Home Region:  Pakistan (South Asia)

Kachi Plain - Aceramic Neolithic

D G SC WF EQ 2020  pk_kachi_enl / PkAcerN

Preceding:
[not applicable; not applicable] [not applicable]   Update here
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
5500 BCE 4000 BCE Kachi Plain - Ceramic Neolithic (pk_kachi_lnl)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

The Kachi Plain, in modern-day Pakistan, is hemmed in on two of its three sides by the mountains of Baluchistan, while its southeastern side opens up to the Indus Valley. [1] The earliest evidence for agriculture here was found in Mehrgarh and dates to 7000 BCE. It is impossible to say whether Mehrgarh was part of a wider network of agricultural communities in the region, or whether it was unique and/or isolated. Besides agriculture, the inhabitants of Mehrgarh also relied, at this time, on hunting and gathering, but not yet on pastoralism. [2]
Population and political organization
It is not possible to give an accurate estimate of the region’s population at this time, [3] and the size of occupied Mehrgarh is uncertain, as the population shifted over time and part of the site has been cut away by the Bolan River. [4] Similarly, the literature does not provide many clues as to the political organization of Mehrgarh or any other site in the region at this time.

[1]: (Jarrige & Enault 1976, 29) Jarrige, Jean-François, and Jean-François Enault. 1976. “Fouilles de Pirak - Baluchistan.” Arts Asiatiques 32 (1): 29-70. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Q32UJUPX.

[2]: (McIntosh 2008, 57-61) McIntosh, Jane. 2008. The Ancient Indus Valley. Santa Barbara; Denver; Oxford: ABC-CLIO. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/5P92SHE8.

[3]: (Possehl 1999, 472) Possehl, Gregory L. 1999. Indus Age: The Beginnings. New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/IWNUD7IH.

[4]: (Jarrige 2013, 135-154) Jarrige, J.-F. 2013. Mehrgarh Neolithic. Paris: Éditions de Boccard. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4MKZA34B.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
42 R  
Original Name:
Kachi Plain - Aceramic Neolithic  
Capital:
not applicable  
Alternative Name:
Mehrgarh I  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[7,500 BCE ➜ 5,500 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
Succeeding Entity:
Kachi Plain - Ceramic Neolithic  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
not applicable  
Preceding Entity:
UNCLEAR:    [not applicable]  
Succeeding: Kachi Plain - Ceramic Neolithic (pk_kachi_lnl)    [continuity]  
Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity  
Language
Linguistic Family:
unknown  
Language:
unknown  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[400 to 600] people  
Polity Population:
-  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[1 to 2]  
Religious Level:
1  
Military Level:
1  
Administrative Level:
1  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred absent  
Professional Priesthood:
inferred absent  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred absent  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent  
Merit Promotion:
absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent  
Examination System:
absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent  
Judge:
absent  
Formal Legal Code:
absent  
Court:
absent  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
inferred present  
Irrigation System:
inferred absent  
Food Storage Site:
inferred present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
unknown  
Port:
absent  
Canal:
unknown  
Bridge:
unknown  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
inferred present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent  
Script:
absent  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Nonwritten Record:
unknown  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent  
Sacred Text:
absent  
Religious Literature:
absent  
Practical Literature:
absent  
Philosophy:
absent  
Lists Tables and Classification:
absent  
History:
absent  
Fiction:
absent  
Calendar:
absent  
Information / Money
Token:
inferred present  
Precious Metal:
unknown  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
absent  
Foreign Coin:
absent  
Article:
unknown  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
absent  
General Postal Service:
absent  
Courier:
inferred absent  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
absent  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred absent  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
inferred absent  
  Fortified Camp:
absent  
  Earth Rampart:
absent  
  Ditch:
inferred absent  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
absent  
  Bronze:
absent  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
absent  
  Self Bow:
absent  
  Javelin:
absent  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
absent  
  Sword:
absent  
  Spear:
absent  
  Polearm:
absent  
  Dagger:
absent  
  Battle Axe:
absent  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
absent  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
absent  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
absent  
  Scaled Armor:
absent  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
absent  
  Leather Cloth:
unknown  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
absent  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
absent  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
absent  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Kachi Plain - Aceramic Neolithic (pk_kachi_enl) was in:
 (7500 BCE 5501 BCE)   Kachi Plain
Home NGA: Kachi Plain

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Kachi Plain - Aceramic Neolithic

Capital:
not applicable

As Mehrgarh I is not a polity, but a quasi-polity, Mehrgarh is not a capital. It is however both the best studied and archaeologically richest site.


Alternative Name:
Mehrgarh I

Mehrgarh I.


Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[7,500 BCE ➜ 5,500 BCE]

7500-5500 BCE: Mehrgarh I. The beginning of Mehrgarh I is based on newer dates which suggest that settlement and food production began well before 7000 BCE as originally thought. [1] Earliest occupation at Mehrgarh was identified in the so-called area MR 3 (7 m of stratified deposits). These levels seem to not yield ceramic materials; however, fired ceramic figurines and asphalt-covered baskets are found. [2]

[1]: Jarrige, J.-F. (1991) Mehrgarh: its place in the development of ancient cultures in Pakisan. In, Jansen, M., et al (eds.) Forgotten cities on the Indus: early civilization in Pakistan from the 8th-2nd millennium BC.p. 142

[2]: Jarrige et al. (eds.), Mehrgarh: Field Reports, 57; Jarrige et al., ‘Mehrgarh Neolithic: the updated sequence’, 131, fig. 2; Jarrige et al., Mehrgarh: Neolithic Period; Jarrige, ‘Mehrgarh Neolithic: new excavations’; Jarrige, ‘Human figurines’; also Shaffer, ‘Indus valley’, vol. I, 454; G.L. Possehl, Indus Age: The Beginnings (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999), 464.


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none

With limited archaeological (and no literary) evidence, it is not clear what sort of polity (or polities) were present at this time. [1]

[1]: Rita Wright: The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy and Society; Cambridge: CUP, 2010, pp. 79-105


Succeeding Entity:
Kachi Plain - Ceramic Neolithic

Relationship to Preceding Entity:
not applicable

Preceding Entity:
not applicable
Preceding Entity:
Kachi Plain - Aceramic Neolithic [pk_kachi_enl] ---> Kachi Plain - Ceramic Neolithic [pk_kachi_lnl]

Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity

With limited archaeological (and no literary) evidence, it is not clear what sort of polity (or polities) were present at this time. [1]
The earliest sedentary populations in South Asia thus appear to have been relatively small, and to have favoured specific ecological zones for the establishment of their settlements. In this earliest stage, it is likely that sedentary populations co-existed with hunter gatherers, and at least at Mehrgarh, it appears that the initial farming populations also engaged in hunting. [2]

[1]: Rita Wright: The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy and Society; Cambridge: CUP, 2010, pp. 79-105

[2]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[400 to 600] people

The size of occupied Mehrgarh is uncertain, as the population shifted over time and part of the site has been cut away by the Bolan River. [1] . A. Ceccarelli [2] confirms that it is not easy to estimate the population of Mehrgarh at this time because it is not clear how much of the site was inhabited at any given moment. As for burial data, "We do not yet know to what degree the excavated area may represent the whole graveyard and to what extent the burials reflect the actualliving population." [3] However, "The total area is likely to be at least twelve hectares, however, including that which has been washed away by the Balan River. Such an expanse of cultural remains is difficult ta interpret until it is made clear that these deposits, in fact, do not represent the remains a permanent senlement. Only in the central part the senlement are superimposed architectural remains visible in the section cut by the Balan River and in the sections exposed in the soundings." [4] If we assume that between 4 and 12 hectares were occupied at any one time, and that there were about 50 inhabitants per hectare, then perhaps the site was inhabited by between 400 and 600 inhabitants.

[1]: Jarrige, J. F. (2008). Mehrgarh neolithic. Pragdhara, 18, 135-154.

[2]: Alessandro Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017

[3]: (Sellier 1995: 430) Pascal Sellier. 1995. ’Physical Anthropology’ in Mehrgarh, edited by Catherine Jarrige, Jean-Francois Jarrige, Richard H. Meadow, and Gonzague Quivron. Karachi: Dept. of Culture and Tourism, Govt. of Sindh ; in collaboration with the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

[4]: (Jarrige 1995: 366) Catherine Jarrige, Jean-Francois Jarrige, Richard H. Meadow, and Gonzague Quivron. 1995. Mehrgarh. Karachi: Dept. of Culture and Tourism, Govt. of Sindh ; in collaboration with the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs.


Polity Population:
-

It is not possible to make an accurate estimate. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. Indus Age: The Beginnings. New Delhi, 1999, p.472


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[1 to 2]

levels. Territorial polities cannot be assumed to have existed at this point. It is also worth noting that it is not clear how much of the site Mehgarh was inhabited at any one time [1] .
1. ?Mehrgarh2. ?Villages
Village farming community begins at least by 7th millennium BCE. [2]

[1]: Alessandro Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017

[2]: (Ahmed 2014, 312)


Religious Level:
1

levels. Clay figurines have been found but there is no evidence for a religious hierarchy at Mehrgarh. [1]
“At Mehrgarh human figurines are miniature works of art in clay. The earliest human figurines in Periods I are seated or standing and schematically represented. They were formed from a single piece of clay, with minimal representation of arms and legs; a few were adorned with necklaces and belts applied to the basic figure. Some were decorated with red ochre. In general, they range in size from 1.5 to 10 centimeters. Many of the figurines have feminine characteristics - realistic breasts; one standing figure bears the hint of genitalia and is obviously male (Jarrige 2005: 30-31). Catherine Jarrige (1991, 2005) conducted extensive study of the Mehrgarh figurines. As she points out, their frequent presence in trash deposits gives the impression they were discarded haphazardly. However, there are several clues that may lead to an understanding of their significance to the people at Mehrgarh. One is reflected in the locations of trash deposits. Since many of the deposits are found in household areas, they may represent a domestic cult, perhaps associated with “representations of tutelary deities for the family, the clan or a relevant profession” (Jarrige 1991: 92). Another possibility is their use for magical practices, as is frequently the case in agrarian societies (Jarrige 1991: 92). The recent discovery of one of the pierced human figurines in a grave from Period I, in which the figurine was held to the dead woman’s face in clasped hands, may indicate something about the role she played in society (Jarrige 2005: 34).

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Military Level:
1

levels. Kenoyer writes that there is no evidence of the existence of an army even during the period 2600 BCE - 1900 BCE. [1]

[1]: Jonathan Mark Kenoyer. ’Uncovering the keys to the Lost Indus Cities’, Scientific American, vol. 15, no. 1, 2005, p. 29.


Administrative Level:
1

levels. “Agriculture and herding were well established by the beginning of Stage Two and some subsistence surpluses were possible. The excavators think that this does not imply that we can reconstruct the social stratigraphy that would be associated with an archaic state, but some internal differentiation of the Stage Two society is possible, in view of the sophistication of craft production documented at Mehrgarh.” [1]

[1]: Agrawal, D. P. (2007) The Indus Civilization: An interdisciplinary perspective. Aryan Books International: New Delhi.


Professions
Professional Soldier:
absent

Inferred from Jonathan Kenoyer’s claim that there is no evidence of the existence of an army even during the period 2600 BCE - 1900 BCE. [1] .

[1]: Jonathan Mark Kenoyer. ’Uncovering the keys to the Lost Indus Cities’, Scientific American, vol. 15, no. 1, 2005, p. 29.


Professional Priesthood:
absent

Clay figurines have been found but there is no evidence for a professional priesthood at Mehrgarh. [1] .

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Professional Military Officer:
absent

Inferred from Jonathan Kenoyer’s claim that there is no evidence of the existence of an army even during the period 2600 BCE - 1900 BCE. [1] .

[1]: Jonathan Mark Kenoyer. ’Uncovering the keys to the Lost Indus Cities’, Scientific American, vol. 15, no. 1, 2005, p. 29.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent

No evidence for employment specialization characteristic of a developed urban society. Agricultural and herding would be typical occupations with "some internal differentiation ... in view of the sophistication of craft production documented at Mehrgarh.” [1]

[1]: Agrawal, D. P. (2007) The Indus Civilization: An interdisciplinary perspective. Aryan Books International: New Delhi.


Merit Promotion:
absent

No evidence for employment specialization characteristic of a developed urban society. Agricultural and herding would be typical occupations with "some internal differentiation ... in view of the sophistication of craft production documented at Mehrgarh.” [1]

[1]: Agrawal, D. P. (2007) The Indus Civilization: An interdisciplinary perspective. Aryan Books International: New Delhi.


Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent

No evidence for employment specialization characteristic of a developed urban society. Agricultural and herding would be typical occupations with "some internal differentiation ... in view of the sophistication of craft production documented at Mehrgarh.” [1]

[1]: Agrawal, D. P. (2007) The Indus Civilization: An interdisciplinary perspective. Aryan Books International: New Delhi.



Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent

No evidence for employment specialization characteristic of a developed urban society. Agricultural and herding would be typical occupations with "some internal differentiation ... in view of the sophistication of craft production documented at Mehrgarh.” [1]

[1]: Agrawal, D. P. (2007) The Indus Civilization: An interdisciplinary perspective. Aryan Books International: New Delhi.


No evidence for employment specialization characteristic of a developed urban society. Agricultural and herding would be typical occupations with "some internal differentiation ... in view of the sophistication of craft production documented at Mehrgarh.” [1]

[1]: Agrawal, D. P. (2007) The Indus Civilization: An interdisciplinary perspective. Aryan Books International: New Delhi.



No evidence for employment specialization characteristic of a developed urban society. Agricultural and herding would be typical occupations with "some internal differentiation ... in view of the sophistication of craft production documented at Mehrgarh.” [1]

[1]: Agrawal, D. P. (2007) The Indus Civilization: An interdisciplinary perspective. Aryan Books International: New Delhi.


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Evidence for trade bringing exotic raw materials such as lapis lazuli to Mehrgarh indicates that long-range contacts were maintained over several millennia, so there should be no doubt that this earliest phase of village occupation in South Asia was one where people and ideas could be spread widely. While several of the domesticated plant and animal species seen at Mehrgarh in period I were not domesticated locally, it is not yet possible to establish whether we are looking at cultural diffusion, where farming was adopted by local foragers, demic diffusion, where farmers moved onto the Kacchi plain from elsewhere, or some combination of the two processes taking place in tandem. [1] There is also evidence for long-distance trade of shell artefacts [2]

[1]: Petrie, C., 2015. Mehrgarh, Pakistan, in The Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE-500 CE.

[2]: (Kenoyer 1995: 566-582) Jonathan Mark Kenoyer. 1995. ’Shell trade and shell working during the Neolithic and Chalcolithic at Mehrgarh, Pakistan’ in Mehrgarh, edited by Catherine Jarrige, Jean-Francois Jarrige, Richard H. Meadow, and Gonzague Quivron. Karachi: Dept. of Culture and Tourism, Govt. of Sindh ; in collaboration with the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs.


Irrigation System:
absent

Evidence for irrigation technology does not appear to predate the Chalcolithic [1]

[1]: (Akhund and Haroon 1995: XII) Hameed Akhun and Hameed Haroon. 1995. ’Preface’ in Mehrgarh, edited by Catherine Jarrige, Jean-Francois Jarrige, Richard H. Meadow, and Gonzague Quivron. Karachi: Dept. of Culture and Tourism, Govt. of Sindh ; in collaboration with the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs.


Food Storage Site:
present

Period I: Early Mehrgarh residents stored their grain in granaries. [1]

[1]: (Ahmed 2014, 313)


Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown

Transport Infrastructure

Inland site would not have had a port.




Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

Stone quarries in the hills near the site of Nal (Naal). Period I and II at Damb Sadaat. [1] Nal is just outside this NGA region but we can infer that the inhabitants of Mehrgarh also quarried stone e.g. for tools.

[1]: (Singh 2008, 107-108)


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Nonwritten Record:
unknown

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley [1] , and it is unclear whether nonwritten records were in use instead.

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Mnemonic Device:
unknown

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley [1] , and it is unclear whether mnemonic devices were in use instead.

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Sacred Text:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Religious Literature:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Practical Literature:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Philosophy:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Lists Tables and Classification:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


History:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Fiction:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Calendar:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Information / Money
Token:
present

Presumed present for the trade of foreign materials (including lapis lazuli, calcite and steatite for bead production). [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J. F. (2008). Mehrgarh neolithic. Pragdhara, 18, 135-154. p145


Precious Metal:
unknown

Copper was present from Mehrgarh III [1] , but may not have been used as ’money’.

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Paper Currency:
absent

No evidence of paper currency has been found in the archaeological record at Mehrgarh. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J. F. (2008). Mehrgarh neolithic. Pragdhara, 18, 135-154.


Indigenous Coin:
absent

No coins have been found in the archaeological record at Mehrgarh. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J. F. (2008). Mehrgarh neolithic. Pragdhara, 18, 135-154.


Foreign Coin:
absent

No coins have been found in the archaeological record at Mehrgarh. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J. F. (2008). Mehrgarh neolithic. Pragdhara, 18, 135-154.



Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
absent

There are no archaeological remains which can be interpreted as postal stations at Mehrgarh, and are therefore presumed absent. [1] No evidence for social structure that could have organized a postal system nor one what would have required one.

[1]: Jarrige, J. F. (2008). Mehrgarh neolithic. Pragdhara, 18, 135-154.


General Postal Service:
absent

There are no archaeological remains which can be interpreted as postal stations at Mehrgarh, and are therefore presumed absent. [1] No evidence for social structure that could have organized a postal system nor one what would have required one.

[1]: Jarrige, J. F. (2008). Mehrgarh neolithic. Pragdhara, 18, 135-154.


Courier:
absent

Worth noting that materials were transported over long distances to Mehrgarh(including lapis lazuli [1] ), but it is unknown who transported them.

[1]: Jarrige, J. F. (2008). Mehrgarh neolithic. Pragdhara, 18, 135-154.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
absent

Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [1] . The data for fortifications is inferred. Possehl states that before the Urban phase (i.e. 2600 BCE) for only 3 sites out of 463 Pre-Urban sites the archaeological evidence could potentially be interpreted as having some sort of substantial circumvallation. [1] .

[1]: (Gregory L. Possehl. ’Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization’, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent

Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [1] .

[1]: (Gregory L. Possehl. ’Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization’, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)


Stone Walls Mortared:
absent

Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [1] .

[1]: (Gregory L. Possehl. ’Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization’, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
absent

Inferred absent from lack of evidence of significant warfare.


Modern Fortification:
absent

Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [1] .

[1]: (Gregory L. Possehl. ’Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization’, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)



Fortified Camp:
absent

Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [1] .

[1]: (Gregory L. Possehl. ’Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization’, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)


Earth Rampart:
absent

Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [1] .

[1]: (Gregory L. Possehl. ’Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization’, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)



Complex Fortification:
absent

Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [1] .

[1]: (Gregory L. Possehl. ’Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization’, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)



Military use of Metals

Inferred as occurred later [1] .

[1]: ( Darvill, Timothy. "steel." In The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology. : Oxford University Press, 2008. )


Inferred as occurred later [1] .

[1]: ( Darvill, Timothy. "iron." In The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology. : Oxford University Press, 2008. )


Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1] .

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

Inferred as occurred later [1]

[1]: ( DeVries, Kelly. "siege engines." In The Oxford Companion to Military History. : Oxford University Press, 2001. ).


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

Inferred as occurred later [1]

[1]: ( DeVries, Kelly. "siege engines." In The Oxford Companion to Military History. : Oxford University Press, 2001. ).


Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented". [1] Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [2]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991: 347) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/A7DS8UKX/q/kenoyer.

[2]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented". [1] Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [2]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991: 347) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/A7DS8UKX/q/kenoyer.

[2]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented". [1] Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [2]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991: 347) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/A7DS8UKX/q/kenoyer.

[2]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Handheld Firearm:
absent

Inferred as occurred later [1]

[1]: ( DeVries, Kelly. "matchlock." In The Oxford Companion to Military History. : Oxford University Press, 2001. ).


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Inferred as occurred later [1]

[1]: ( DeVries, Kelly. "cannon" In The Oxford Companion to Military History. : Oxford University Press, 2001. ).


Inferred as occurred later [1]

[1]: ( DeVries, Kelly. "crossbow." In The Oxford Companion to Military History. : Oxford University Press, 2001. ).


Composite Bow:
absent

Inferred as occurred later [1]

[1]: ( DeVries, Kelly. "bow." In The Oxford Companion to Military History. : Oxford University Press, 2001. ).


New World weapon. Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Handheld weapons

Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Battle Axe:
absent

Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented". [1] ground stone axe found in burial (Ahmed 2014, p. 316). - was this a battle axe? In one exceptional burial, a polished stone axe and three flint cores were placed in a basket and lay near the skull of the deceased. Sixteen blades from the same core were set in parallel rows along the spinal column [2]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991: 347) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/A7DS8UKX/q/kenoyer.

[2]: (Jarrige et al. 1995: 246)


Animals used in warfare

Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [1]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991, p. 347)


Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [1]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991, p. 347)


Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [1]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991, p. 347)


Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [1]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991, p. 347)


Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [1]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991, p. 347)


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
unknown

Evidence of armor made from organic materials has not been recovered from Mehrgarh.


Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Scaled Armor:
absent

Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Plate Armor:
absent

Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Limb Protection:
absent

Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Leather Cloth:
unknown

Evidence of armor made from organic materials has not been recovered from Mehrgarh.


Laminar Armor:
absent

Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Breastplate:
absent

Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

Inferred as Mehrgarh is landlocked.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
absent

Inferred as Mehrgarh is landlocked.


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent

Inferred as Mehrgarh is landlocked.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions
- Nothing coded yet.