Home Region:  Central India (South Asia)

Hoysala Kingdom

EQ 2020  in_hoysala_k / InHoysa

The Hoysala dynasty ruled over a territory roughly equivalent to the southern Indian state of Karnataka, plus the eastern and southeastern margins of Andhra Pradesh and the northwest corner of Tamil Nadu. [1] For much of the 12th century CE, the Hoysalas were mere provincial rulers within the wider Chalukya empire, [2] but they rebelled and wrested control over the region from the Chalukyas in 1191. [3] They lost their empire with the death of Emperor Vira Virupaksha in 1346. [4] Under Hoysala rule, literature and the arts flourished, particularly architecture, as testified by the Hoysala temples at Halebidu, Belur and Somanathapura. [5]
Population and political organization
As with most preceding South Indian polities, the Hoysala ruler held judiciary, executive and legislative powers [6] and was also the polity’s supreme military leader. [7] He was assisted at court by several ministers [8] and in the provinces by governors. [9]
No population estimates for this period could be found in the literature.

[1]: (Kamath 1980) Suryanath Kamath. 1980. A Concise History of Karnataka: From Pre-historic Times to the Present. Bangalore: Archana Prakashana.

[2]: (Kamath 1980, 130-32) Suryanath Kamath. 1980. A Concise History of Karnataka: From Pre-historic Times to the Present. Bangalore: Archana Prakashana.

[3]: (Murthy and Ramakrishnan 1978, 96) H. V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan. 1978. A History of Karnataka. New Delhi: S. Chand.

[4]: (Kamath 1980, 136) Suryanath Kamath. 1980. A Concise History of Karnataka: From Pre-historic Times to the Present. Bangalore: Archana Prakashana.

[5]: (Murthy and Ramakrishnan 1978, 111) H. V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan. 1978. A History of Karnataka. New Delhi: S. Chand.

[6]: (Murthy and Ramakrishnan 1978, 123) H. V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan. 1978. A History of Karnataka. New Delhi: S. Chand.

[7]: (Derrett 1957, 105) J. Duncan M. Derrett. 1957. The Hoysalas: A Medieval Indian Royal Family. Madras: Oxford University Press.

[8]: (Murthy and Ramakrishnan 1978, 137) H. V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan. 1978. A History of Karnataka. New Delhi: S. Chand.

[9]: (Murthy and Ramakrishnan 1978, 124) H. V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan. 1978. A History of Karnataka. New Delhi: S. Chand.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
43 P  
Original Name:
Hoysala Kingdom  
Capital:
Sosavur  
Dvarasamudram  
Kannanur  
Alternative Name:
Hoysala Empire  
Hoysalas  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,225 CE  
Duration:
[1,108 CE ➜ 1,346 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
nominal allegiance to [---]  
none  
Succeeding Entity:
Vijayanagara Empire  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Chalukyas of Kalyani  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Dravidian  
Indo-European  
Language:
Kannada  
Sanskrit  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[100,000 to 200,000] km2  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3  
Religious Level:
[1 to 2]  
Military Level:
[4 to 5]  
Administrative Level:
[2 to 5]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
inferred present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
absent  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Judge:
inferred present  
Formal Legal Code:
inferred present  
Court:
inferred present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
unknown  
Bridge:
unknown  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
unknown  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
unknown  
Script:
unknown  
Nonwritten Record:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown  
History:
unknown  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
unknown  
Information / Money
Token:
inferred present  
Paper Currency:
unknown  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
inferred present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
inferred present  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
present  
  Complex Fortification:
unknown  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
unknown  
  Sling Siege Engine:
unknown  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
inferred present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
unknown  
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
present  
  Dagger:
unknown  
  Battle Axe:
inferred present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
present  
  Donkey:
inferred present  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
inferred present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
inferred present  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
inferred present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
inferred present  
  Chainmail:
inferred present  
  Breastplate:
inferred present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance
Religious Landscape
  Theological Syncretism of Different Religions: 
present  
  Syncretism of Religious Practices at the Level of Individual Believers: 
present  
  Widespread Religion: 
1. Most widespread Saivist Hinduism (Over half of the population)  
2. Second most widespread Vaisnavist Hinduism (Sizeable minority)  
3. Third most widespread Jainism (Sizeable minority)  
  Official Religion: 
Vaisnavist Hinduism  
  Elites Religion: 
Vaisnavist Hinduism  
Government Restrictions
  Taxes Based on Religious Adherence or on Religious Activities and Institutions: 
inferred absent  
  Frequency of Governmental Violence Against Religious Groups: 
inferred very rarely  
  Government Restrictions on Religious Education: 
inferred absent  
  Government Restrictions on Public Worship: 
inferred absent  
  Government Restrictions on Public Proselytizing: 
inferred absent  
  Government Restrictions on Property Ownership for Adherents of Any Religious Group: 
inferred absent  
  Government Restrictions on Conversion: 
inferred absent  
  Government Restrictions on Construction of Religious Buildings: 
inferred absent  
  Government Restrictions on Circulation of Religious Literature: 
inferred absent  
  Government Pressure to Convert: 
inferred absent  
  Governmental Obligations for Religious Groups to Apply for Official Recognition: 
inferred absent  
  Government Discrimination Against Religious Groups Taking up Certain Occupations or Functions: 
inferred absent  
Societal Restrictions
  Frequency of Societal Violence Against Religious Groups: 
inferred very rarely  
  Societal Discrimination Against Religious Groups Taking up Certain Occupations or Functions: 
inferred absent  
  Societal Pressure to Convert or Against Conversion: 
inferred absent  
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Hoysala Kingdom (in_hoysala_k) was in:
 (1192 CE 1253 CE)   Deccan
Home NGA: Deccan

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Hoysala Kingdom

[1]

[1]: Burton Stein, The New Cambridge History of India: Vijayanagara (1989), p. 5


Capital:
Sosavur

Originally, the Hoysalas had their capital at Sosavur or the Sanskrit Shashakapura, and later it was transferred to Halebid or Dorasamudra [1] . Dvarasamudram (or Dorasamudra) was the capital until the late fourteenth century, established in the hill-bounded area of modern Halebid in Hassan district by an eleventh-century Hoysala chief. Dvarasamudram was over 35 miles from the major area of agricultural production and settlement of the kingdom, on the Hemavati River, and 42 miles north of the Kaveri, which formed the boundary with Gangavadi and its ancient Ganga kings to the south [2] .
Ramanatha was expulsed from Kannanur - the loss of that capital city naturally increased Ramanatha’s interes in the plateau. From 1281 his administration on the plateau expanded, and almost certainly in the tear 1283-84, the seat of government was removed to a place called Kunadni. This was the new capital from which Ramanatha chose to survey the collapse of his riparian kingdom [3] .
The later Hoysala capital Kannanur was established where the Kaveri delta began, between the centres of Chola and Pandya power in the south. Established in the uplands over the gateway to the Kaveri delta, the capital resembled the capitals of other masters of river valleys more than it did Dvarasamudram and thus reflected the now divided character of the Hoysala kingdom [2] .

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 113

[2]: Burton Stein, The New Cambridge History of India: Vijayanagara (1989), p. 16

[3]: J. Duncan M. Derrett, The Hoysalas (1957), p. 140

Capital:
Dvarasamudram

Originally, the Hoysalas had their capital at Sosavur or the Sanskrit Shashakapura, and later it was transferred to Halebid or Dorasamudra [1] . Dvarasamudram (or Dorasamudra) was the capital until the late fourteenth century, established in the hill-bounded area of modern Halebid in Hassan district by an eleventh-century Hoysala chief. Dvarasamudram was over 35 miles from the major area of agricultural production and settlement of the kingdom, on the Hemavati River, and 42 miles north of the Kaveri, which formed the boundary with Gangavadi and its ancient Ganga kings to the south [2] .
Ramanatha was expulsed from Kannanur - the loss of that capital city naturally increased Ramanatha’s interes in the plateau. From 1281 his administration on the plateau expanded, and almost certainly in the tear 1283-84, the seat of government was removed to a place called Kunadni. This was the new capital from which Ramanatha chose to survey the collapse of his riparian kingdom [3] .
The later Hoysala capital Kannanur was established where the Kaveri delta began, between the centres of Chola and Pandya power in the south. Established in the uplands over the gateway to the Kaveri delta, the capital resembled the capitals of other masters of river valleys more than it did Dvarasamudram and thus reflected the now divided character of the Hoysala kingdom [2] .

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 113

[2]: Burton Stein, The New Cambridge History of India: Vijayanagara (1989), p. 16

[3]: J. Duncan M. Derrett, The Hoysalas (1957), p. 140

Capital:
Kannanur

Originally, the Hoysalas had their capital at Sosavur or the Sanskrit Shashakapura, and later it was transferred to Halebid or Dorasamudra [1] . Dvarasamudram (or Dorasamudra) was the capital until the late fourteenth century, established in the hill-bounded area of modern Halebid in Hassan district by an eleventh-century Hoysala chief. Dvarasamudram was over 35 miles from the major area of agricultural production and settlement of the kingdom, on the Hemavati River, and 42 miles north of the Kaveri, which formed the boundary with Gangavadi and its ancient Ganga kings to the south [2] .
Ramanatha was expulsed from Kannanur - the loss of that capital city naturally increased Ramanatha’s interes in the plateau. From 1281 his administration on the plateau expanded, and almost certainly in the tear 1283-84, the seat of government was removed to a place called Kunadni. This was the new capital from which Ramanatha chose to survey the collapse of his riparian kingdom [3] .
The later Hoysala capital Kannanur was established where the Kaveri delta began, between the centres of Chola and Pandya power in the south. Established in the uplands over the gateway to the Kaveri delta, the capital resembled the capitals of other masters of river valleys more than it did Dvarasamudram and thus reflected the now divided character of the Hoysala kingdom [2] .

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 113

[2]: Burton Stein, The New Cambridge History of India: Vijayanagara (1989), p. 16

[3]: J. Duncan M. Derrett, The Hoysalas (1957), p. 140


Alternative Name:
Hoysala Empire

[1]

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 113

Alternative Name:
Hoysalas

[1]

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 113


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,225 CE

The glorious part of Hoysala empire ended in 1235, with Vira-Narasimha’s death [1] .

[1]: J. Duncan M. Derrett, The Hoysalas (1957), p. 116


Duration:
[1,108 CE ➜ 1,346 CE]

While the first mentions of the Hoysala dynasty refer to even earlier times, the Hoysalas rose into eminence as strong feudatories of the Chalukyas during Vinayadithya’s rule (r. 1047-1098) [1] . As Derrett notes, Vinayadithya was obliged to acknowledge Chalukya supremacy by 1078 [2] . But it was only during the rule of Vishnuvardhana (r. 1108-1152) that Hoysala rose to the dignity of a kingdom [3] . The Hoysala rule came to an end in 1346, as the last ruler Vira Virupaksha died [4] .
It was under Ballala II that Bellary once again capitulated to Hoysala KIngdom (had been under VIsnuvardhana some 70 years before) in or around 1192 [5] .
It seems that Vishnuvardhana entered the town of Bellare (the modern Bellary) in 1118, or some time between 1118-20 [6] .

[1]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 130

[2]: J. Duncan M. Derrett, The Hoysalas (1957), p. 32

[3]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 130-2

[4]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 136

[5]: J. Duncan M. Derrett, The Hoysalas (1957), p. 92

[6]: J. Duncan M. Derrett, The Hoysalas (1957), p. 58


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
nominal allegiance to [---]

nominal allegiance: 1078-1191CE; none: 1191-1310CE; allegiance: 1310-1346CE As Derrett notes, Vinayadithya was obliged to acknowledge Chalukya supremacy by 1078 and became a feudatory [1] . While Vishnuvardhana’s (r. 1108-1152) incessant attempts to overthrow the yoke of Chalukya suzerainty proved a failure, he raised his territory to the dignity of a kingdom [2] . Ballala’s time (r.1173-1120) saw the achievement of independence from Chalukyas [3] as their rule fell in 1191 [4] . In 1310, the Hoysala ruler submitted to the Delhi Sultan’s army, and the following decades were a struggle of resistance against the Delhi Sultans and the allegiance they had forced on Hoysala [5] [6] .

[1]: J. Duncan M. Derrett, The Hoysalas (1957), p. 32

[2]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 130-2

[3]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 132-4

[4]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 96

[5]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 136

[6]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 122-3

Suprapolity Relations:
none

nominal allegiance: 1078-1191CE; none: 1191-1310CE; allegiance: 1310-1346CE As Derrett notes, Vinayadithya was obliged to acknowledge Chalukya supremacy by 1078 and became a feudatory [1] . While Vishnuvardhana’s (r. 1108-1152) incessant attempts to overthrow the yoke of Chalukya suzerainty proved a failure, he raised his territory to the dignity of a kingdom [2] . Ballala’s time (r.1173-1120) saw the achievement of independence from Chalukyas [3] as their rule fell in 1191 [4] . In 1310, the Hoysala ruler submitted to the Delhi Sultan’s army, and the following decades were a struggle of resistance against the Delhi Sultans and the allegiance they had forced on Hoysala [5] [6] .

[1]: J. Duncan M. Derrett, The Hoysalas (1957), p. 32

[2]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 130-2

[3]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 132-4

[4]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 96

[5]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 136

[6]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 122-3


Succeeding Entity:
Vijayanagara Empire

Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

feudal subordinate The Hoysalas began their rule as the feudatories of the Chalukyas and when their power was on the wane, the Hoysalas asserted their independence and established their supremacy over Karnataka as it stands today [1] .

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 111


Preceding Entity:
Chalukyas of Kalyani

Western Chalukya Empire [1] .

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 111


Degree of Centralization:
unitary state

Accordin to Derrett, there were feudatories of the Hoysala Kingdom in 1142, but the Hoysala kingdom itself was a subordinate of the Calukyas [1]

[1]: J. Duncan M. Derrett, The Hoysalas (1957), p. 68-9, 86


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[100,000 to 200,000] km2

in squared kilometers.
1184: Ruling over the area bounded by Konkana, Alvakheda, Bayalnad, Talakad and Savimale , area between Kaveri and Kabbani rivers [1]
up to and about the year 1098: 95 miles long at the longest and 70 miles broad at its widest part, represents the entire known area within which the Hoysala enjoyed the revenues [2] -- this reference refers to period before 1108-1346 CE kingdom
By the end of Vishnuvardhana’s rule: he had broken the bones of Malava, Cera, Kerala, Nolamba, Kadamba, Kalinga, Anga, Bangala, Varala, Cola, Khasa, Barbara, Oddaha and others [3]
1192: Sevuna, it is true, had many Kannada-speaking subjects, but south of the Krishna most of the subjects looked either to the Hoysala or to the rulers in the Konkana as their natural lead. The government at Devagiri, a great distance north of the Krishna, had a distinct Maratha bias, and although it was careful to use Kannada subordinates in the actual process of government in the south, its outlook was necessarily different from that which prevailed at Kalyana [4] .
1196 Ballala II took - besides the places already conventionally associated with his name- Banavase, Hanugal, Halasige, Huligere, Nolambavadi, Belvola, Bagadage, Erambarage, Kisukad, Balla, Kuderi and Lokkigundi, Tattavadi. Without epigraphical evidence we cannot establish that effective Hoysala rule (revenue) was exercised to any distance beyond the Malprabha river [5]
1233: Tungabhadr served as the frontier in the north-west of the empire [6] .

[1]: J. Duncan M. Derrett, The Hoysalas (1957), p. 24-5

[2]: J. Duncan M. Derrett, The Hoysalas (1957), p. 26

[3]: J. Duncan M. Derrett, The Hoysalas (1957), p. 69

[4]: J. Duncan M. Derrett, The Hoysalas (1957), p. 95

[5]: J. Duncan M. Derrett, The Hoysalas (1957), p. 96-7

[6]: J. Duncan M. Derrett, The Hoysalas (1957), p. 116


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3

levels. It is very difficult to identify the administrative divisions under the Hoysalas, though inscriptions speak of nadus and vishayas. We do not know which unit was bigger of the two [1] .
1. Capital city [2]
2. Town [2] 3. Village [2]

[1]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 137

[2]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 137-8


Religious Level:
[1 to 2]

levels.
Estimate based on Buddhist and Jain hierarchies known from other polities


Military Level:
[4 to 5]

levels.
Professional military [1] was present and would likely have taken at least this form (minimum)
1. King
2. General3. Officer/s4. Individual soldier

[1]: J. Duncan M. Derrett, The Hoysalas (1957), p. 105


Administrative Level:
[2 to 5]

levels.
1. King - the overall ruler [1] , who concentrated in his hands the executive, legislative and judicial functions of the state [2] .
_Central government or court?_
2. Sandhivigrahi (foreign minister)The king was assisted in administration by his ministers: Sandhivigrahi was the foreign minister, Sarvadhikari was an official with powers to supervise all departments, Bahataaraniyogadhipati was an official who headed 72 departments, Mahabhandari was the senior treasurer, and Dharmadhikari was the minister of justice. Paramavishvasi or personal secretary of the king and Mahapasayita or chief master of the robes were other senior officials. At times, these officials held their office hereditarily. The ministers also held military office [3]
2. Sarvadhikari (supervised all departments)
2. Mahabhandari (senior treasurer)
2. Dharmadhikari (minister of justice)
2. Paramavishvasi (personal secretary of king)
2. Mahapasayita (chief master of the robes)
2. Bahataaraniyogadhipati (headed 72 departments)3. Department head inferred4.
5.
_Provincial government_
2. Governors - heads of provinces.The administration of the provinces was just the replica of the central administration. The governors charged both civil and military functions. They were made responsible not only for the peace, tranquility, law and order, but also for efficient administration [4] .
3. Dandanayaka - heads of a nadu.it has been argued that the nadu was looked after by a dandanayaka (who was an army commander), assisted by other officials - a mahapradhana, a bhandari (treasurer), a senabova (clerk) and several junior officials called heggades [5]
4. mahapradhana
4. bhandari (treasurer)
5. senabova (clerk)
4. Heggades - junior officials who perhaps looked after the smaller units of a nadu [6] [7] .

[1]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 136-7

[2]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 123

[3]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 137

[4]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 124

[5]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 137-8

[6]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 138

[7]: J. Duncan M. Derrett, The Hoysalas (1957), p. 72


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

It is clear that during Ballala II’s time the soldiers were professional [1] .

[1]: J. Duncan M. Derrett, The Hoysalas (1957), p. 105


Professional Priesthood:
present

Temples were built. [1]

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 111


Professional Military Officer:
present

It is clear that during Ballala II’s time the soldiers were professional [1] Ministers in the government also held military office, [2] which might suggest the officers - or at least some of them - were non-specialist.

[1]: J. Duncan M. Derrett, The Hoysalas (1957), p. 105

[2]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 137

Professional Military Officer:
absent

It is clear that during Ballala II’s time the soldiers were professional [1] Ministers in the government also held military office, [2] which might suggest the officers - or at least some of them - were non-specialist.

[1]: J. Duncan M. Derrett, The Hoysalas (1957), p. 105

[2]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 137


Bureaucracy Characteristics

Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

The king was assisted in administration by his ministers: Sandhivigrahi was the foreign minister, Sarvadhikari was an official with powers to supervise all departments, Bahataaraniyogadhipati was an official who headed 72 departments, Mahabhandari was the senior treasurer, and Dharmadhikari was the minister of justice. Paramavishvasi or personal secretary of the king and Mahapasayita or chief master of the robes were other senior officials. At times, these officials held their office hereditarily. The ministers also held military office. [1]

[1]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 137



Law
Judge:
present

Dharmadhikari was the minister of justice. [1]

[1]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 137


Formal Legal Code:
present

Is there any reason to have a minister of justice is there is no formal legal code?
Dharmadhikari was the minister of justice. [1]

[1]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 137


Court:
present

Dharmadhikari was the minister of justice. [1]

[1]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 137


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Irrigation System:
present

Irrigation facilities were provided by constructing new tanks, wells and canals or repairing the old ones. [1]

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 126



Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System



Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Works on mathematics [1]

[1]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 139


Sacred Text:
present

Hindu scriptures.


Religious Literature:
present

[1]

[1]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 139


Practical Literature:
present

Keshiraja’s work on grammar [1]

[1]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 140


Philosophy:
present

[1]

[1]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 138-9




Fiction:
present

[1]

[1]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 138-9



Information / Money
Token:
present

Cowrie shells? " 10 Precious Metals, Debasements and Cowrie Shells in the Medieval Indian Monetary Systems, c.1200-1575 - John S Deyell" [1] Need to check.

[1]: (Money in the Pre-Industrial World [1])



Indigenous Coin:
present

The Hoysalas issued gold coins called gadyana or honnu. There were also coins called bele and kani [1] .

[1]: Suryanath U. Kamath, A concise history of Karnataka (1980), p. 138



Information / Postal System

Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications

Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present

Forts were built. [1] Reference for Vijayanagara (successor polity) that may have more general relevance: "Walls made out of earth, which are common in the south of India, appear to have been used at settlements of inferior status, while stone walls were constructed around settlements which exercised some level of authority over the surrounding area." [2] The walls of Vijayanagara were non-mortared.

[1]: J. Duncan M. Derrett, The Hoysalas (1957), p. 95

[2]: (Howes 2003, 45) Jennifer Howes. 2003. The Courts of Pre-colonial South India: Material Culture and Kingship. RoutledgeCurzon. London.


Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown

Forts were built. [1]

[1]: J. Duncan M. Derrett, The Hoysalas (1957), p. 95


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

Commenting on Jean Deloche’s ’Studies on Fortification in India’ a book reviewer says that fort construction "with long-term building and modification programs ... became the focal point for local populations as well as for their leaders" and often were "placed at points on the landscape that already were natural strongholds and places of ritual devolution". [1]

[1]: (Smith 2010, 273) Monica L Smith. January 2010. Journal of the American Oriental Society. 130.2. Studies on Fortification in India. Collection Indologie, vol. 104. Four Forts of the Deccan vol. 111. Senji (Gingee): A Fortified City in the Tamil Country. vol. 101 by Jean Deloche.



Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions ramparts constructed with earth and moats [1] and the moat was still used during the Rashtrakuta period. [2]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 103) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), p. 206



Earth Rampart:
present

"Till date, the best study of the evolution of fortifications in India from the Indus Valley Civilization till the rise of British power, remains Deloche’s monograph on fortification in India. Deloche notes that between the third and fourteenth centuries, the Hindu rulers constructed complex gateways, towers and thicker walls with earthen embankments in order to make their durgas (forts) impregnable." [1] Deloche’s studies on Indian fortifications are in French. Reference for Vijayanagara that may have more general relevance: "Walls made out of earth, which are common in the south of India, appear to have been used at settlements of inferior status, while stone walls were constructed around settlements which exercised some level of authority over the surrounding area." [2]

[1]: (Roy 2011, 123) Kaushik Roy. Historiographical Survey of the Writings on Indian Military History. Sabyasachi Bhattacharya. ed. 2011. Approaches to History: Essays in Indian Historiography. Primus Books. Delhi.

[2]: (Howes 2003, 45) Jennifer Howes. 2003. The Courts of Pre-colonial South India: Material Culture and Kingship. RoutledgeCurzon. London.


Commenting on Jean Deloche’s ’Studies on Fortification in India’ a book reviewer says " certain types of multiple ditches on the exterior of medieval forts were likely to have been placed to ’impede the approach of elephants.’” [1]

[1]: (Smith 2010, 274) Monica L Smith. January 2010. Journal of the American Oriental Society. 130.2. Studies on Fortification in India. Collection Indologie, vol. 104. Four Forts of the Deccan vol. 111. Senji (Gingee): A Fortified City in the Tamil Country. vol. 101 by Jean Deloche.



Military use of Metals

Indian iron smiths invented the ’wootz’ method of steel creation between 550-450 BCE. The Greek physician Ctesias of Cnidus commented on an Indian steel sword in the possession of Artaxerxes II of Persia (c400 BCE). [1]

[1]: (Singh 1997, 102) Sarva Daman Singh. 1997. Ancient Indian Warfare: With Special Reference to the Vedic Period. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. Delhi.


Indian iron smiths invented the ’wootz’ method of steel creation between 550-450 BCE. The Greek physician Ctesias of Cnidus commented on an Indian steel sword in the possession of Artaxerxes II of Persia (c400 BCE). [1]

[1]: (Singh 1997, 102) Sarva Daman Singh. 1997. Ancient Indian Warfare: With Special Reference to the Vedic Period. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. Delhi.


Copper:
present

Likely used primarily for ornamental reasons.


Bronze:
present

’Usually replaced by steel but likely used for ornamental reasons and for handles if not for bladed weapons.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
unknown

Unknown: temple reliefs, the main source for information on Hoysala warfare, "provide no information, however, on how forts were attacked." [1]

[1]: (Sardar 2007, p. 32


Sling Siege Engine:
unknown

Unknown: temple reliefs, the main source for information on Hoysala warfare, "provide no information, however, on how forts were attacked." [1]

[1]: (Sardar 2007, p. 32


Last reference was for the Satavahana period.


Self Bow:
present

"The Hindus used bows made of cane or bamboos which were inferior in range, accuracy and penetrative power when compared to the composite bows." [1] Composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but "after the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India." [1]

[1]: (Roy 2011, 122) Kaushik Roy. Historiographical Survey of the Writings on Indian Military History. Sabyasachi Bhattacharya. ed. 2011. Approaches to History: Essays in Indian Historiography. Primus Books. Delhi.


Javelin:
present

"Images of Skanda abound in the outer walls sculpture of many Hoysala temples." Skanda, the ’war general of gods’, "is sometimes depicted with many weapons including: a sword, a javelin, a mace, a discus and a bow although more usually he is depicted wielding a sakti or spear." [1]

[1]: (Chugh 2016) Lalit Chugh. 2016. Karnataka’s Rich Heritage. Art and Architecture. From Prehistoric Times to the Hoysala Period. Notion Press. Chennai.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

"The age of Turkish rule in India can be divided into two periods, the Afghan period from the 1200s to the 1500s and the Mughal period from the 1500s to the 1800s. Firearms arrived in India during the Afghan period and began to change the conduct of warfare in the Mughal period." [1]

[1]: (Chase 2003, p. 129)


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
unknown

Unknown: temple reliefs, the main source for information on Hoysala warfare, "provide no information, however, on how forts were attacked." [1]

[1]: (Sardar 2007, p. 32


Crossbow:
present

"The hand crossbow was usd on Indian battlefields probably from the third century A.D. It was mainly used as an infantry weapon and occasionally as a cavalry weapon. A Sanskrit inscription at Avanthipuram, in South India, reads: ’... Of him who has the name of Ananta impelled with speed and skillfully discharged from the machines of his bow fitted with the well stretched string....’ Obviously, the machine referred to was a hand crossbow." [1]

[1]: (Phillips 2016) Henry Pratap Phillips. 2016. The History and Chronology of Gunpowder and Gunpowder Weapons (c.1000 to 1850). Notion Press.


Composite Bow:
absent

"The Hindus used bows made of cane or bamboos which were inferior in range, accuracy and penetrative power when compared to the composite bows." [1] Composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but "after the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India." [1]

[1]: (Roy 2011, 122) Kaushik Roy. Historiographical Survey of the Writings on Indian Military History. Sabyasachi Bhattacharya. ed. 2011. Approaches to History: Essays in Indian Historiography. Primus Books. Delhi.


Weapon used only in the New World.


Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

"The weapons carried by soldiers can also be discerned in [Hoysala temple] reliefs, including lances, swords, maces and shields." [1] Skanda, the ’war general of gods’, "is sometimes depicted with many weapons including: a sword, a javelin, a mace, a discus and a bow although more usually he is depicted wielding a sakti or spear." [2] Hoysala infantry had maces. [3]

[1]: (Sardar 2007, p. 32

[2]: (Chugh 2016) Lalit Chugh. 2016. Karnataka’s Rich Heritage. Art and Architecture. From Prehistoric Times to the Hoysala Period. Notion Press. Chennai.

[3]: (Roy 2013) Kaushik Roy. 2013 Military Manpower, Armies and Warfare in South Asia. Routledge. London.


"The Hoysala Army could be taken as a microcosm of the force structure of the Hindu polities in Deccan and South India. The infantry carried bamboo bows, swords, spears and shields." [1] Skanda, the ’war general of gods’, "is sometimes depicted with many weapons including: a sword, a javelin, a mace, a discus and a bow although more usually he is depicted wielding a sakti or spear." [2]

[1]: (Roy 2015, 98) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.

[2]: (Chugh 2016) Lalit Chugh. 2016. Karnataka’s Rich Heritage. Art and Architecture. From Prehistoric Times to the Hoysala Period. Notion Press. Chennai.


"The Hoysala Army could be taken as a microcosm of the force structure of the Hindu polities in Deccan and South India. The infantry carried bamboo bows, swords, spears and shields." [1] Skanda, the ’war general of gods’, "is sometimes depicted with many weapons including: a sword, a javelin, a mace, a discus and a bow although more usually he is depicted wielding a sakti or spear." [2]

[1]: (Roy 2015, 98) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.

[2]: (Chugh 2016) Lalit Chugh. 2016. Karnataka’s Rich Heritage. Art and Architecture. From Prehistoric Times to the Hoysala Period. Notion Press. Chennai.


Polearm:
present

"The cavalrymen carried one-handed as well as heavy two-handed lances." [1] "Hoysala cavalrymen were lancers." [1] Hoysala infantry units had "pikes, lances, swords, maces and bows and arrows." [2]

[1]: (Roy 2015, 98) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.

[2]: (Roy 2013) Kaushik Roy. 2013 Military Manpower, Armies and Warfare in South Asia. Routledge. London.



Battle Axe:
present

"There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo." [1]

[1]: (Eraly 2011, 169) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.


Animals used in warfare

[1] "Hoysala cavalrymen were lancers." [2] "In the classical age, Indian armies were still organized, as they had been a thousand years earlier, into four divisions: infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants." [3]

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 117

[2]: (Roy 2015, 98) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.

[3]: (Eraly 2011, 163) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.


Elephant:
present

[1] "In the classical age, Indian armies were still organized, as they had been a thousand years earlier, into four divisions: infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants." [2] "But there can be little doubt that war-elephants were not used in the same numbers under the Islamic dynasties of India as they were in the early medieval period and before. We have seen that the Arabic sources described the most important ninth- and tenth-century Hindu dynasties as equipped with tens of thousands or more elephants of various kinds. Although it is unlikely that these numbers indicated war-elephants in a state of readiness - they probably included the guessed number of untamed and half-tamed ones -, and although some of the figures are contradictory, they are larger than those of later times." [3]

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 117

[2]: (Eraly 2011, 163) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.

[3]: (Wink 1997, 102-103) Andre Wink. 1997. Al-Hind. The Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Volume II. The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest 11th-13th Centuries. BRILL. Leiden.


Donkey:
present

In ancient India the buffalo, bullock, yak, goat, camel, elephant, horse, ass and the mule were all used for transport [1] [2] in different regions according to local conditions. [2]

[1]: (Mishra 1987, 83) Kamal Kishore Mishra. 1987. Police Administration in Ancient India. Mittal Publications. Delhi.

[2]: Prakash Charan Prasad. 1977. Foreign Trade and Commerce in Ancient India. Abhinav Publications. New Delhi.



Camel:
present

In ancient India the buffalo, bullock, yak, goat, camel, elephant, horse, ass and the mule were all used for transport [1] [2] in different regions according to local conditions. [2] At its maximum extent the Western Chalukya Empire stretches quite north, close to camel habitat.

[1]: (Mishra 1987, 83) Kamal Kishore Mishra. 1987. Police Administration in Ancient India. Mittal Publications. Delhi.

[2]: Prakash Charan Prasad. 1977. Foreign Trade and Commerce in Ancient India. Abhinav Publications. New Delhi.


Armor

Shield:
present

"The Hoysala Army could be taken as a microcosm of the force structure of the Hindu polities in Deccan and South India. The infantry carried bamboo bows, swords, spears and shields." [1]

[1]: (Roy 2015, 98) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.


Scaled Armor:
unknown

Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, and corselet. [1]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Plate Armor:
present

Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, corselet, and breast plate. [1]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Limb Protection:
present

Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a thigh guard. [1]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Leather Cloth:
present

Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions "dense structures made of the skin, hooves, and horns/tusks of the river dolphin, rhinocerous, Dhenuka, and cattle" used as armor. [1]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Laminar Armor:
unknown

Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, and corselet. [1]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Helmet:
present

Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a helmet. [1]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Chainmail:
present

In Ancient India soldiers of the Gupta Empire who could afford to do so and were willing to bear the heat (or for night operations?) wore chain mail. [1]

[1]: (Rowell 2015 89) Rebecca Rowell. 2015. Ancient India. Abdo Publishing. Minneapolis.


Breastplate:
present

Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a breastplate. [1]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

"Chalukyas, Pallavas and the Cholas are noted for their naval forces." [1] Hoysalas are not mentioned and since the polity was landlocked it is extremely likely they had no naval forces.

[1]: (Eraly 2011, 163) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.





Religion Tolerance
Religious Landscape
Theological Syncretism of Different Religions:
present

“Here we have to address the issue of the conversion of Vishnuvardhana from Jainism to Vaishnavism. It is not unreasonable to suppose that Ramanuja’s Vaishnava philosophy greatly influenced the cultural and religious history of not merely the Kannada region but Kerala as well. After it, Jain communities of Kannada region including the present Wayanad district of Kerala possibly divided into two groups and one began to profess Vaishnavism. But the ultimate result was the religious assimilation of these two groups. It is clearly evident from the Gowda communities of Wayanad region such as Vaishnava Gowda and Jain Gowdas. […] The  Janardhanagudi and  Vishnugudi Jain basties in Punchavayal near Panamaram are so confusing that it is difficult to distinguish them as either Jain or a Hindu Vishnu temple. The architectural and sculptural features of these temples indicate that they belong to twelfth century CE.” [1]

[1]: (Dhiraj 2016: 639-640) Dhiraj, M.S., 2016. “The Dynamics of a Supra-Regional Power: Hoysalas in the Medieval History of Kerala”, Heritage: Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies in Archaeology, 4, pp. 637-652. Seshat URL: Zotero link: 28QBMXX7


Syncretism of Religious Practices at the Level of Individual Believers:
present

“Many scholars have felt impelled to emphasise the toleration of different sects and denominations evinced by Indian rulers. [...] It seems fairly clear that, traditionally in India, people readily transferred or distributed their allegiance between different sects, seeing no logical inconsistency in approaching different gods for different purposes, and that this apparently syncretic style of religious behaviour encouraged a relaxed attitude to what others did as well; evidently, too, rulers generally extended their acceptance of this practice." [1]

[1]: (Copland, Mabbett, Roy, Brittlebank and Bowles 2012: 74-77) Seshat URL: Zotero link: ATSZ6QBU


Widespread Religion:
1. Most widespread: Saivist Hinduism (Over half of the population)

“Vaisnavism was not as popular as Saivism [in Karnataka] It was introduced into the Kanca region in the late tenth or early eleventh century by Tamils from the Cola kingdom who established important Vaisnava centers on the Kaveri at Tadi Malingi, Mogur, Maddur, Agara, Bannur, Dodda, Arasikere, and Tonnur. Additional groups of Tamil Brahimins who migrated to Krantaka slightly later were responsible for the conversion of a segment of the population in the area around the villages of Malur, Chikka Malur, Malurapatna, Dulur, and Honganur. However, the dominant Saiva populations in these areas would have posed a significant challenge to further Vaisnava conversions in the region. As a result, the belief system only became popular after 1116 when it was reintroduced into Gangavadi by Ramanujacarya. Though the leader’s conversion of Hoysala Visnuvardhana, the ruler’s acceptance of Sri Vaisnavism, it is clear from the account provided above that the workship of Visnu was established over a century before his arrival in the state.” [1] NB however “It seems fairly clear that, traditionally in India, people readily transferred or distributed their allegiance between different sects, seeing no logical inconsistency in approaching different gods for different purposes, and that this apparently syncretic style of religious behaviour encouraged a relaxed attitude to what others did as well; evidently, too, rulers generally extended their acceptance of this practice.” [2]

[1]: (Banerji 2019: 28) Banerji, N. A. (2019). Sectarianism in Medieval India: Saiva, Vaisnava, and Syncretistic Temple Architecture in Karnataka. United States: Lexington Books. Seshat URL: Zotero link: N5IXX7PX

[2]: (Copland, Mabbett, Roy, Brittlebank and Bowles 2012: 74-77) Seshat URL: Zotero link: ATSZ6QBU

Widespread Religion:
2. Second most widespread: Vaisnavist Hinduism (Sizeable minority)

“Vaisnavism was not as popular as Saivism [in Karnataka] It was introduced into the Kanca region in the late tenth or early eleventh century by Tamils from the Cola kingdom who established important Vaisnava centers on the Kaveri at Tadi Malingi, Mogur, Maddur, Agara, Bannur, Dodda, Arasikere, and Tonnur. Additional groups of Tamil Brahimins who migrated to Krantaka slightly later were responsible for the conversion of a segment of the population in the area around the villages of Malur, Chikka Malur, Malurapatna, Dulur, and Honganur. However, the dominant Saiva populations in these areas would have posed a significant challenge to further Vaisnava conversions in the region. As a result, the belief system only became popular after 1116 when it was reintroduced into Gangavadi by Ramanujacarya. Though the leader’s conversion of Hoysala Visnuvardhana, the ruler’s acceptance of Sri Vaisnavism, it is clear from the account provided above that the workship of Visnu was established over a century before his arrival in the state.” [1] NB however “It seems fairly clear that, traditionally in India, people readily transferred or distributed their allegiance between different sects, seeing no logical inconsistency in approaching different gods for different purposes, and that this apparently syncretic style of religious behaviour encouraged a relaxed attitude to what others did as well; evidently, too, rulers generally extended their acceptance of this practice.” [2]

[1]: (Banerji 2019: 28) Banerji, N. A. (2019). Sectarianism in Medieval India: Saiva, Vaisnava, and Syncretistic Temple Architecture in Karnataka. United States: Lexington Books. Seshat URL: Zotero link: N5IXX7PX

[2]: (Copland, Mabbett, Roy, Brittlebank and Bowles 2012: 74-77) Seshat URL: Zotero link: ATSZ6QBU

Widespread Religion:
3. Third most widespread: Jainism (Sizeable minority)

“Despite their change of faith the Hoysalas continued to fund Jain temples.” [1]

[1]: (Sahai 1994: 66) Sahai, Surendra. "Temples of Karnataka." Architecture Plus Design, vol. 11, no. 2, 1994, pp. 64-67. Seshat URL: Zotero link: C6Q3SFME


Official Religion:
Vaisnavist Hinduism

“Despite the fact that most Hoysala rulers were Vaisnavites, Siva temples are numerically greater than those built by other sects.” [1] “There is evidence to presume that the Hoysala dynasty came to power with the help of a Jaina ascetic by the name of Shantideva. Bittiga, the considered greatest king of the Hoysalas, being his reign, that lasted from 1106 to 1141, as a Jaina. Later, having come under the sway of the erudite Hindu teacher Ramanuja, he converted to the Vishnuite branch of Hinduism and changed his name to Vishnuvardhana. None the less, his queen, Shantidevi, remained an active follower of Jaina religion. Her steadfastness, one may assume, will have facilitated the continuous building of Jaina temples at Halebid and other places in the Hoysala kingdom.” [2] “The Hoysalas were Jainas up to King Bittideva (1104-1141) who was converted to Visnuism by the Visnuite reformer Ramanuja, and he assumed the name Visnuvardhana. His first wife, Santaledevi, remained faithful to Jainism. […] It appeas that a few Hoysala-kings were converted back to Jainism, as its influence must have been generally strong every time in the court, because a number of excellent ministers and generals were worshippers of the Tirthankaras. Therefore, the decline of the Hoysala-empire at the beginning of the 14th century robbed Jainism of a significant support.” [3]

[1]: (Banerji 2019: 28) Banerji, N. A. (2019). Sectarianism in Medieval India: Saiva, Vaisnava, and Syncretistic Temple Architecture in Karnataka. United States: Lexington Books. Seshat URL: Zotero link: N5IXX7PX

[2]: (Titze and Bruhn 1998 :49) Titze, Kurt, Bruhn, Klaus, (1998). Jainism: A Pictorial Guide to the Religion of Non-violence. India: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. Seshat URL: Zotero link: NB9JH8A6

[3]: (von Glasenapp 1999: 65) Glasenapp, H. v. (1999). Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation. India: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. Seshat URL: Zotero link: X9DTJTJC


Elites Religion:
Vaisnavist Hinduism

“Despite the fact that most Hoysala rulers were Vaisnavites, Siva temples are numerically greater than those built by other sects.” [1] “There is evidence to presume that the Hoysala dynasty came to power with the help of a Jaina ascetic by the name of Shantideva. Bittiga, the considered greatest king of the Hoysalas, being his reign, that lasted from 1106 to 1141, as a Jaina. Later, having come under the sway of the erudite Hindu teacher Ramanuja, he converted to the Vishnuite branch of Hinduism and changed his name to Vishnuvardhana. None the less, his queen, Shantidevi, remained an active follower of Jaina religion. Her steadfastness, one may assume, will have facilitated the continuous building of Jaina temples at Halebid and other places in the Hoysala kingdom.” [2] “The Hoysalas were Jainas up to King Bittideva (1104-1141) who was converted to Visnuism by the Visnuite reformer Ramanuja, and he assumed the name Visnuvardhana. His first wife, Santaledevi, remained faithful to Jainism. […] It appeas that a few Hoysala-kings were converted back to Jainism, as its influence must have been generally strong every time in the court, because a number of excellent ministers and generals were worshippers of the Tirthankaras. Therefore, the decline of the Hoysala-empire at the beginning of the 14th century robbed Jainism of a significant support.” [3]

[1]: (Banerji 2019: 28) Banerji, N. A. (2019). Sectarianism in Medieval India: Saiva, Vaisnava, and Syncretistic Temple Architecture in Karnataka. United States: Lexington Books. Seshat URL: Zotero link: N5IXX7PX

[2]: (Titze and Bruhn 1998 :49) Titze, Kurt, Bruhn, Klaus, (1998). Jainism: A Pictorial Guide to the Religion of Non-violence. India: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. Seshat URL: Zotero link: NB9JH8A6

[3]: (von Glasenapp 1999: 65) Glasenapp, H. v. (1999). Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation. India: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. Seshat URL: Zotero link: X9DTJTJC


Government Restrictions
Taxes Based on Religious Adherence or on Religious Activities and Institutions:
absent

‘‘‘NB the following quote generally describes the will of the Hoysalas rulers to maintain religious harmony. “While King Vishnuvardhana and his descendants were Vaishnava by faith, records show that the Hoysalas maintained religious harmony by building as many temples dedicated to Shiva as they did to Visnu.” [1] “An important aspect of Hoysala rule, until its decline, was its religious tolerance, which supported social cohesion within the empire. Under the influence of Ramanuja and other divines, Vishnuvardhana (r.1108–1152) was the first of the dynasty to convert to the increasingly popular Hindu Vaishnava faith (from Jainism, and changing his name from Bittiga in the process). He was inspired to build magnificent new temples at his capital of Dorasamudra (transferred from Belur) and elsewhere, but focused on the heartland of the Hoysala kingdom. Some 1500 temples are said to have been built during the Hoysala period, mostly dedicated to Vishnu and Shiva. Jainism continued also, and at least one of Vishnuvardhana’s queens, Shantala Devi, and a daughter were Jains. The former is known to have commissioned the (Vaishnava) Kappe Channigaraya temple (1117) at Belur, sited next to Vishnuvardhana’s Chennakesava temple of the same date.” [2]

[1]: (Bhargava 2010:1308) Bhargava, P. (2010). HOYASALA TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE – “THE LATER CHALUKYAN STYLE.” Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, 71, 1307–1309. Seshat URL: Zotero link: NKX6XBSA

[2]: (Dalziel 2016 online) Dalziel, N. R. (2016). Hoysala Empire. In J. Mackenzie (Ed.), The encyclopedia of empire. Wiley. Seshat URL: Zotero link: QCBZAH3X


Frequency of Governmental Violence Against Religious Groups:
very rarely

NB the following quote only refers to the reign of the first ruler [1108-1152], and it refers to the tolerance of Jainism, but we cannot extend the assumption of lack of repression to all the religious groups in this polity. “We have inscriptional evidences to show that Vishnuvardhana’s general Punnisa Raja used his wealth to reinstate Jain basties which were ruined during his expedition in Gangavadi possibly Kerala as well. The Janardhanagudi and Vishnugudi could be the reconstructed temples of Punnisa Raja. A Shravanabelagola record (1120 CE) says that Vishnuvardhana’s minister  maha Pradhanadanda nayaka Ganga-Raja got that title by restoring innumerable ruined Jina temples in all places to their former condition. Another Shravanabelagola record (1123 CE) describes the setting up of a basti namely  Savatigandhavarana by his loveable wife Santala Devi. These evidences prove that even after Vishnuvardhana embraced Vaishnavism, he was not against Jainism and his family members and subordinates who were still following that faith. We have no evidence to show that Vishnuvardhana persecuted the Jains.” [1] NB the following quote only refers to the Narasimha I (c.1152-1173 CE). “Narasimha I seem to have ruled the inherited vast kingdom peacefully.” [1] NB the following quote does not address violence directly, rather it generally describes the will of the Hoysalas rulers to maintain religious harmony. “While King Vishnuvardhana and his descendants were Vaishnava by faith, records show that the Hoysalas maintained religious harmony by building as many temples dedicated to Shiva as they did to Visnu.” [2] “An important aspect of Hoysala rule, until its decline, was its religious tolerance, which supported social cohesion within the empire. Under the influence of Ramanuja and other divines, Vishnuvardhana (r.1108–1152) was the first of the dynasty to convert to the increasingly popular Hindu Vaishnava faith (from Jainism, and changing his name from Bittiga in the process). He was inspired to build magnificent new temples at his capital of Dorasamudra (transferred from Belur) and elsewhere, but focused on the heartland of the Hoysala kingdom. Some 1500 temples are said to have been built during the Hoysala period, mostly dedicated to Vishnu and Shiva. Jainism continued also, and at least one of Vishnuvardhana’s queens, Shantala Devi, and a daughter were Jains. The former is known to have commissioned the (Vaishnava) Kappe Channigaraya temple (1117) at Belur, sited next to Vishnuvardhana’s Chennakesava temple of the same date.” [3]

[1]: (Dhiraj 2016: 640) Dhiraj, M.S., 2016. “The Dynamics of a Supra-Regional Power: Hoysalas in the Medieval History of Kerala”, Heritage: Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies in Archaeology, 4, pp. 637-652. Seshat URL: Zotero link: 28QBMXX7

[2]: (Bhargava 2010:1308) Bhargava, P. (2010). HOYASALA TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE – “THE LATER CHALUKYAN STYLE.” Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, 71, 1307–1309. Seshat URL: Zotero link: NKX6XBSA

[3]: (Dalziel 2016 online) Dalziel, N. R. (2016). Hoysala Empire. In J. Mackenzie (Ed.), The encyclopedia of empire. Wiley. Seshat URL: Zotero link: QCBZAH3X


Government Restrictions on Religious Education:
absent

‘‘‘NB the following quote generally describes the will of the Hoysalas rulers to maintain religious harmony. “While King Vishnuvardhana and his descendants were Vaishnava by faith, records show that the Hoysalas maintained religious harmony by building as many temples dedicated to Shiva as they did to Visnu.” [1] “An important aspect of Hoysala rule, until its decline, was its religious tolerance, which supported social cohesion within the empire. Under the influence of Ramanuja and other divines, Vishnuvardhana (r.1108–1152) was the first of the dynasty to convert to the increasingly popular Hindu Vaishnava faith (from Jainism, and changing his name from Bittiga in the process). He was inspired to build magnificent new temples at his capital of Dorasamudra (transferred from Belur) and elsewhere, but focused on the heartland of the Hoysala kingdom. Some 1500 temples are said to have been built during the Hoysala period, mostly dedicated to Vishnu and Shiva. Jainism continued also, and at least one of Vishnuvardhana’s queens, Shantala Devi, and a daughter were Jains. The former is known to have commissioned the (Vaishnava) Kappe Channigaraya temple (1117) at Belur, sited next to Vishnuvardhana’s Chennakesava temple of the same date.” [2]

[1]: (Bhargava 2010:1308) Bhargava, P. (2010). HOYASALA TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE – “THE LATER CHALUKYAN STYLE.” Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, 71, 1307–1309. Seshat URL: Zotero link: NKX6XBSA

[2]: (Dalziel 2016 online) Dalziel, N. R. (2016). Hoysala Empire. In J. Mackenzie (Ed.), The encyclopedia of empire. Wiley. Seshat URL: Zotero link: QCBZAH3X


Government Restrictions on Public Worship:
absent

‘‘‘NB the following quote does not address violence directly, rather it generally describes the will of the Hoysalas rulers to maintain religious harmony. “While King Vishnuvardhana and his descendants were Vaishnava by faith, records show that the Hoysalas maintained religious harmony by building as many temples dedicated to Shiva as they did to Visnu.” [1] “An important aspect of Hoysala rule, until its decline, was its religious tolerance, which supported social cohesion within the empire. Under the influence of Ramanuja and other divines, Vishnuvardhana (r.1108–1152) was the first of the dynasty to convert to the increasingly popular Hindu Vaishnava faith (from Jainism, and changing his name from Bittiga in the process). He was inspired to build magnificent new temples at his capital of Dorasamudra (transferred from Belur) and elsewhere, but focused on the heartland of the Hoysala kingdom. Some 1500 temples are said to have been built during the Hoysala period, mostly dedicated to Vishnu and Shiva. Jainism continued also, and at least one of Vishnuvardhana’s queens, Shantala Devi, and a daughter were Jains. The former is known to have commissioned the (Vaishnava) Kappe Channigaraya temple (1117) at Belur, sited next to Vishnuvardhana’s Chennakesava temple of the same date.” [2]

[1]: (Bhargava 2010:1308) Bhargava, P. (2010). HOYASALA TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE – “THE LATER CHALUKYAN STYLE.” Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, 71, 1307–1309. Seshat URL: Zotero link: NKX6XBSA

[2]: (Dalziel 2016 online) Dalziel, N. R. (2016). Hoysala Empire. In J. Mackenzie (Ed.), The encyclopedia of empire. Wiley. Seshat URL: Zotero link: QCBZAH3X


Government Restrictions on Public Proselytizing:
absent

‘‘‘NB the following quote generally describes the will of the Hoysalas rulers to maintain religious harmony. “While King Vishnuvardhana and his descendants were Vaishnava by faith, records show that the Hoysalas maintained religious harmony by building as many temples dedicated to Shiva as they did to Visnu.” [1] “An important aspect of Hoysala rule, until its decline, was its religious tolerance, which supported social cohesion within the empire. Under the influence of Ramanuja and other divines, Vishnuvardhana (r.1108–1152) was the first of the dynasty to convert to the increasingly popular Hindu Vaishnava faith (from Jainism, and changing his name from Bittiga in the process). He was inspired to build magnificent new temples at his capital of Dorasamudra (transferred from Belur) and elsewhere, but focused on the heartland of the Hoysala kingdom. Some 1500 temples are said to have been built during the Hoysala period, mostly dedicated to Vishnu and Shiva. Jainism continued also, and at least one of Vishnuvardhana’s queens, Shantala Devi, and a daughter were Jains. The former is known to have commissioned the (Vaishnava) Kappe Channigaraya temple (1117) at Belur, sited next to Vishnuvardhana’s Chennakesava temple of the same date.” [2]

[1]: (Bhargava 2010:1308) Bhargava, P. (2010). HOYASALA TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE – “THE LATER CHALUKYAN STYLE.” Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, 71, 1307–1309. Seshat URL: Zotero link: NKX6XBSA

[2]: (Dalziel 2016 online) Dalziel, N. R. (2016). Hoysala Empire. In J. Mackenzie (Ed.), The encyclopedia of empire. Wiley. Seshat URL: Zotero link: QCBZAH3X


Government Restrictions on Property Ownership for Adherents of Any Religious Group:
absent

‘‘‘NB the following quote generally describes the will of the Hoysalas rulers to maintain religious harmony. “While King Vishnuvardhana and his descendants were Vaishnava by faith, records show that the Hoysalas maintained religious harmony by building as many temples dedicated to Shiva as they did to Visnu.” [1] “An important aspect of Hoysala rule, until its decline, was its religious tolerance, which supported social cohesion within the empire. Under the influence of Ramanuja and other divines, Vishnuvardhana (r.1108–1152) was the first of the dynasty to convert to the increasingly popular Hindu Vaishnava faith (from Jainism, and changing his name from Bittiga in the process). He was inspired to build magnificent new temples at his capital of Dorasamudra (transferred from Belur) and elsewhere, but focused on the heartland of the Hoysala kingdom. Some 1500 temples are said to have been built during the Hoysala period, mostly dedicated to Vishnu and Shiva. Jainism continued also, and at least one of Vishnuvardhana’s queens, Shantala Devi, and a daughter were Jains. The former is known to have commissioned the (Vaishnava) Kappe Channigaraya temple (1117) at Belur, sited next to Vishnuvardhana’s Chennakesava temple of the same date.” [2]

[1]: (Bhargava 2010:1308) Bhargava, P. (2010). HOYASALA TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE – “THE LATER CHALUKYAN STYLE.” Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, 71, 1307–1309. Seshat URL: Zotero link: NKX6XBSA

[2]: (Dalziel 2016 online) Dalziel, N. R. (2016). Hoysala Empire. In J. Mackenzie (Ed.), The encyclopedia of empire. Wiley. Seshat URL: Zotero link: QCBZAH3X


Government Restrictions on Conversion:
absent

‘‘‘NB the following quote generally describes the will of the Hoysalas rulers to maintain religious harmony. “While King Vishnuvardhana and his descendants were Vaishnava by faith, records show that the Hoysalas maintained religious harmony by building as many temples dedicated to Shiva as they did to Visnu.” [1] “An important aspect of Hoysala rule, until its decline, was its religious tolerance, which supported social cohesion within the empire. Under the influence of Ramanuja and other divines, Vishnuvardhana (r.1108–1152) was the first of the dynasty to convert to the increasingly popular Hindu Vaishnava faith (from Jainism, and changing his name from Bittiga in the process). He was inspired to build magnificent new temples at his capital of Dorasamudra (transferred from Belur) and elsewhere, but focused on the heartland of the Hoysala kingdom. Some 1500 temples are said to have been built during the Hoysala period, mostly dedicated to Vishnu and Shiva. Jainism continued also, and at least one of Vishnuvardhana’s queens, Shantala Devi, and a daughter were Jains. The former is known to have commissioned the (Vaishnava) Kappe Channigaraya temple (1117) at Belur, sited next to Vishnuvardhana’s Chennakesava temple of the same date.” [2]

[1]: (Bhargava 2010:1308) Bhargava, P. (2010). HOYASALA TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE – “THE LATER CHALUKYAN STYLE.” Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, 71, 1307–1309. Seshat URL: Zotero link: NKX6XBSA

[2]: (Dalziel 2016 online) Dalziel, N. R. (2016). Hoysala Empire. In J. Mackenzie (Ed.), The encyclopedia of empire. Wiley. Seshat URL: Zotero link: QCBZAH3X


Government Restrictions on Construction of Religious Buildings:
absent

‘‘‘NB the following quote generally describes the will of the Hoysalas rulers to maintain religious harmony. “While King Vishnuvardhana and his descendants were Vaishnava by faith, records show that the Hoysalas maintained religious harmony by building as many temples dedicated to Shiva as they did to Visnu.” [1] “An important aspect of Hoysala rule, until its decline, was its religious tolerance, which supported social cohesion within the empire. Under the influence of Ramanuja and other divines, Vishnuvardhana (r.1108–1152) was the first of the dynasty to convert to the increasingly popular Hindu Vaishnava faith (from Jainism, and changing his name from Bittiga in the process). He was inspired to build magnificent new temples at his capital of Dorasamudra (transferred from Belur) and elsewhere, but focused on the heartland of the Hoysala kingdom. Some 1500 temples are said to have been built during the Hoysala period, mostly dedicated to Vishnu and Shiva. Jainism continued also, and at least one of Vishnuvardhana’s queens, Shantala Devi, and a daughter were Jains. The former is known to have commissioned the (Vaishnava) Kappe Channigaraya temple (1117) at Belur, sited next to Vishnuvardhana’s Chennakesava temple of the same date.” [2]

[1]: (Bhargava 2010:1308) Bhargava, P. (2010). HOYASALA TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE – “THE LATER CHALUKYAN STYLE.” Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, 71, 1307–1309. Seshat URL: Zotero link: NKX6XBSA

[2]: (Dalziel 2016 online) Dalziel, N. R. (2016). Hoysala Empire. In J. Mackenzie (Ed.), The encyclopedia of empire. Wiley. Seshat URL: Zotero link: QCBZAH3X


Government Restrictions on Circulation of Religious Literature:
absent

NB the following quote generally describes the will of the Hoysalas rulers to maintain religious harmony. “While King Vishnuvardhana and his descendants were Vaishnava by faith, records show that the Hoysalas maintained religious harmony by building as many temples dedicated to Shiva as they did to Visnu.” [1] “An important aspect of Hoysala rule, until its decline, was its religious tolerance, which supported social cohesion within the empire. Under the influence of Ramanuja and other divines, Vishnuvardhana (r.1108–1152) was the first of the dynasty to convert to the increasingly popular Hindu Vaishnava faith (from Jainism, and changing his name from Bittiga in the process). He was inspired to build magnificent new temples at his capital of Dorasamudra (transferred from Belur) and elsewhere, but focused on the heartland of the Hoysala kingdom. Some 1500 temples are said to have been built during the Hoysala period, mostly dedicated to Vishnu and Shiva. Jainism continued also, and at least one of Vishnuvardhana’s queens, Shantala Devi, and a daughter were Jains. The former is known to have commissioned the (Vaishnava) Kappe Channigaraya temple (1117) at Belur, sited next to Vishnuvardhana’s Chennakesava temple of the same date.” [2]

[1]: (Bhargava 2010:1308) Bhargava, P. (2010). HOYASALA TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE – “THE LATER CHALUKYAN STYLE.” Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, 71, 1307–1309. Seshat URL: Zotero link: NKX6XBSA

[2]: (Dalziel 2016 online) Dalziel, N. R. (2016). Hoysala Empire. In J. Mackenzie (Ed.), The encyclopedia of empire. Wiley. Seshat URL: Zotero link: QCBZAH3X


Government Pressure to Convert:
absent

‘‘‘NB the following quote generally describes the will of the Hoysalas rulers to maintain religious harmony. “While King Vishnuvardhana and his descendants were Vaishnava by faith, records show that the Hoysalas maintained religious harmony by building as many temples dedicated to Shiva as they did to Visnu.” [1] “An important aspect of Hoysala rule, until its decline, was its religious tolerance, which supported social cohesion within the empire. Under the influence of Ramanuja and other divines, Vishnuvardhana (r.1108–1152) was the first of the dynasty to convert to the increasingly popular Hindu Vaishnava faith (from Jainism, and changing his name from Bittiga in the process). He was inspired to build magnificent new temples at his capital of Dorasamudra (transferred from Belur) and elsewhere, but focused on the heartland of the Hoysala kingdom. Some 1500 temples are said to have been built during the Hoysala period, mostly dedicated to Vishnu and Shiva. Jainism continued also, and at least one of Vishnuvardhana’s queens, Shantala Devi, and a daughter were Jains. The former is known to have commissioned the (Vaishnava) Kappe Channigaraya temple (1117) at Belur, sited next to Vishnuvardhana’s Chennakesava temple of the same date.” [2]

[1]: (Bhargava 2010:1308) Bhargava, P. (2010). HOYASALA TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE – “THE LATER CHALUKYAN STYLE.” Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, 71, 1307–1309. Seshat URL: Zotero link: NKX6XBSA

[2]: (Dalziel 2016 online) Dalziel, N. R. (2016). Hoysala Empire. In J. Mackenzie (Ed.), The encyclopedia of empire. Wiley. Seshat URL: Zotero link: QCBZAH3X


Governmental Obligations for Religious Groups to Apply for Official Recognition:
absent

‘‘‘NB the following quote generally describes the will of the Hoysalas rulers to maintain religious harmony. “While King Vishnuvardhana and his descendants were Vaishnava by faith, records show that the Hoysalas maintained religious harmony by building as many temples dedicated to Shiva as they did to Visnu.” [1] “An important aspect of Hoysala rule, until its decline, was its religious tolerance, which supported social cohesion within the empire. Under the influence of Ramanuja and other divines, Vishnuvardhana (r.1108–1152) was the first of the dynasty to convert to the increasingly popular Hindu Vaishnava faith (from Jainism, and changing his name from Bittiga in the process). He was inspired to build magnificent new temples at his capital of Dorasamudra (transferred from Belur) and elsewhere, but focused on the heartland of the Hoysala kingdom. Some 1500 temples are said to have been built during the Hoysala period, mostly dedicated to Vishnu and Shiva. Jainism continued also, and at least one of Vishnuvardhana’s queens, Shantala Devi, and a daughter were Jains. The former is known to have commissioned the (Vaishnava) Kappe Channigaraya temple (1117) at Belur, sited next to Vishnuvardhana’s Chennakesava temple of the same date.” [2]

[1]: (Bhargava 2010:1308) Bhargava, P. (2010). HOYASALA TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE – “THE LATER CHALUKYAN STYLE.” Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, 71, 1307–1309. Seshat URL: Zotero link: NKX6XBSA

[2]: (Dalziel 2016 online) Dalziel, N. R. (2016). Hoysala Empire. In J. Mackenzie (Ed.), The encyclopedia of empire. Wiley. Seshat URL: Zotero link: QCBZAH3X


Government Discrimination Against Religious Groups Taking up Certain Occupations or Functions:
absent

“Many scholars have felt impelled to emphasise the toleration of different sects and denominations evinced by Indian rulers. [...] It seems fairly clear that, traditionally in India, people readily transferred or distributed their allegiance between different sects, seeing no logical inconsistency in approaching different gods for different purposes, and that this apparently syncretic style of religious behaviour encouraged a relaxed attitude to what others did as well; evidently, too, rulers generally extended their acceptance of this practice." [1] “While King Vishnuvardhana and his descendants were Vaishnava by faith, records show that the Hoysalas maintained religious harmony by building as many temples dedicated to Shiva as they did to Visnu.” [2] “An important aspect of Hoysala rule, until its decline, was its religious tolerance, which supported social cohesion within the empire. Under the influence of Ramanuja and other divines, Vishnuvardhana (r.1108–1152) was the first of the dynasty to convert to the increasingly popular Hindu Vaishnava faith (from Jainism, and changing his name from Bittiga in the process). He was inspired to build magnificent new temples at his capital of Dorasamudra (transferred from Belur) and elsewhere, but focused on the heartland of the Hoysala kingdom. Some 1500 temples are said to have been built during the Hoysala period, mostly dedicated to Vishnu and Shiva. Jainism continued also, and at least one of Vishnuvardhana’s queens, Shantala Devi, and a daughter were Jains. The former is known to have commissioned the (Vaishnava) Kappe Channigaraya temple (1117) at Belur, sited next to Vishnuvardhana’s Chennakesava temple of the same date.” [3]

[1]: (Copland, Mabbett, Roy, Brittlebank and Bowles 2012: 74-77) Seshat URL: Zotero link: ATSZ6QBU

[2]: (Bhargava 2010:1308) Bhargava, P. (2010). HOYASALA TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE – “THE LATER CHALUKYAN STYLE.” Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, 71, 1307–1309. Seshat URL: Zotero link: NKX6XBSA

[3]: (Dalziel 2016 online) Dalziel, N. R. (2016). Hoysala Empire. In J. Mackenzie (Ed.), The encyclopedia of empire. Wiley. Seshat URL: Zotero link: QCBZAH3X


Societal Restrictions
Frequency of Societal Violence Against Religious Groups:
very rarely

“Many scholars have felt impelled to emphasise the toleration of different sects and denominations evinced by Indian rulers. [...] It seems fairly clear that, traditionally in India, people readily transferred or distributed their allegiance between different sects, seeing no logical inconsistency in approaching different gods for different purposes, and that this apparently syncretic style of religious behaviour encouraged a relaxed attitude to what others did as well; evidently, too, rulers generally extended their acceptance of this practice." [1]

[1]: (Copland, Mabbett, Roy, Brittlebank and Bowles 2012: 74-77) Seshat URL: Zotero link: ATSZ6QBU


Societal Discrimination Against Religious Groups Taking up Certain Occupations or Functions:
absent

“Many scholars have felt impelled to emphasise the toleration of different sects and denominations evinced by Indian rulers. [...] It seems fairly clear that, traditionally in India, people readily transferred or distributed their allegiance between different sects, seeing no logical inconsistency in approaching different gods for different purposes, and that this apparently syncretic style of religious behaviour encouraged a relaxed attitude to what others did as well; evidently, too, rulers generally extended their acceptance of this practice." [1]

[1]: (Copland, Mabbett, Roy, Brittlebank and Bowles 2012: 74-77) Seshat URL: Zotero link: ATSZ6QBU


Societal Pressure to Convert or Against Conversion:
absent

“Many scholars have felt impelled to emphasise the toleration of different sects and denominations evinced by Indian rulers. [...] It seems fairly clear that, traditionally in India, people readily transferred or distributed their allegiance between different sects, seeing no logical inconsistency in approaching different gods for different purposes, and that this apparently syncretic style of religious behaviour encouraged a relaxed attitude to what others did as well; evidently, too, rulers generally extended their acceptance of this practice." [1] NB even if the following quote specifically mentions the conversion of the king, it also generally refers to what it seems a favourable rather than hostile attitude towards conversion. “And so Saivism, ever an accommodating faith, claimed many converts from among Jaina families; since Jainism had never insisted on the abandoning of caste, and had always availed itself of Hindu imagery and language, the change was easy and smooth, and a conversion on the part even of a king seemed hardly a revolution of importance, except, of course, to the unfortunate gurus of the sect then abandoned.” [2]

[1]: (Copland, Mabbett, Roy, Brittlebank and Bowles 2012: 74-77) Seshat URL: Zotero link: ATSZ6QBU

[2]: (Derrett 1949: 99) Derrett, J. D. M. 1949. The dynastic history of the Hoysala kings, University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies (United Kingdom), Ann Arbor, 1949. Seshat URL: Zotero link: TRAQQP6R


Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.