4] Pollard and Berry (2012) say torsion catapults first came into widespread use in the Hellenistic period 4th - 1st centuries BCE. [5] The Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE which encouraged the development of large tension-powered weapons. [6] There is no direct evidence for catapults for this time/location. The aforementioned evidence we currently have covering the wider ancient world suggests they were probably not used at this time, perhaps because effective machines had not been invented yet.

[1]: Siegelova I. and H. Tsumoto (2011) Metals and Metallurgy in Hittite Anatolia, pp. 278 [In:] H. Genz and D. P. Mielke (ed.) Insights Into Hittite History And Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven, Paris, Walpole MA: PEETERS, pp. 275-300

[2]: (Singh 2008, 272) Upinder Singh. 2008. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Longman. Delhi.

[3]: (Marsden 1969, 5, 16, 66.) Marsden, E. W. 1969. Greek and Roman Artillery: The Historical Development. Toronto: Oxford University Press.

[4]: (Dandamaev 1989, 314) Dandamaev, M A. 1989. A Political History of the Achaemenid Empire. Brill.

[5]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 45) Pollard, N, Berry, J (2012) The Complete Roman Legions, Thames and Hudson, London Rives, J (2006) Religion in the Roman Empire, Wiley

[6]: (Keyser and Irby-Massie 2006, 260) Paul T Keyser. Georgia Irby-Massie. Science, Medicine, And Technology. Glenn R Bugh. ed. 2006. The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

The counter-weight trebuchet was first used by the Byzantines in 1165 CE.



Self Bow:
present

‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region. [1] "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders." [2]

[1]: Lori Khatchadourian, ‘The Iron Age in Eastern Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 480

[2]: Sergey A Nefedov, RAN Institute of History and Archaeology, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. January 2018.


Javelin:
present

Gaebel thinks it is "probable that the Hittite chariots carried javelin throwers and archers." [1]

[1]: (Gaebel 2002, 37) Robert E Gaebel. 2002. Cavalry Operations in the Ancient Greek World. University of Oklahoma Press. Norman.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

Not invented yet


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Not invented yet


Crossbow:
absent

Not invented yet


Composite Bow:
present

"Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders." [1]

[1]: Sergey A Nefedov, RAN Institute of History and Archaeology, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. January 2018.


Not mentioned in literature and extremely unlikely to be present, being a weapon of the Americas


Handheld weapons
War Club:
unknown

Not mentioned in literature


Swords had long been in use and have been uncovered in Anatolia during this time. [1] "All armies after the seventeenth century B.C.E. carried the sword, but in none was it a major weapon of close combat; rather, it was used when the soldier’s primary weapons, the spear and axe, were lost or broken." [2]

[1]: Altan Çilingiroğlu, ‘Ayanis: An Iron age Site in the East’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 1060

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 26-27) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region. [1] Spear-using phalanx first used in Sumer 2500 BCE. The phalanx was in use until the 1st century BCE. [2]

[1]: Lori Khatchadourian, ‘The Iron Age in Eastern Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 480

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 25) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Polearm:
unknown

Not mentioned in literature


Dagger:
present

‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region. [1]

[1]: Lori Khatchadourian, ‘The Iron Age in Eastern Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 480


Battle Axe:
unknown

Not mentioned in literature


Animals used in warfare
Horse:
present

Based on previous polities, it is clear horses were a large part of warfare in the region, particularly chariots


Elephant:
absent

No evidence for use in warfare yet


Donkey:
present

use as Pack Animals appears by around 7000 BC onward in the region [1]

[1]: (Leverani 2014, 41) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.


Not mentioned in literature


Bactrian Camels’ first used in battle 853 BC by the nearby Assyrians, but no evidence of use in Tabal [1]

[1]: Gabriel, Richard A. (2007). Soldiers’ Lives Through History: The Ancient World. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. xvi


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
unknown

not mentioned in literature


Shield:
unknown

not mentioned in literature


Scaled Armor:
present

‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region. [1]

[1]: Lori Khatchadourian, ‘The Iron Age in Eastern Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 480


Plate Armor:
unknown

not mentioned in literature


Limb Protection:
present

Closest reference in Anatolia is the Hittite period. [1] In Greece c1600 BCE: "Early Mycenaean and Minoan charioteers wore an arrangement of bronze armor that almost fully enclosed the soldier, the famous Dendra panoply." [2]

[1]: Bryce T. (2007) Hittite Warrior, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, pp. 15

[2]: (Gabriel 2007, 78) Richard A Gabriel. 2007. Soldiers’ Lives Through History: The Ancient World. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Leather Cloth:
unknown

not mentioned in literature


Laminar Armor:
unknown

not mentioned in literature


Helmet:
present

‘Knives, daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, armor scales, and helmets discovered in these fortresses were produced on a mass scale and speak to an impressive military apparatus, unprecedented for this region. [1]

[1]: Lori Khatchadourian, ‘The Iron Age in Eastern Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 480


Chainmail:
absent

Iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples. [1]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Breastplate:
unknown

not mentioned in literature


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown

not mentioned in literature


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

boats had been in use in the region for thousands of years


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown

not mentioned in literature



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.