Home Region:  Central India (South Asia)

Chalukyas of Kalyani

EQ 2020  in_kalyani_chalukya_emp / InChaKl

The Chalukyas of Kalyani ruled over a territory roughly corresponding to the modern-day Indian states of Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Telangana, as well as the Andhra Pradesh districts of Kurnool and Anantapur. [1] Taila II re-established Chalukya rule over the Deccan by inflicting several military defeats on the Rashtrakutas and sacking their capital in 973 CE. [2] Then, in the 12th century, the Chalukyas lost their empire twice: first, briefly, to the Kalachuris, and then, permanently, in 1191, to the Hoysalas and the Yadavas. [3] This polity probably reached its peak during the reign of Vikramaditya VI (1076-1126 CE): during this relatively peaceful time, the capital flourished, as did scholarship, and the Chalukyas’ territories and influence expanded. [4]
Population and political organization
At the head of this polity was an emperor, aided at court by his yuvaraja (crown prince) and ministers, and represented in the provinces by feudal subordinates. [5] According to some sources, the Chalukyan administration was insufficiently centralized, and allowed too much freedom and autonomy to provincial rulers. [6]
No population estimates for the polity as a whole could be found in the literature. However, the capital, Kalyani, is estimated to have been home to between 50,000 and 125,000 inhabitants in the 12th century CE. [7]

[1]: (Kamath 1980) Suryanath Kamath. 1980. A Concise History of Karnataka: From Pre-historic Times to the Present. Bangalore: Archana Prakashana.

[2]: (Murthy and Ramakrishnan 1978, 91) H. V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan. 1978. A History of Karnataka. New Delhi: S. Chand.

[3]: (Murthy and Ramakrishnan 1978, 96) H. V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan. 1978. A History of Karnataka. New Delhi: S. Chand.

[4]: (Murthy and Ramakrishnan 1978, 92-94) H. V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan. 1978. A History of Karnataka. New Delhi: S. Chand.

[5]: (Murthy and Ramakrishnan 1978, 91-96) H. V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan. 1978. A History of Karnataka. New Delhi: S. Chand.

[6]: (Kamath 1980, 116) Suryanath Kamath. 1980. A Concise History of Karnataka: From Pre-historic Times to the Present. Bangalore: Archana Prakashana.

[7]: Christopher Chase-Dunn 2001, personal communication.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
43 P  
Original Name:
Chalukyas of Kalyani  
Capital:
Kalyana  
Manyakheta  
Alternative Name:
Calukya Empire  
Kalyani Dynasty  
Chalukyas of Kalyani  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,076 CE ➜ 1,126 CE]  
Duration:
[973 CE ➜ 1,191 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
Succeeding Entity:
Hoysala Empire  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Rashtrakuta Empire  
Degree of Centralization:
loose  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Dravidian  
Indo-Iranian  
Language:
Kannada  
Sanskrit  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Hinduism  
Religion Family:
Saiva Traditions  
Alternate Religion Genus:
Hinduism  
Alternate Religion Family:
Vaisnava Traditions  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[50,000 to 125,000] people  
Polity Territory:
[600,000 to 7,000,000] km2  
Polity Population:
[7,000,000 to 8,000,000] people 1000 CE
[7,500,000 to 8,500,000] people 1100 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3  
Religious Level:
[4 to 5]  
Military Level:
[5 to 7]  
Administrative Level:
[5 to 6]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
unknown  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
unknown  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
unknown  
Port:
unknown  
Canal:
unknown  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
unknown  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
unknown  
Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
unknown  
Information / Money
Precious Metal:
unknown  
Paper Currency:
unknown  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
inferred present  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
present  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
inferred present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
inferred present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
inferred present  
  Spear:
inferred present  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
inferred present  
  Battle Axe:
inferred present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
present  
  Donkey:
inferred present  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
unknown  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
inferred present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
inferred present  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
inferred present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
inferred present  
  Chainmail:
inferred present  
  Breastplate:
inferred present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
inferred present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance
Religious Landscape
  Syncretism of Religious Practices at the Level of Individual Believers: 
present  
  Widespread Religion: 
1. Most widespread Hinduism (Vast majority)  
2. Second most widespread Jainism (Sizeable minority)  
3. Third most widespread Buddhism  
  Official Religion: 
Saivist Hinduism  
  Elites Religion: 
Saivist Hinduism  
Government Restrictions
  Taxes Based on Religious Adherence or on Religious Activities and Institutions: 
inferred absent  
  Frequency of Governmental Violence Against Religious Groups: 
inferred never (absent)  
  Government Restrictions on Religious Education: 
inferred absent  
  Government Restrictions on Public Worship: 
inferred absent  
  Government Restrictions on Public Proselytizing: 
inferred absent  
  Government Restrictions on Property Ownership for Adherents of Any Religious Group: 
inferred absent  
  Government Restrictions on Conversion: 
inferred absent  
  Government Restrictions on Construction of Religious Buildings: 
inferred absent  
  Government Restrictions on Circulation of Religious Literature: 
inferred absent  
  Government Pressure to Convert: 
inferred absent  
  Governmental Obligations for Religious Groups to Apply for Official Recognition: 
inferred absent  
  Government Discrimination Against Religious Groups Taking up Certain Occupations or Functions: 
inferred absent  
Societal Restrictions
  Frequency of Societal Violence Against Religious Groups: 
inferred very rarely  
  Societal Discrimination Against Religious Groups Taking up Certain Occupations or Functions: 
inferred absent  
  Societal Pressure to Convert or Against Conversion: 
inferred absent  
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Chalukyas of Kalyani (in_kalyani_chalukya_emp) was in:
 (974 CE 1055 CE)   Deccan
Home NGA: Deccan

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Chalukyas of Kalyani

The ruling dynasty is often known as the Chalukyas of Kalyani, to distinguish them from the Chalukyas of Badami, founding branch of the family.


Capital:
Kalyana

Manyakheta (or Malkhed) served as the empire’s capital until the reign of Somesvara I: after that, Kalyana (or Kalyani, or Kalyanipura) was made the capital [1] .

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 91

Capital:
Manyakheta

Manyakheta (or Malkhed) served as the empire’s capital until the reign of Somesvara I: after that, Kalyana (or Kalyani, or Kalyanipura) was made the capital [1] .

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 91



Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,076 CE ➜ 1,126 CE]

The reign of Vikramaditya VI was long and relatively peaceful; the capital flourished and the Chalukyas’ territories and influence extended. Scholars did much important work, including Vijnanesvara’s Mitasakara, a commentary to the Yajnavalkya-smrti that would eventually become "the present law code for Hindus throughout India except Bengal" [1] .

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), pp. 94-95


Duration:
[973 CE ➜ 1,191 CE]

Taila II exploited the Rashtrakutas’ weakness after some important military defeats (including the sack of their capital) in order to re-establish his dynasty’s sovereignty over the Deccan [1] . The Chalukyas then lost their empire twice in the twelfth century: first, briefly, to the Kalachuris, and then, definitively, to the Hoysalas and the Yadavas [2] .

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 91

[2]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), pp. 96


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none

Independent polity.


Succeeding Entity:
Hoysala Empire

Kalachuris; Yadavas; Hoysalas For a few decades in the twelfth century (c. 1157-1184 [1] ), the Chalukya Empire was briefly under the rule of a subordinate dynasty who successfully rebelled, the Kalachuris. Shortly after regaining power over their land, the Chalukyas lost it again, this time to the Yadavas in the North and the Hoysalas in the South [2] .

[1]: Suryanatha Kamath, A Concise History of Karnataka (1980), p. 113-115

[2]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), pp. 96


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

feudal subordinates [1]

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), pp. 91


Preceding Entity:
Rashtrakuta Empire

[1]

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), pp. 91


Degree of Centralization:
loose

changed from unitary to loose based on following feudal empire "The Chalukyan administration was not highly centralised and it allowed a lot of freedom and autonomy to its feudatories, which proved fatal to the empire" [1] .

[1]: Suryanatha Kamath, A Concise History of Karnataka (1980), p. 116


Language

Language:
Kannada

Literature both in Kannada and in Sanskrit was produced [1] .

[1]: K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, The Chalukyas of Kalyani, in G. Yazdan (ed), The Early History of the Deccan (1960), pp. 444-453

Language:
Sanskrit

Literature both in Kannada and in Sanskrit was produced [1] .

[1]: K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, The Chalukyas of Kalyani, in G. Yazdan (ed), The Early History of the Deccan (1960), pp. 444-453



Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[50,000 to 125,000] people

Inhabitants. Capital of Kalyanipura, or Kalyani [1]

[1]: Chase-Dunn spreadsheet (2001)


Polity Territory:
[600,000 to 7,000,000] km2

in squared kilometers. This is the combined territory of Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Telangana and the Andhra Pradesh districts of Kurnool and Anantapur, which roughly correspond with this


Polity Population:
[7,000,000 to 8,000,000] people
1000 CE

People.
ET: By 200 BC 30 million on the Indian Subcontinent, 20 million (40%) in Ganges basin. "The next fifteen hundred years consolidated without significantly altering this pattern." [1] McEvedy and Jones estimated for Pakistan, India and Bangladesh 77m for 1000 CE, 80m for 1100 CE. If the proportion within the Ganges basin remained the same (40%) that leaves for the rest of the Indian Subcontinent: 46.2m for 1000 CE, 48 for 1100 CE. Pakistan contains the Indus valley which presumably also was densely populated. If we assume the fertile Indus valley contained the majority (50% population?) of the remaining population, whilst respecting the claim that "the demographic centre of the country" was the Gangetic provinces (so Indus probably does not hold much more than 50% of the non-Gangetic population) that leaves for the remaining areas: 23.1m for 1000 CE, 24m for 1100 CE. The remaining area left covers 2,000,000 km2 and the polity of about 650,000 KM2 covered about 33% of this area. So, assuming an even distribution of population across the remaining landmass, a population magnitude estimate would be: 7.6m for 1000 CE, 7.9m for 1100 CE. According to maps of 800-900 CE [2] there were about 6-7 other polities in the remaining region during the same time period.

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 182-185) McEvedy, Colin. Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd. London.

[2]: geacron.com

Polity Population:
[7,500,000 to 8,500,000] people
1100 CE

People.
ET: By 200 BC 30 million on the Indian Subcontinent, 20 million (40%) in Ganges basin. "The next fifteen hundred years consolidated without significantly altering this pattern." [1] McEvedy and Jones estimated for Pakistan, India and Bangladesh 77m for 1000 CE, 80m for 1100 CE. If the proportion within the Ganges basin remained the same (40%) that leaves for the rest of the Indian Subcontinent: 46.2m for 1000 CE, 48 for 1100 CE. Pakistan contains the Indus valley which presumably also was densely populated. If we assume the fertile Indus valley contained the majority (50% population?) of the remaining population, whilst respecting the claim that "the demographic centre of the country" was the Gangetic provinces (so Indus probably does not hold much more than 50% of the non-Gangetic population) that leaves for the remaining areas: 23.1m for 1000 CE, 24m for 1100 CE. The remaining area left covers 2,000,000 km2 and the polity of about 650,000 KM2 covered about 33% of this area. So, assuming an even distribution of population across the remaining landmass, a population magnitude estimate would be: 7.6m for 1000 CE, 7.9m for 1100 CE. According to maps of 800-900 CE [2] there were about 6-7 other polities in the remaining region during the same time period.

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 182-185) McEvedy, Colin. Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd. London.

[2]: geacron.com


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3

levels.
Sources mention three types of "settlement":
1. Capital
2. Towns [1] 3. Villages [1]

[1]: K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, The Chalukyas of Kalyani, in G. Yazdan (ed), The Early History of the Deccan (1960), pp. 401-402


Religious Level:
[4 to 5]

levels.
_Hinduism_
There are no official priestly hierarchies in Hinduism [1] . However, several sources allude to the importance, at least for some branches of the religion, of the relationship between student and teacher or guru (e.g. [2] ), which suggests that perhaps it would not be entirely inappropriate to say that there is indeed a Hindu religious hierarchy, and that it is composed of two levels.
_Jainism_
NOTE: I have found two equally authoritative sources on Jain hierarchy:
(1) [3]
1. Arihants (ones who have conquered their inner enemies)
2. Siddhas (Liberated Ones)3. Acharyas (who head the Order)4. Upadhyays (who teach the message)5. Sadhus (Monks/Seekers)
(2) [4]
1. Guru (teacher)
2. Monks
2. Male figure (not specified by author whether a monk) in charge of nuns3. Pravartini or ganini (aides to the male figure in charge of nuns)4. Nuns
_Buddhism_
"Buddhist monastic communities replaced the caste system with one based on year of ordination. Previously ordained monks enjoyed rights and privileges higher in status than monks ordained later, and monks were categorically of higher status and privilege than nuns. In effect seniority and gender provided criteria for social status and increased access to ’pure’ teachings and exemption from ’impure’ duties." [5] .

[1]: http://ezinearticles.com/?Religious-Hierarchy-in-Hinduism&id=1864556

[2]: G. Flood, Introduction, in G. Flood (ed), The Blackwell Comapnion to Hinduism (2003), p. 4

[3]: Singh, Upinder. A History of Ancient and Early medieval India, pp 312-319

[4]: M. Adiga, The Making of Southern Karnataka (2006), pp. 269-276

[5]: P. Nietupsky, Hygiene: Buddhist Perspective, in W.M. Johnson, Encyclopedia of Monasticism (2000), p. 628


Military Level:
[5 to 7]

levels.
The "military administration of the Chalukyas resembled [that] of their ancestors" [1] : Here, then, is the likely military hierarchy of the Chalukyas of Badami:
1. Emperor [2]
2. Sandhivigrahika (minister of war and peace) [2] 3. Mahabaladihktra or mahasandhivigrahikaMost likely the chief general, perhaps assigned the duty of assisting the minister of war and peace and/or supervising ten other generals [2] .4. Officials supervised by the mahabaladihktra or mahasandhivigrahika [2] -likely more than one level5. Soldiers [2]
NOTE: In an admittedly older source, there is mention of four different kinds of military officers: the senadhipati, the maha (pracanda) dandanayaka, the dandanayaka, and the kari-turaga (patta-)sahini. No explanation is given as to the role or hierarchical position of these officers, except that the last one was probably in charge of cavalry and elephants [3] .

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 91

[2]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 267

[3]: K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, The Chalukyas of Kalyani, in G. Yazdan (ed), The Early History of the Deccan (1960), p. 391


Administrative Level:
[5 to 6]

levels.
1. Emperor
_Court_
2. MinistersIncluding chamberlain (thane veryashka), steward (bhanasa vergade), superintendent to the harem (antharpuradhyaksha), and the minister for war and peace (sandhivigrahika) [1] .
_Provincial government_
2. RashtrapathisIn charge of governing territorial units known as rashtras [2] (probably equivalent to four or five modern-day Indian districts [3] ).
3. VishayapathisIn charge of governing territorial units known as vishayas [2] (probably equivalent to modern-day Indian districts [3] ).
4. Nadrasas or Nad-prabhusIn charge of governing nadus [2] , "larger territorial divisions with numbers attached to their names" [4] .
5. GramakutasVillage head men [2] .
6.accountants and sub-accountants at village level in some or all regions, as under previous polity

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 91

[2]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 96

[3]: A.S. Alterkar, State and Government in Ancient India (1958), p. 360

[4]: K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, The Chalukyas of Kalyani, in G. Yazdan (ed), The Early History of the Deccan (1960), pp. 399-400


Professions

Professional Priesthood:
present

Hinduism had its representatives in Brahmanas [1] , Jainism and Buddhism in monks [2] [3] .

[1]: L. Rocher, The Dharmasastras, in G. Flood (ed), The Balckwell Companion to Hinduism (2003), p. 103

[2]: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/jainism/worship/ministry.shtml

[3]: L. Aldritt, Buddhism (2009), p. 12


Professional Military Officer:
present

The "military administration of the Chalukyas resembled [that] of their ancestors" [1] : therefore, the Chalukyas of Kalyani likely had mahabaladihktras or mahasandhivigrahikas, like the Chalukyas of Badami [2] .

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 91

[2]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 267


Bureaucracy Characteristics

Full Time Bureaucrat:
unknown

"ministers"



Law

The "judicial [...] administration of the Chalukyas resembled that of their ancestors" [1] , the Chalukyas of Badami, for whom the Emperor was the supreme judge, but he also dispensed justice through judges he himself appointed [2] .

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 91

[2]: B.K. Singh, The Early Chalukyas of Vatapi (1991), p. 159


Formal Legal Code:
present

The "judicial [...] administration of the Chalukyas resembled that of their ancestors" [1] : therefore, like the Chalukyas of Badami, they must have followed smirtis and dharmashastras [2] . The Smriti, or Manu-smriti, is a collection of texts prescribing correct behaviour, including a section explicitly devoted to "the law of kings" [3] , while the dharmashastras are a collection of more explicitly legal texts [4] .

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 91

[2]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 230

[3]: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/363055/Manu-smriti

[4]: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/160730/Dharma-shastra


The "judicial [...] administration of the Chalukyas resembled that of their ancestors" [1] , the Chalukyas of Badami, for whom a number of different courts existed, each probably dedicated to a different unit of administration [2] .

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 91

[2]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 230


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Irrigation System:
present

"Importance of irrigation to agriculture was realised, and attention paid for the proper maintenance of tanks" [1] .

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 97



Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

[1]

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 98


Script:
present

Written records. [1]

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 98


Nonwritten Record:
present

[1]

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 98


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

e.g. treatises on astronomy and veterinary science [1] .

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 98


Sacred Text:
present

The Vedas and the puranas are both mentioned as texts studied at temples [1] .

[1]: K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, The Chalukyas of Kalyani, in G. Yazdan (ed), The Early History of the Deccan (1960), p. 437


Religious Literature:
present

e.g. Nayasena’s Dharmamrta, which "expounds the essential teaching of Jainism and its ethics in an easy and flowing style" [1] .

[1]: K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, The Chalukyas of Kalyani, in G. Yazdan (ed), The Early History of the Deccan (1960), p. 448


Practical Literature:
present

e.g. several treatises on grammar [1] .

[1]: K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, The Chalukyas of Kalyani, in G. Yazdan (ed), The Early History of the Deccan (1960), p. 448



Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown

e.g. by court/government


History:
present

e.g. Bilhana’s Vikramankadevacarita, which "purports to narrate the life-story of the Chalukya emperor whose name it bears", that is, Vikramaditya VI [1] .

[1]: K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, The Chalukyas of Kalyani, in G. Yazdan (ed), The Early History of the Deccan (1960), p. 451


Fiction:
present

e.g. Karnataka Kambari, a romance by Nagavarman [1] .

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 98


Calendar:
unknown

e.g. by court/government


Information / Money


Indigenous Coin:
present

Gold and silver drammas (65 g), gold gadyanaka (96 g), kalanju (48 g), kasu (15 g), manjadi (2 1/2 g), akkam (half a manjadi), pana (1/10th of a gadyanaka) [1] .

[1]: Suryanatha Kamath, A Concise History of Karnataka (1980), p. 118



Information / Postal System


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications


Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown

Kolanupaka "served as an alternative administrative and military capital for the Kalyani Chalukyas (Western Chaluyaks) in the 11th Century CE." [1]

[1]: V Hari Saravanan. 2014. Gods, Heroes and their Story Tellers: Intangible cultural heritage of South India. Notion Press. Triplicane.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

Commenting on Jean Deloche’s ’Studies on Fortification in India’ a book reviewer says that fort construction "with long-term building and modification programs ... became the focal point for local populations as well as for their leaders" and often were "placed at points on the landscape that already were natural strongholds and places of ritual devolution". [1]

[1]: (Smith 2010, 273) Monica L Smith. January 2010. Journal of the American Oriental Society. 130.2. Studies on Fortification in India. Collection Indologie, vol. 104. Four Forts of the Deccan vol. 111. Senji (Gingee): A Fortified City in the Tamil Country. vol. 101 by Jean Deloche.



Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions ramparts constructed with earth and moats [1] and the moat was still employed during the preceding Rashtrakuta period. [2]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 103) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), p. 206



Earth Rampart:
present

"Till date, the best study of the evolution of fortifications in India from the Indus Valley Civilization till the rise of British power, remains Deloche’s monograph on fortification in India. Deloche notes that between the third and fourteenth centuries, the Hindu rulers constructed complex gateways, towers and thicker walls with earthen embankments in order to make their durgas (forts) impregnable." [1] Deloche’s studies on Indian fortifications are in French. Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions ramparts constructed with earth and moats. [2]

[1]: (Roy 2011, 123) Kaushik Roy. Historiographical Survey of the Writings on Indian Military History. Sabyasachi Bhattacharya. ed. 2011. Approaches to History: Essays in Indian Historiography. Primus Books. Delhi.

[2]: (Olivelle 2016, 103) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.



Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

Ancient Indian armies had siege engines that could "fling stones and lead balls wrapped up in burning materials. The Mahabharata mentions an Asma-yantra (a stone-throwing machine) in the battle with Jarasandha and we have further records that such engines were used in later periods to set enemy fortifications alight and that ’liquid fires’ containing naphtha were in use in ancient India." [1]

[1]: (Forbes 1959, 88-89) Robert James Forbes. 1959. More studies in early petroleum history. Brill Archive.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

First used by the Byzantines or perhaps the Chinese.


Last reference was for the Satavahanas.


Self Bow:
present

In the hot Monsoon climate of India the composite bow decomposed rapidly so Ancient Indians made bows out of Wootz steel. These were "considerably more rigid than their composite bretheren, meaning they were also less powerful. But they were reliable and predictable, and could be stored away in munitions vaults without worry of decomposition." [1] "The Hindus used bows made of cane or bamboos which were inferior in range, accuracy and penetrative power when compared to the composite bows." [2] Composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but "after the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India." [2]

[1]: (O’Bryan 2013, 54) A History of Weapons: Crossbows, Caltrops, Catapults & Lots of Other Things that Can Seriously Mess You Up. Chronicle Books LLC. San Francisco.

[2]: (Roy 2011, 122) Kaushik Roy. Historiographical Survey of the Writings on Indian Military History. Sabyasachi Bhattacharya. ed. 2011. Approaches to History: Essays in Indian Historiography. Primus Books. Delhi.


Javelin:
present

The javelin was still in use during the preceding Rashtrakuta period. [1]

[1]: N.S. Ramachandra Murthy, Military Administration of the Rashtrakutas in the Telugu Country, in B.R. Gopal, The Rashtrakutas of Malkhed (1994), p. 116


Handheld Firearm:
absent

"The age of Turkish rule in India can be divided into two periods, the Afghan period from the 1200s to the 1500s and the Mughal period from the 1500s to the 1800s. Firearms arrived in India during the Afghan period and began to change the conduct of warfare in the Mughal period." [1]

[1]: (Chase 2003, p. 129)


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

"The age of Turkish rule in India can be divided into two periods, the Afghan period from the 1200s to the 1500s and the Mughal period from the 1500s to the 1800s. Firearms arrived in India during the Afghan period and began to change the conduct of warfare in the Mughal period." [1]

[1]: (Chase 2003, p. 129)


Crossbow:
present

"The hand crossbow was usd on Indian battlefields probably from the third century A.D. It was mainly used as an infantry weapon and occasionally as a cavalry weapon. A Sanskrit inscription at Avanthipuram, in South India, reads: ’... Of him who has the name of Ananta impelled with speed and skillfully discharged from the machines of his bow fitted with the well stretched string....’ Obviously, the machine referred to was a hand crossbow." [1]

[1]: (Phillips 2016) Henry Pratap Phillips. 2016. The History and Chronology of Gunpowder and Gunpowder Weapons (c.1000 to 1850). Notion Press.


Composite Bow:
absent

"The Hindus used bows made of cane or bamboos which were inferior in range, accuracy and penetrative power when compared to the composite bows." [1] Composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but "after the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India." [1]

[1]: (Roy 2011, 122) Kaushik Roy. Historiographical Survey of the Writings on Indian Military History. Sabyasachi Bhattacharya. ed. 2011. Approaches to History: Essays in Indian Historiography. Primus Books. Delhi.


Weapon found only in the New World.


Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

"There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo." [1]

[1]: (Eraly 2011, 169) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.


Sword:
present

"There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo." [1]

[1]: (Eraly 2011, 169) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.


Spear:
present

"There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo." [1]

[1]: (Eraly 2011, 169) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.



Dagger:
present

Inferred from a description, in the Yasastilaka Champu (a Rashtrakuta poem), of soldiers whose "daggers adorned their waists" [1] .

[1]: K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, The Chalukyas of Kalyani, in G. Yazdan (ed), The Early History of the Deccan (1960), p. 417


Battle Axe:
present

"There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo." [1]

[1]: (Eraly 2011, 169) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.


Animals used in warfare

There was an officer in charge of cavalry and elephants, the kari-turaga (patta-)sahini. [1] "In the classical age, Indian armies were still organized, as they had been a thousand years earlier, into four divisions: infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants." [2]

[1]: K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, The Chalukyas of Kalyani, in G. Yazdan (ed), The Early History of the Deccan (1960), p. 391

[2]: (Eraly 2011, 163) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.


Elephant:
present

There was an officer in charge of cavalry and elephants, the kari-turaga (patta-)sahini. [1] "In the classical age, Indian armies were still organized, as they had been a thousand years earlier, into four divisions: infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants." [2] "But there can be little doubt that war-elephants were not used in the same numbers under the Islamic dynasties of India as they were in the early medieval period and before. We have seen that the Arabic sources described the most important ninth- and tenth-century Hindu dynasties as equipped with tens of thousands or more elephants of various kinds. Although it is unlikely that these numbers indicated war-elephants in a state of readiness - they probably included the guessed number of untamed and half-tamed ones -, and although some of the figures are contradictory, they are larger than those of later times." [3]

[1]: K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, The Chalukyas of Kalyani, in G. Yazdan (ed), The Early History of the Deccan (1960), p. 391

[2]: (Eraly 2011, 163) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.

[3]: (Wink 1997, 102-103) Andre Wink. 1997. Al-Hind. The Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Volume II. The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest 11th-13th Centuries. BRILL. Leiden.


Donkey:
present

In ancient India the buffalo, bullock, yak, goat, camel, elephant, horse, ass and the mule were all used for transport [1] [2] in different regions according to local conditions. [2]

[1]: (Mishra 1987, 83) Kamal Kishore Mishra. 1987. Police Administration in Ancient India. Mittal Publications. Delhi.

[2]: Prakash Charan Prasad. 1977. Foreign Trade and Commerce in Ancient India. Abhinav Publications. New Delhi.



In ancient India the buffalo, bullock, yak, goat, camel, elephant, horse, ass and the mule were all used for transport [1] [2] in different regions according to local conditions. [2] At its maximum extent the Western Chalukya Empire stretches quite north, close to camel habitat.

[1]: (Mishra 1987, 83) Kamal Kishore Mishra. 1987. Police Administration in Ancient India. Mittal Publications. Delhi.

[2]: Prakash Charan Prasad. 1977. Foreign Trade and Commerce in Ancient India. Abhinav Publications. New Delhi.


Armor

Shield:
present

Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a leather shield. [1] The preceding Rashtrakutas employed the shield. [2]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: N.S. Ramachandra Murthy, Military Administration of the Rashtrakutas in the Telugu Country, in B.R. Gopal, The Rashtrakutas of Malkhed (1994), p. 116


Scaled Armor:
unknown

Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, and corselet. [1]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Plate Armor:
present

Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, corselet, and breast plate. [1]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Limb Protection:
present

Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a thigh guard. [1]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Leather Cloth:
present

Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions "dense structures made of the skin, hooves, and horns/tusks of the river dolphin, rhinocerous, Dhenuka, and cattle" used as armor. [1]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Laminar Armor:
unknown

Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, and corselet. [1]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Helmet:
present

Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a helmet. [1]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Chainmail:
present

In Ancient India soldiers of the Gupta Empire who could afford to do so and were willing to bear the heat (or for night operations?) wore chain mail. [1]

[1]: (Rowell 2015 89) Rebecca Rowell. 2015. Ancient India. Abdo Publishing. Minneapolis.


Breastplate:
present

Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a breastplate. [1]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

"That there must have been some trade with foreign countries across the seas we may safely assume, and it is not a little disappointing that direct references to such trade, as also to a mercantile marine, or a navy protecting it, are even scantier than they are under the Chalukyas of Badami" [1] . ’Chalukyas, Pallavas and the Cholas are noted for their naval forces." [2]

[1]: K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, The Chalukyas of Kalyani, in G. Yazdan (ed), The Early History of the Deccan (1960), p. 433

[2]: (Eraly 2011, 163) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.





Religion Tolerance
Religious Landscape
Syncretism of Religious Practices at the Level of Individual Believers:
present

“Many scholars have felt impelled to emphasise the toleration of different sects and denominations evinced by Indian rulers. [...] It seems fairly clear that, traditionally in India, people readily transferred or distributed their allegiance between different sects, seeing no logical inconsistency in approaching different gods for different purposes, and that this apparently syncretic style of religious behaviour encouraged a relaxed attitude to what others did as well; evidently, too, rulers generally extended their acceptance of this practice." [1]

[1]: (Copland, Mabbett, Roy, Brittlebank and Bowles 2012: 74-77) Seshat URL: Zotero link: ATSZ6QBU


Widespread Religion:
1. Most widespread: Hinduism (Vast majority)

“Despite Hinduism’s popularity as the religion of choice by both the Chalukyan royal family and the masses at large, the Chalukyan dynasty was tolerant of other religions and coexisted with followers of Jainist and Buddhist traditions, although Buddhism was becoming less popular in the region." [1]

[1]: (Sasaki 2012, 15) Sasaki, Bryce. 2012. “Chalukya Dynasties.” Edited by Andrea Stanton, Edward Ramsamy, Peter Seybolt, and Carolyn Elliott. Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia. Thousand Oaks, Calif.; London: SAGE Publications. Seshat URL:  Zotero link: PG9MHRIA

Widespread Religion:
2. Second most widespread: Jainism (Sizeable minority)

“Patancherru, Pudur and several other parts of Rayalsima and Telingana became great centres of Jainism under the patronage of Kalyani Chalukyas.” [1]
“The Jain monks were very active and they had made a serious attempt to bring the whole country under the influence of their religion. The deserted images met within the ruined village sites all over the Andhradesa show that’-Jain settlements were numerous and an appreciable section of the people paid homage to the Arhats and the Tirthankaras.” [2]

[1]: (Ramamurti 1979: 4) N. Ramamurti, 1979. “Social And Religious Life As Depicted In The Chalukyan Sculptures”, M.Phil Dissertation, Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University. Seshat URL: Zotero link: S3A3R5IZ

[2]: (Ramamurti 1979: 43) N. Ramamurti, 1979. “Social And Religious Life As Depicted In The Chalukyan Sculptures”, M.Phil Dissertation, Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University. Seshat URL: Zotero link: S3A3R5IZ

Widespread Religion:
3. Third most widespread: Buddhism

“Despite Hinduism’s popularity as the religion of choice by both the Chalukyan royal family and the masses at large, the Chalukyan dynasty was tolerant of other religions and coexisted with followers of Jainist and Buddhist traditions, although Buddhism was becoming less popular in the region." [1]

[1]: (Sasaki 2012, 15) Sasaki, Bryce. 2012. “Chalukya Dynasties.” Edited by Andrea Stanton, Edward Ramsamy, Peter Seybolt, and Carolyn Elliott. Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia. Thousand Oaks, Calif.; London: SAGE Publications.Seshat URL:  Zotero link: PG9MHRIA


Official Religion:
Saivist Hinduism

“The Chalukyas of Kalyani, lemulavada Chalukyas and the Nollamba Pallavas were devoted Saivites and they constructed many temples.” [1] “The rulers of the Chalukyan dynasty, though ardent followers of Brahminical religion showed equal patronage to Jainism. The Jain monks were very active and they had made a serious attempt to bring the whole country under the influence of their religion.” [2] “The Chalukyas were ardent practitioners of Hinduism, more specifically, Shaivism, or followers of Shiva; and to a lesser extent, Vaishnavism, followers of Vishnu. In particular, deities, such as Shiva, Vishnu, Kartikeya, and the Sapta Matrikas, also known as the Seven Mothers, were worshipped, and many temples were built around the region in their dedication." [3]

[1]: (Ramamurti 1979: 89) N. Ramamurti, 1979. “Social And Religious Life As Depicted In The Chalukyan Sculptures”, M.Phil Dissertation, Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University. Seshat URL: Zotero link: S3A3R5IZ

[2]: (Ramamurti 1979: 43) N. Ramamurti, 1979. “Social And Religious Life As Depicted In The Chalukyan Sculptures”, M.Phil Dissertation, Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University. Seshat URL: Zotero link: S3A3R5IZ

[3]: (Sasaki 2012, 15) Sasaki, Bryce. 2012. “Chalukya Dynasties.” Edited by Andrea Stanton, Edward Ramsamy, Peter Seybolt, and Carolyn Elliott. Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia. Thousand Oaks, Calif.; London: SAGE Publications.Seshat URL:  Zotero link: PG9MHRIA


Elites Religion:
Saivist Hinduism

“The Chalukyas of Kalyani, lemulavada Chalukyas and the Nollamba Pallavas were devoted Saivites and they constructed many temples.” [1] “The rulers of the Chalukyan dynasty, though ardent followers of Brahminical religion showed equal patronage to Jainism. The Jain monks were very active and they had made a serious attempt to bring the whole country under the influence of their religion.” [2] “The Chalukyas were ardent practitioners of Hinduism, more specifically, Shaivism, or followers of Shiva; and to a lesser extent, Vaishnavism, followers of Vishnu. In particular, deities, such as Shiva, Vishnu, Kartikeya, and the Sapta Matrikas, also known as the Seven Mothers, were worshipped, and many temples were built around the region in their dedication." [3]

[1]: (Ramamurti 1979: 89) N. Ramamurti, 1979. “Social And Religious Life As Depicted In The Chalukyan Sculptures”, M.Phil Dissertation, Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University. Seshat URL: Zotero link: S3A3R5IZ

[2]: (Ramamurti 1979: 43) N. Ramamurti, 1979. “Social And Religious Life As Depicted In The Chalukyan Sculptures”, M.Phil Dissertation, Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University. Seshat URL: Zotero link: S3A3R5IZ

[3]: (Sasaki 2012, 15) Sasaki, Bryce. 2012. “Chalukya Dynasties.” Edited by Andrea Stanton, Edward Ramsamy, Peter Seybolt, and Carolyn Elliott. Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia. Thousand Oaks, Calif.; London: SAGE Publications.Seshat URL:  Zotero link: PG9MHRIA


Government Restrictions
Taxes Based on Religious Adherence or on Religious Activities and Institutions:
absent

“Despite Hinduism’s popularity as the religion of choice by both the Chalukyan royal family and the masses at large, the Chalukyan dynasty was tolerant of other religions and coexisted with followers of Jainist and Buddhist traditions, although Buddhism was becoming less popular in the region." [1] “The Chalukyas, like their predecessors in previous times, were tolerant towards all religions.” [2]

[1]: (Sasaki 2012, 15) Sasaki, Bryce. 2012. “Chalukya Dynasties.” Edited by Andrea Stanton, Edward Ramsamy, Peter Seybolt, and Carolyn Elliott. Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia. Thousand Oaks, Calif.; London: SAGE Publications.Seshat URL:  Zotero link: PG9MHRIA

[2]: (Bhandarkar 1957: 45) Bhandarkar, R. G. (1957). Early history of the Dekkan: Down to the Mahomedan Conquest. Calcutta: Susil Gupta (India) Private Limited. Seshat URL: Zotero link: PZEMWFTW


Frequency of Governmental Violence Against Religious Groups:
never (absent)

“Despite Hinduism’s popularity as the religion of choice by both the Chalukyan royal family and the masses at large, the Chalukyan dynasty was tolerant of other religions and coexisted with followers of Jainist and Buddhist traditions, although Buddhism was becoming less popular in the region." [1] “The Chalukyas, like their predecessors in previous times, were tolerant towards all religions.” [2] “The Chalukyas, like their predecessors in previous times, were tolerant towards all religions.” [2]

[1]: (Sasaki 2012, 15) Sasaki, Bryce. 2012. “Chalukya Dynasties.” Edited by Andrea Stanton, Edward Ramsamy, Peter Seybolt, and Carolyn Elliott. Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia. Thousand Oaks, Calif.; London: SAGE Publications.Seshat URL:  Zotero link: PG9MHRIA

[2]: (Bhandarkar 1957: 45) Bhandarkar, R. G. (1957). Early history of the Dekkan: Down to the Mahomedan Conquest. Calcutta: Susil Gupta (India) Private Limited. Seshat URL: Zotero link: PZEMWFTW


Government Restrictions on Religious Education:
absent

“Despite Hinduism’s popularity as the religion of choice by both the Chalukyan royal family and the masses at large, the Chalukyan dynasty was tolerant of other religions and coexisted with followers of Jainist and Buddhist traditions, although Buddhism was becoming less popular in the region." [1] “The Chalukyas, like their predecessors in previous times, were tolerant towards all religions.” [2]

[1]: (Sasaki 2012, 15) Sasaki, Bryce. 2012. “Chalukya Dynasties.” Edited by Andrea Stanton, Edward Ramsamy, Peter Seybolt, and Carolyn Elliott. Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia. Thousand Oaks, Calif.; London: SAGE Publications.Seshat URL:  Zotero link: PG9MHRIA

[2]: (Bhandarkar 1957: 45) Bhandarkar, R. G. (1957). Early history of the Dekkan: Down to the Mahomedan Conquest. Calcutta: Susil Gupta (India) Private Limited. Seshat URL: Zotero link: PZEMWFTW


Government Restrictions on Public Worship:
absent

“Despite Hinduism’s popularity as the religion of choice by both the Chalukyan royal family and the masses at large, the Chalukyan dynasty was tolerant of other religions and coexisted with followers of Jainist and Buddhist traditions, although Buddhism was becoming less popular in the region." [1] “The Chalukyas, like their predecessors in previous times, were tolerant towards all religions.” [2] “The Chalukyas, like their predecessors in previous times, were tolerant towards all religions.” [2]

[1]: (Sasaki 2012, 15) Sasaki, Bryce. 2012. “Chalukya Dynasties.” Edited by Andrea Stanton, Edward Ramsamy, Peter Seybolt, and Carolyn Elliott. Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia. Thousand Oaks, Calif.; London: SAGE Publications.Seshat URL:  Zotero link: PG9MHRIA

[2]: (Bhandarkar 1957: 45) Bhandarkar, R. G. (1957). Early history of the Dekkan: Down to the Mahomedan Conquest. Calcutta: Susil Gupta (India) Private Limited. Seshat URL: Zotero link: PZEMWFTW


Government Restrictions on Public Proselytizing:
absent

" ’“Despite Hinduism’s popularity as the religion of choice by both the Chalukyan royal family and the masses at large, the Chalukyan dynasty was tolerant of other religions and coexisted with followers of Jainist and Buddhist traditions, although Buddhism was becoming less popular in the region." [1] “The Chalukyas, like their predecessors in previous times, were tolerant towards all religions.” [2] “The Chalukyas, like their predecessors in previous times, were tolerant towards all religions.” [2]

[1]: (Sasaki 2012, 15) Sasaki, Bryce. 2012. “Chalukya Dynasties.” Edited by Andrea Stanton, Edward Ramsamy, Peter Seybolt, and Carolyn Elliott. Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia. Thousand Oaks, Calif.; London: SAGE Publications.Seshat URL:  Zotero link: PG9MHRIA

[2]: (Bhandarkar 1957: 45) Bhandarkar, R. G. (1957). Early history of the Dekkan: Down to the Mahomedan Conquest. Calcutta: Susil Gupta (India) Private Limited. Seshat URL: Zotero link: PZEMWFTW


Government Restrictions on Property Ownership for Adherents of Any Religious Group:
absent

“Despite Hinduism’s popularity as the religion of choice by both the Chalukyan royal family and the masses at large, the Chalukyan dynasty was tolerant of other religions and coexisted with followers of Jainist and Buddhist traditions, although Buddhism was becoming less popular in the region." [1] “The Chalukyas, like their predecessors in previous times, were tolerant towards all religions.” [2]

[1]: (Sasaki 2012, 15) Sasaki, Bryce. 2012. “Chalukya Dynasties.” Edited by Andrea Stanton, Edward Ramsamy, Peter Seybolt, and Carolyn Elliott. Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia. Thousand Oaks, Calif.; London: SAGE Publications.Seshat URL:  Zotero link: PG9MHRIA

[2]: (Bhandarkar 1957: 45) Bhandarkar, R. G. (1957). Early history of the Dekkan: Down to the Mahomedan Conquest. Calcutta: Susil Gupta (India) Private Limited. Seshat URL: Zotero link: PZEMWFTW


Government Restrictions on Conversion:
absent

“Despite Hinduism’s popularity as the religion of choice by both the Chalukyan royal family and the masses at large, the Chalukyan dynasty was tolerant of other religions and coexisted with followers of Jainist and Buddhist traditions, although Buddhism was becoming less popular in the region." [1] “The Chalukyas, like their predecessors in previous times, were tolerant towards all religions.” [2]

[1]: (Sasaki 2012, 15) Sasaki, Bryce. 2012. “Chalukya Dynasties.” Edited by Andrea Stanton, Edward Ramsamy, Peter Seybolt, and Carolyn Elliott. Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia. Thousand Oaks, Calif.; London: SAGE Publications.Seshat URL:  Zotero link: PG9MHRIA

[2]: (Bhandarkar 1957: 45) Bhandarkar, R. G. (1957). Early history of the Dekkan: Down to the Mahomedan Conquest. Calcutta: Susil Gupta (India) Private Limited. Seshat URL: Zotero link: PZEMWFTW


Government Restrictions on Construction of Religious Buildings:
absent

“Despite Hinduism’s popularity as the religion of choice by both the Chalukyan royal family and the masses at large, the Chalukyan dynasty was tolerant of other religions and coexisted with followers of Jainist and Buddhist traditions, although Buddhism was becoming less popular in the region." [1] “The Chalukyas, like their predecessors in previous times, were tolerant towards all religions.” [2]

[1]: (Sasaki 2012, 15) Sasaki, Bryce. 2012. “Chalukya Dynasties.” Edited by Andrea Stanton, Edward Ramsamy, Peter Seybolt, and Carolyn Elliott. Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia. Thousand Oaks, Calif.; London: SAGE Publications.Seshat URL:  Zotero link: PG9MHRIA

[2]: (Bhandarkar 1957: 45) Bhandarkar, R. G. (1957). Early history of the Dekkan: Down to the Mahomedan Conquest. Calcutta: Susil Gupta (India) Private Limited. Seshat URL: Zotero link: PZEMWFTW


Government Restrictions on Circulation of Religious Literature:
absent

“Despite Hinduism’s popularity as the religion of choice by both the Chalukyan royal family and the masses at large, the Chalukyan dynasty was tolerant of other religions and coexisted with followers of Jainist and Buddhist traditions, although Buddhism was becoming less popular in the region." [1] “The Chalukyas, like their predecessors in previous times, were tolerant towards all religions.” [2]

[1]: (Sasaki 2012, 15) Sasaki, Bryce. 2012. “Chalukya Dynasties.” Edited by Andrea Stanton, Edward Ramsamy, Peter Seybolt, and Carolyn Elliott. Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia. Thousand Oaks, Calif.; London: SAGE Publications.Seshat URL:  Zotero link: PG9MHRIA

[2]: (Bhandarkar 1957: 45) Bhandarkar, R. G. (1957). Early history of the Dekkan: Down to the Mahomedan Conquest. Calcutta: Susil Gupta (India) Private Limited. Seshat URL: Zotero link: PZEMWFTW


Government Pressure to Convert:
absent

“Despite Hinduism’s popularity as the religion of choice by both the Chalukyan royal family and the masses at large, the Chalukyan dynasty was tolerant of other religions and coexisted with followers of Jainist and Buddhist traditions, although Buddhism was becoming less popular in the region." [1] “The Chalukyas, like their predecessors in previous times, were tolerant towards all religions.” [2]

[1]: (Sasaki 2012, 15) Sasaki, Bryce. 2012. “Chalukya Dynasties.” Edited by Andrea Stanton, Edward Ramsamy, Peter Seybolt, and Carolyn Elliott. Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia. Thousand Oaks, Calif.; London: SAGE Publications.Seshat URL:  Zotero link: PG9MHRIA

[2]: (Bhandarkar 1957: 45) Bhandarkar, R. G. (1957). Early history of the Dekkan: Down to the Mahomedan Conquest. Calcutta: Susil Gupta (India) Private Limited. Seshat URL: Zotero link: PZEMWFTW


Governmental Obligations for Religious Groups to Apply for Official Recognition:
absent

“Despite Hinduism’s popularity as the religion of choice by both the Chalukyan royal family and the masses at large, the Chalukyan dynasty was tolerant of other religions and coexisted with followers of Jainist and Buddhist traditions, although Buddhism was becoming less popular in the region." [1] “The Chalukyas, like their predecessors in previous times, were tolerant towards all religions.” [2]

[1]: (Sasaki 2012, 15) Sasaki, Bryce. 2012. “Chalukya Dynasties.” Edited by Andrea Stanton, Edward Ramsamy, Peter Seybolt, and Carolyn Elliott. Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia. Thousand Oaks, Calif.; London: SAGE Publications.Seshat URL:  Zotero link: PG9MHRIA

[2]: (Bhandarkar 1957: 45) Bhandarkar, R. G. (1957). Early history of the Dekkan: Down to the Mahomedan Conquest. Calcutta: Susil Gupta (India) Private Limited. Seshat URL: Zotero link: PZEMWFTW


Government Discrimination Against Religious Groups Taking up Certain Occupations or Functions:
absent

“The Chalukyas, like their predecessors in previous times, were tolerant towards all religions.” [1] “Many scholars have felt impelled to emphasise the toleration of different sects and denominations evinced by Indian rulers. [...] It seems fairly clear that, traditionally in India, people readily transferred or distributed their allegiance between different sects, seeing no logical inconsistency in approaching different gods for different purposes, and that this apparently syncretic style of religious behaviour encouraged a relaxed attitude to what others did as well; evidently, too, rulers generally extended their acceptance of this practice." [2] NB, however: “religious animosities among the followers of Saivism, Vaishnavism and Jainism, also seem to have greatly weakened the unity of the Chalukya empire.” [3]

[1]: (Bhandarkar 1957: 45) Bhandarkar, R. G. (1957). Early history of the Dekkan: Down to the Mahomedan Conquest. Calcutta: Susil Gupta (India) Private Limited. Seshat URL: Zotero link: PZEMWFTW

[2]: (Copland, Mabbett, Roy, Brittlebank and Bowles 2012: 74-77) Seshat URL: Zotero link: ATSZ6QBU

[3]: (Raychaudhuri 1948: 283)  Raychaudhuri Golapachandra, 1948. The history of the western chalukyas (political and administrative) University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies (United Kingdom). Seshat URL: Zotero link: NU7WQ5CD


Societal Restrictions
Frequency of Societal Violence Against Religious Groups:
very rarely

“Many scholars have felt impelled to emphasise the toleration of different sects and denominations evinced by Indian rulers. [...] It seems fairly clear that, traditionally in India, people readily transferred or distributed their allegiance between different sects, seeing no logical inconsistency in approaching different gods for different purposes, and that this apparently syncretic style of religious behaviour encouraged a relaxed attitude to what others did as well; evidently, too, rulers generally extended their acceptance of this practice." [1] NB, however: “religious animosities among the followers of Saivism, Vaishnavism and Jainism, also seem to have greatly weakened the unity of the Chalukya empire.” [2]

[1]: (Copland, Mabbett, Roy, Brittlebank and Bowles 2012: 74-77) Seshat URL: Zotero link: ATSZ6QBU

[2]: (Raychaudhuri 1948: 283)  Raychaudhuri Golapachandra, 1948. The history of the western chalukyas (political and administrative) University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies (United Kingdom). Seshat URL: Zotero link: NU7WQ5CD


Societal Discrimination Against Religious Groups Taking up Certain Occupations or Functions:
absent

“Many scholars have felt impelled to emphasise the toleration of different sects and denominations evinced by Indian rulers. [...] It seems fairly clear that, traditionally in India, people readily transferred or distributed their allegiance between different sects, seeing no logical inconsistency in approaching different gods for different purposes, and that this apparently syncretic style of religious behaviour encouraged a relaxed attitude to what others did as well; evidently, too, rulers generally extended their acceptance of this practice." [1] NB, however: “religious animosities among the followers of Saivism, Vaishnavism and Jainism, also seem to have greatly weakened the unity of the Chalukya empire.” [2]

[1]: (Copland, Mabbett, Roy, Brittlebank and Bowles 2012: 74-77) Seshat URL: Zotero link: ATSZ6QBU

[2]: (Raychaudhuri 1948: 283)  Raychaudhuri Golapachandra, 1948. The history of the western chalukyas (political and administrative) University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies (United Kingdom). Seshat URL: Zotero link: NU7WQ5CD


Societal Pressure to Convert or Against Conversion:
absent

“Many scholars have felt impelled to emphasise the toleration of different sects and denominations evinced by Indian rulers. [...] It seems fairly clear that, traditionally in India, people readily transferred or distributed their allegiance between different sects, seeing no logical inconsistency in approaching different gods for different purposes, and that this apparently syncretic style of religious behaviour encouraged a relaxed attitude to what others did as well; evidently, too, rulers generally extended their acceptance of this practice." [1] NB, however: “religious animosities among the followers of Saivism, Vaishnavism and Jainism, also seem to have greatly weakened the unity of the Chalukya empire.” [2]

[1]: (Copland, Mabbett, Roy, Brittlebank and Bowles 2012: 74-77) Seshat URL: Zotero link: ATSZ6QBU

[2]: (Raychaudhuri 1948: 283)  Raychaudhuri Golapachandra, 1948. The history of the western chalukyas (political and administrative) University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies (United Kingdom). Seshat URL: Zotero link: NU7WQ5CD


Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.