Home Region:  Central India (South Asia)

Rashtrakuta Empire

D G SC WF HS PT EQ 2020  in_rashtrakuta_emp / InRasht

Preceding:
543 CE 753 CE Chalukyas of Badami (in_badami_chalukya_emp)    [elite migration]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
973 CE 1191 CE Chalukyas of Kalyani (in_kalyani_chalukya_emp)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

The Rashtrakuta Empire extended over an area roughly corresponding to the modern-day Indian states of Karnataka, Goa, and Telangana, the state of Maharashtra minus its eastern region (Nagpur), the Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh, and South Gujarat. [1] It could be said to have started in 753 CE, when Dantidurga, a rebellious provincial ruler, defeated his imperial overlords, the Chalukyas of Badami, in battle; however, Dantidurga had already begun to annex territories some time before this date. [2] The empire collapsed around 973, when, weakened by a Pallava raid and an inept king, it was unable to quash the rebellion of one of its feudatories, Tailapa II, who took the capital. Subsequently, a number of other feudatories declared independence from Rashtrakuta rule. Eventually, most of them were brought under control by the newly re-established Chalukyas. [3]
The Rashtrakutas rapidly became undisputed rulers of the Deccan Plateau, and organized several successful expeditions in Northern India, even securing, for a time, the long-contested region of Kanauj (under Indra III). However, none of the territorial gains made during these expeditions could be held for more than a short period, and it appears that the main aim of the expeditions was not so much to extend Rashtrakuta rule as to advertise its military might and increase its prestige. [4] Under the long and relatively peaceful reign of Amoghavarsa I or Nrpatunga (814-878 CE), literature and the arts flourished, and the capital of Malkhed was built. [5]
Population and political organization
The Rashtrakuta emperor was the head of the civil, military and judicial administration. [6] However, he did not rule directly over annexed territories: rather, he subdivided his empire among his subordinates (feudatories), who in turn subdivided their own territories among their own subordinates (sub-feudatories), and feudatories and sub-feudatories enjoyed a significant degree of autonomy. [7]
No overall population estimates could be found in the literature. The capital, Malkhed or Manyakheta, may have had around 100,000 inhabitants, [8] However, estimates are made difficult by the fact that the capital was destroyed by Chola armies in the 10th century CE, and what was left was subsequently destroyed by the armies of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughals. Today, the Rashtrakuta capital is little more than a village. Not only that, but what little information exists about the city’s heyday appears to be strongly influenced by Jain tradition, which may be biased, considering that Malkhed used to be a major centre for the religion. [9]

[1]: (Kamath 1980) Suryanath Kamath. 1980. A Concise History of Karnataka: From Pre-historic Times to the Present. Bangalore: Archana Prakashana.

[2]: (Basavaraja 1984, 62) K. R. Basavaraja. 1984. History and Culture of Karnataka: Early Times to Unification. Dharwad: Chalukya Publications.

[3]: (Basavaraja 1984, 82-83) K. R. Basavaraja. 1984. History and Culture of Karnataka: Early Times to Unification. Dharwad: Chalukya Publications.

[4]: (Basavaraja 1984, 62-83) K. R. Basavaraja. 1984. History and Culture of Karnataka: Early Times to Unification. Dharwad: Chalukya Publications.

[5]: (Madan 1990, 120-22) A. P. Madan. 1990. The History of the Rashtrakutas. New Delhi: Harman.

[6]: (Madan 1990, 193) A. P. Madan. 1990. The History of the Rashtrakutas. New Delhi: Harman.

[7]: (Madan 1990, 192) A. P. Madan. 1990. The History of the Rashtrakutas. New Delhi: Harman.

[8]: Christopher Chase-Dunn 2001, personal communication.

[9]: (Mishra 1992, 208) Jayashri Mishra. 1992. Social and Economic Conditions under the Imperial Rashtrakutas. New Delhi: Commonwealth.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
43 P  
Original Name:
Rashtrakuta Empire  
Capital:
Malkhed  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[814 CE ➜ 878 CE]  
Duration:
[753 CE ➜ 973 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
Succeeding Entity:
Chalukyas of Kalyani  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
elite migration  
Preceding Entity:
Succeeding: Chalukyas of Kalyani (in_kalyani_chalukya_emp)    [continuity]  
Preceding:   Chalukyas of Badami (in_badami_chalukya_emp)    [elite migration]  
Degree of Centralization:
loose  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-Iranian  
Dravidian  
Language:
Sanskrit  
Kannada  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Hinduism  
Religion Family:
Saiva Traditions  
Alternate Religion Genus:
Hinduism  
Alternate Religion Family:
Vaishnava Traditions  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
100,000 people  
Polity Territory:
600,000 km2  
Polity Population:
[5,000,000 to 6,000,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3  
Religious Level:
5  
Military Level:
5  
Administrative Level:
7  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown  
Merit Promotion:
absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
inferred present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
inferred present  
Canal:
unknown  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown  
History:
present  
Fiction:
inferred absent  
Calendar:
inferred present  
Information / Money
Precious Metal:
present  
Paper Currency:
inferred absent  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
absent  
Foreign Coin:
inferred present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
inferred present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
present  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
present  
  Complex Fortification:
unknown  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Dagger:
unknown  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
present  
  Donkey:
unknown  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
unknown  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
inferred present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
inferred present  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
inferred present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
inferred present  
  Chainmail:
inferred present  
  Breastplate:
inferred present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
inferred present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Rashtrakuta Empire (in_rashtrakuta_emp) was in:
 (757 CE 780 CE)   Deccan
 (780 CE 809 CE)   Middle Ganga     Deccan
 (809 CE 973 CE)   Deccan
Home NGA: Deccan

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Rashtrakuta Empire

Capital:
Malkhed

Also known as Manyakheta, probably established as capital during the reign of Amoghavarsha Nrupathunga I (800-878 CE). There is much scholarly debate regarding which city or cities served as capitals to the Empire before Malkhed: candidates include Latur, Mayurakhindi, Ellora, and Manpur [1] .

[1]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), pp. 199-205


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[814 CE ➜ 878 CE]

The reign of Amoghavarsa I (also known as Nrpatunga) was long and relatively peaceful. Literature and the arts flourished, and the capital of Malkhed was built. Of the three main religions (Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism), the Emperor favoured Jainism particularly, but, like all other Rashtrakuta rulers, Amoghavarsa I was tolerant and financially generous towards all faiths [1] .

[1]: A.P. Madan, The History of the Rashtrakutas (1990), p. 120-122


Duration:
[753 CE ➜ 973 CE]

The Rashtrakuta Empire begins with the first territorial annexations of the dynasty’s founder, Dantidurga’s, as well as his military success against his feudal overlords, the Chalukyas. The Empire fell when the Chalukya dynasty managed to re-establish their supremacy in the region [1] .

[1]: K.R. Basavaraja, History and Culture of Karnataka (1984), pp. 62-83


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none

Independent polity.


Succeeding Entity:
Chalukyas of Kalyani

Relationship to Preceding Entity:
elite migration

In the first half of the eighth century, the Chalukyas ruled over Western and Central India. However, in the ’40s and early ’50s of that century, they found themselves in a position of weakness, due to the death of their leader, Vikramaditya II, as well as prolonged conflict with Arabs and the Pallavas to the North. One of their feudatories to the South, Dantidurga, exploited this moment of weakness to annex several territories to his own rule. By the time he had secured dominion over Madhya Pradesh and Central and Southern Gujarat, the Chalukyas declared war against him, but were defeated in battle in 753 CE. This is the year when the Rashtrakuta Empire is said to have started, with Dantidurga as its first ruler. Once the Chalukyas were definitively overthrown by Dantidurga’s successor, Krishna I, the Rashtrakutas’ military and diplomatic endeavours focused mostly on two objectives: securing control over Southern India, particularly the Deccan Plateau, and organising military expeditions to the North. [1]

[1]: K.R. Basavaraja, History and Culture of Karnataka (1984), pp. 62-83


Preceding Entity:
Rashtrakuta Empire [in_rashtrakuta_emp] ---> Chalukyas of Kalyani [in_kalyani_chalukya_emp]

[1]

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), pp. 91

Preceding Entity:
Chalukyas of Badami [in_badami_chalukya_emp] ---> Rashtrakuta Empire [in_rashtrakuta_emp]

In the first half of the eighth century, the Chalukyas ruled over Western and Central India. However, in the ’40s and early ’50s of that century, they found themselves in a position of weakness, due to the death of their leader, Vikramaditya II, as well as prolonged conflict with Arabs and the Pallavas to the North. One of their feudatories to the South, Dantidurga, exploited this moment of weakness to annex several territories to his own rule. By the time he had secured dominion over Madhya Pradesh and Central and Southern Gujarat, the Chalukyas declared war against him, but were defeated in battle in 753 CE. This is the year when the Rashtrakuta Empire is said to have started, with Dantidurga as its first ruler. Once the Chalukyas were definitively overthrown by Dantidurga’s successor, Krishna I, the Rashtrakutas’ military and diplomatic endeavours focused mostly on two objectives: securing control over Southern India, particularly the Deccan Plateau, and organising military expeditions to the North. [1]

[1]: K.R. Basavaraja, History and Culture of Karnataka (1984), pp. 62-83


Degree of Centralization:
loose

The Emperor was "the source of all power and the head of the civil, military as well as judicial administration" [1] . However, he did not rule directly over annexed territories: rather, he subdivided his empire among his subordinates (feudatories), who in turn subdivided their own territories among their own subordinates (sub-feudatories), and "feudatories and sub-feudatories enjoyed almost complete autonomy" [2] .

[1]: A.P. Madan, The History of the Rashtrakutas (1990), p. 193

[2]: A.P. Madan, The History of the Rashtrakutas (1990), p. 192


Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-Iranian
Linguistic Family:
Dravidian

Language:
Sanskrit

[1]

[1]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), p. 19

Language:
Kannada

[1]

[1]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), p. 19


Religion

Religion Family:
Saiva Traditions

Alternate Religion Genus:
Hinduism

Alternate Religion Family:
Vaishnava Traditions


Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
100,000 people

Inhabitants [1] . Capital of Malkhed or Manyakheta. However, estimates are made difficult by the fact that the capital was destroyed by Chola armies in the tenth century CE, and what was left was subsequently destroyed by the armies of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughals. Today, the Rashtrakuta capital is little more than a village. Not only that, but what little information exists on the city’s heyday appears to be strongly influenced by Jain tradition, which may be biased, considering that Malkhed used to be a major centre for the religion [2] .

[1]: Chase-Dunn spreadsheet (2001)

[2]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), pp. 208


Polity Territory:
600,000 km2

in squared kilometers. [1] . The area is the sum of the modern-day Indian states of Karnataka, Goa, and Telangana, the state of Maharashtra minus its eastern region (Nagpur), the Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh, and South Gujarat. This estimate is approximate.

[1]: Suryanatha Kamath, A Concise History of Karnataka (1980)


Polity Population:
[5,000,000 to 6,000,000] people

People.By 200 BC 30 million on the Indian Subcontinent, 20 million (40%) in Ganges basin. "The next fifteen hundred years consolidated without significantly altering this pattern." [1] McEvedy and Jones estimated for Pakistan, India and Bangladesh 62m for 800 CE, 69.5m for 900 CE. Estimate made using territory estimate, assuming roughly even distribution of people

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 182-185) McEvedy, Colin. Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd. London.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3

levels.
Nowhere is a settlement hierarchy explicitly described, but it was probably roughly something like the following:
1. CapitalThe Emperor’s place of residence and the place from which he administered the empire, as inferred from [1] .
2. Provincial centresInferred from the fact that the Empire was divided into provincial administrative units, each with its own ruling administrators [2] .
3. VillagesThe smallest administrative unit mentioned by sources, e.g. [3] .

[1]: S.N. Sen, Ancient Indian History and Civilization (1999), p. 377

[2]: A.S. Alterkar, State and Government in Ancient India (1958), pp. 359-361

[3]: A.S. Alterkar, State and Government in Ancient India (1958), pp. 361


Religious Level:
5

levels.
_Hinduism_
There are no official priestly hierarchies in Hinduism [1] . However, several sources allude to the importance, at least for some branches of the religion, of the relationship between student and teacher or guru (e.g. [2] ), which suggests that perhaps it would not be entirely inappropriate to say that there is indeed a Hindu religious hierarchy, and that it is composed of two levels.
_Jainism_
NOTE: I have found two equally authoritative sources on Jain hierarchy:
(1) [3]
1. Arihants (ones who have conquered their inner enemies)2. Siddhas (Liberated Ones)3. Acharyas (who head the Order)4. Upadhyays (who teach the message)5. Sadhus (Monks/Seekers)
(2) [4]
1. Guru (teacher)2. Monks
2. Male figure (not specified by author whether a monk) in charge of nuns3. Pravartini or ganini (aides to the male figure in charge of nuns)4. Nuns
_Buddhism_
"Buddhist monastic communities replaced the caste system with one based on year of ordination. Previously ordained monks enjoyed rights and privileges higher in status than monks ordained later, and monks were categorically of higher status and privilege than nuns. In effect seniority and gender provided criteria for social status and increased access to ’pure’ teachings and exemption from ’impure’ duties." [5] .

[1]: http://ezinearticles.com/?Religious-Hierarchy-in-Hinduism&id=1864556

[2]: G. Flood, Introduction, in G. Flood (ed), The Blackwell Comapnion to Hinduism (2003), p. 4

[3]: Singh, Upinder. A History of Ancient and Early medieval India, pp 312-319

[4]: M. Adiga, The Making of Southern Karnataka (2006), pp. 269-276

[5]: P. Nietupsky, Hygiene: Buddhist Perspective, in W.M. Johnson, Encyclopedia of Monasticism (2000), p. 628


Military Level:
5

levels.
1. Emperor
NOTE: Could not find source that explicitly stated that the Emperor was head of the army, but it seems likely, based on analogy with preceding and succeeding polities, e.g. the Chalukyas [1] .
2. Dandanayaka or Mahadandanayaka [2] 3. Subordinate officers to the Dandanayaka or Mahadandanayaka [2] 4. Subordinate officers to the subordinates to the Dandanayaka or Mahadandanayaka [2] - presumably more than one level5. SoldiersThe bulk of the Rashtrakuta army was made up infantry, cavalry, and elephants [2] .

[1]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 267

[2]: N.S. Ramachandra Murthy, Military Administration of the Rashtrakutas in the Telugu Country, in B.R. Gopal, The Rashtrakutas of Malkhed (1994), p. 116


Administrative Level:
7

levels.
1. Emperor
_Court_
2. Yuvaraja (Crown Prince)
"The Yuvaraja usually stayed at the capital, helping the king in the discharge of administrative duties and occasionally accompanying the king in military expeditions" [1] .
2. Council of Ministers
"[T]o judge from the contemporary evidence, it is clear that the ministry must have consisted of the prime minister, the foreign minister, the revenue minister, the treasurer, the chief justice, the commander-in-chief, and the Purohita or royal chaplain" [2]
_Provincial Government_
2. RashtrapatisIn charge of the military, fiscal and civil administration of rashtras, made up of the equivalent of four or five modern-day Indian districts [3] .
3. VishayapatisIn charge of the military, fiscal and civil administration of vishayas, the equivalent of modern-day Indian districts [3] .
3. Nadgavundas or DesagramakutasHereditary revenue officers in charge of aiding the Vishayapatis and Bhogapatis with the fiscal administration of their territories [3] .
4. BohgapatisIn charge of the military, fiscal and civil administration of "tashils" [3] , presumably the equivalent of modern Indian tehsils or sub-districts.
5. Village headmenResponsible for maintaining law and order in villages and for the "collection of the village revenues and their payment into the royal treasury and granaries [4] .
6. Village accountantsAids to the village headmen [3] .
7. Sub-accountants [5] .
6. Village assemblies20-30 elected persons divided into sub-committees, each sub-committee dedicated "to a specific department like the village tank, the village temple, roads. The village assembly also received deposits on trust endowments from private individuals to be utilised for specific public works. Civil suits were decided by the village councils which had also jurisdiction over petty criminal cases" [5] .

[1]: S.N. Sen, Ancient Indian History and Civilization (1999), p. 377

[2]: A.S. Alterkar, State and Government in Ancient India (1958), p. 358

[3]: A.S. Alterkar, State and Government in Ancient India (1958), p. 360

[4]: A.S. Alterkar, State and Government in Ancient India (1958), p. 361

[5]: S.N. Sen, Ancient Indian History and Civilization (1999), p. 378


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

There was a standing army, and soldiers were paid regularly [1] .

[1]: A.P. Madan, The History of the Rashtrakutas (1990), pp. 195-196


Professional Priesthood:
present

Hinduism had its representatives in Brahmanas [1] , Jainism and Buddhism in monks [2] [3] .

[1]: L. Rocher, The Dharmasastras, in G. Flood (ed), The Balckwell Companion to Hinduism (2003), p. 103

[2]: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/jainism/worship/ministry.shtml

[3]: L. Aldritt, Buddhism (2009), p. 12


Professional Military Officer:
present

"The imperial army was commanded by a dandanayaka or mahadandanayaka. Their subordinates must have also had similar dandanayakas under them, as their administration was more or less akin to that of their superiors" [1]

[1]: N.S. Ramachandra Murthy, Military Administration of the Rashtrakutas in the Telugu Country, in B.R. Gopal, The Rashtrakutas of Malkhed (1994), p. 116


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown

Merit Promotion:
absent

Administrative posts seem to have often been hereditary, as in the case of Nadgavundas or Desagramakutas [1] .

[1]: A.S. Alterkar, State and Government in Ancient India (1958), p. 360


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

e.g. Nadgavundas or Desagramakutas [1] .

[1]: A.S. Alterkar, State and Government in Ancient India (1958), p. 360


Examination System:
unknown

Law

"A thief accused of robbing and murdering a barber was condemned by the judges and put in such a condition so that he might lose his life in ten or twelve days" [1]

[1]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), p. 106


Formal Legal Code:
present

Though no source explicitly says this, based on analogy with the Chalukyas [1] , it seems likely that the Rashtrakutas used Smirtis and dharmashastras as legal codes. The Smriti, or Manu-smriti, is a collection of texts prescribing correct behaviour, including a section explicitly devoted to "the law of kings" [2] , while the dharmashastras are a collection of more explicitly legal texts [3]

[1]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 230

[2]: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/363055/Manu-smriti

[3]: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/160730/Dharma-shastra


At the village level, "[c]ivil suits were decided by the village councils which had also jurisdiction over petty criminal cases" [1] .

[1]: S.N. Sen, Ancient Indian History and Civilization (1999), p. 378


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Written evidence, such as description in Suri’s Yasastilaka, written in 959 CE [1] .

[1]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), p. 175


Irrigation System:
present

Written evidence, such as an inscription from Tondaimandalam, dating to its occupation by the Rashtrakutas, which mentions "the construction of irrigation tanks and canals on a large scale" [1] .

[1]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), p. 148


Food Storage Site:
present

An inscription at Kandahar describes feeding houses for Brahmanas [1] .

[1]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), pp. 101


Transport Infrastructure

Certain village council sub-committees were specifically in charge of roads [1] .

[1]: S.N. Sen, Ancient Indian History and Civilization (1999), p. 378


NOTE: not mentioned explicitly by any source, but seems extremely likely, since the Rashtrakutas possessed most of India’s West coast.



Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

Copper mines have been found, as well as mines for precious stones [1] .

[1]: A.P. Madan, The History of the Rashtrakutas (1990), p. 197


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Manuscripts and inscriptions in Sanskrit, Kannada, Apabhramsa, Telugu, and Marathi [1] .

[1]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), pp. 115-137


Script:
present

Nagari became the ruling script relative to Sanskrit [1] .

[1]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), p. 19


Nonwritten Record:
present

Manuscripts and inscriptions in Sanskrit, Kannada, Apabhramsa, Telugu, and Marathi [1] .

[1]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), pp. 115-137


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Mathematics, medicine [1]

[1]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), p. 127


Sacred Text:
present

Sacred Hindu texts studied at the time included the Upanishads, the Brahmasutras and the Bhagavad-Gita [1]

[1]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), p. 119


Religious Literature:
present

e.g. Shankaracharya’s commentaries on the major Upanishads, Brahmasutras and the Bhagavad-Gita [1]

[1]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), p. 119


Practical Literature:
present

e.g. treaties written on grammar, statecraft and the treatment and maintenance of elephants [1]

[1]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), pp. 119, 123, 127


Philosophy:
present

e.g. Amoghavarsa I’s philosophical lyric "The Jewel-Garland of Questions and Answers", and the numerous treatises on logic [1]

[1]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), p. 117, 126


Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown

e.g. used by government


History:
present

Numerous copper plates and inscriptions, authored by poets and discovered in the twentieth century, provide sufficient information to write a "dependable history of the dynasty" [1]

[1]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), p. 127


Fiction:
absent

Inferred from the fact that fiction is not mentioned by sources among the many, many literary achievements of Rashtrakuta intellectuals.


Calendar:
present

Inferred from the existence of annual festivals [1]

[1]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), pp. 83-85


Information / Money
Precious Metal:
present

According to some scholars, the Rashtrakutas used gold and silver bullion for trade [1]

[1]: A.P. Madan, The History of the Rashtrakutas (1990), p. 198


Paper Currency:
absent

Inferred from the fact that contemporary sources describe silver coins, but not paper currency [1]

[1]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), p. 20


Indigenous Coin:
present

No Rashtrakuta coins have been found, but many contemporary documents describe or mention the Empire’s currency. Arab traveller Sulaiman, for example writes that the Rashtrakutas had "silver coins called Tatriya coins which were one and a half times heavier than the Arab coins" [1] . However, some experts take the absence of tangible coins in the archaeological record to mean that the Rashtrakutas never did issue their own currency [2]

[1]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), p. 20

[2]: A.P. Madan, The History of the Rashtrakutas (1990), p. 198

Indigenous Coin:
absent

No Rashtrakuta coins have been found, but many contemporary documents describe or mention the Empire’s currency. Arab traveller Sulaiman, for example writes that the Rashtrakutas had "silver coins called Tatriya coins which were one and a half times heavier than the Arab coins" [1] . However, some experts take the absence of tangible coins in the archaeological record to mean that the Rashtrakutas never did issue their own currency [2]

[1]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), p. 20

[2]: A.P. Madan, The History of the Rashtrakutas (1990), p. 198


Foreign Coin:
present

A cache of Gadhiya coins, widely used by the Rashtrakutas’ contemporaries to the North, has been unearthed in the Posna district [1]

[1]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), p. 186



Information / Postal System
General Postal Service:
unknown


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications

Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown

Stone Walls Mortared:
present

"The first part Manya would be written Manne in Kanarese and could be Mannai in Tamil. This is described as of unapproachable strength and that is the strength of the fortress that was built by the Rashtrakutas and in building the walls of which the Eastern Chalukyas were compelled to assist after defeat." [1] "Amoghavarsha developed the city of Manyakheta (modern Malkhed in Gulbarga district) and its fortifications and made it the famous capital." [2]

[1]: (? 1922, 321) ? . 1922. Journal of Indian History. Volume 2. University of Kerala.

[2]: (Hosamani 2019, 18) Ratnakar D Hosamani. 2019. A Study of Historical Monuments in Bidar District (1st Century-17th Century CE). Laxmi Book Publication. Solapur.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

Commenting on Jean Deloche’s ’Studies on Fortification in India’ a book reviewer says that fort construction "with long-term building and modification programs ... became the focal point for local populations as well as for their leaders" and often were "placed at points on the landscape that already were natural strongholds and places of ritual devolution". [1] The capital of Malkhed was protected on three sides by rivers, and on the fourth side by a moat [2] .

[1]: (Smith 2010, 273) Monica L Smith. January 2010. Journal of the American Oriental Society. 130.2. Studies on Fortification in India. Collection Indologie, vol. 104. Four Forts of the Deccan vol. 111. Senji (Gingee): A Fortified City in the Tamil Country. vol. 101 by Jean Deloche.

[2]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), p. 206



A moat was created to protect one side of Malkhed. [1]

[1]: Jayashri Mishra, Social and Economic Conditions Under the Imperial Rashtrakutas (1992), p. 206



Earth Rampart:
present

"Till date, the best study of the evolution of fortifications in India from the Indus Valley Civilization till the rise of British power, remains Deloche’s monograph on fortification in India. Deloche notes that between the third and fourteenth centuries, the Hindu rulers constructed complex gateways, towers and thicker walls with earthen embankments in order to make their durgas (forts) impregnable." [1] Deloche’s studies on Indian fortifications are in French. Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions ramparts constructed with earth and moats. [2]

[1]: (Roy 2011, 123) Kaushik Roy. Historiographical Survey of the Writings on Indian Military History. Sabyasachi Bhattacharya. ed. 2011. Approaches to History: Essays in Indian Historiography. Primus Books. Delhi.

[2]: (Olivelle 2016, 103) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


"(a) The Fort is said to have been originally built by Soma- deva, the Raja of Qandhar, and subsequently added to by Krishna III, the Rashtrakuta Raja of Malkhed, who is styled " Lord of Qandharpura ". It is surrounded by a ditch and a ..." [1]

[1]: (? 1953, 20) ?. 1953. Antiquarian Remains in Hyderabad State. Government Press.



Military use of Metals

Indian iron smiths invented the ’wootz’ method of steel creation between 550-450 BCE. The Greek physician Ctesias of Cnidus commented on an Indian steel sword in the possession of Artaxerxes II of Persia (c400 BCE). [1]

[1]: (Singh 1997, 102) Sarva Daman Singh. 1997. Ancient Indian Warfare: With Special Reference to the Vedic Period. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. Delhi.


Indian iron smiths invented the ’wootz’ method of steel creation between 550-450 BCE. The Greek physician Ctesias of Cnidus commented on an Indian steel sword in the possession of Artaxerxes II of Persia (c400 BCE). [1]

[1]: (Singh 1997, 102) Sarva Daman Singh. 1997. Ancient Indian Warfare: With Special Reference to the Vedic Period. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. Delhi.


Inferred from the presence of higher metals. Likely used primarily for ornamental reasons.


’Usually replaced by steel but likely used for ornamental reasons and for handles if not for bladed weapons.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

Ancient Indian armies had siege engines that could "fling stones and lead balls wrapped up in burning materials. The Mahabharata mentions an Asma-yantra (a stone-throwing machine) in the battle with Jarasandha and we have further records that such engines were used in later periods to set enemy fortifications alight and that ’liquid fires’ containing naphtha were in use in ancient India." [1]

[1]: (Forbes 1959, 88-89) Robert James Forbes. 1959. More studies in early petroleum history. Brill Archive.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

First used by the Byzantines or perhaps the Chinese.


Last reference currently found for slings was for the Satavahanas. [1]

[1]: C. Margabandhu, Archaeology of the Satavahana Kshatrapa Times (1985), p. 311


In the hot Monsoon climate of India the composite bow decomposed rapidly so Ancient Indians made bows out of Wootz steel. These were "considerably more rigid than their composite bretheren, meaning they were also less powerful. But they were reliable and predictable, and could be stored away in munitions vaults without worry of decomposition." [1] "The Hindus used bows made of cane or bamboos which were inferior in range, accuracy and penetrative power when compared to the composite bows." [2] Composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but "after the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India." [2]

[1]: (O’Bryan 2013, 54) A History of Weapons: Crossbows, Caltrops, Catapults & Lots of Other Things that Can Seriously Mess You Up. Chronicle Books LLC. San Francisco.

[2]: (Roy 2011, 122) Kaushik Roy. Historiographical Survey of the Writings on Indian Military History. Sabyasachi Bhattacharya. ed. 2011. Approaches to History: Essays in Indian Historiography. Primus Books. Delhi.


"The popular weapons of warfare seem to be the sword, the trident or spear, the javelin, the battleaxe, the shield, etc." [1]

[1]: N.S. Ramachandra Murthy, Military Administration of the Rashtrakutas in the Telugu Country, in B.R. Gopal, The Rashtrakutas of Malkhed (1994), p. 116


Handheld Firearm:
absent

"The age of Turkish rule in India can be divided into two periods, the Afghan period from the 1200s to the 1500s and the Mughal period from the 1500s to the 1800s. Firearms arrived in India during the Afghan period and began to change the conduct of warfare in the Mughal period." [1]

[1]: (Chase 2003, p. 129)


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

"The age of Turkish rule in India can be divided into two periods, the Afghan period from the 1200s to the 1500s and the Mughal period from the 1500s to the 1800s. Firearms arrived in India during the Afghan period and began to change the conduct of warfare in the Mughal period." [1]

[1]: (Chase 2003, p. 129)


"The hand crossbow was usd on Indian battlefields probably from the third century A.D. It was mainly used as an infantry weapon and occasionally as a cavalry weapon. A Sanskrit inscription at Avanthipuram, in South India, reads: ’... Of him who has the name of Ananta impelled with speed and skillfully discharged from the machines of his bow fitted with the well stretched string....’ Obviously, the machine referred to was a hand crossbow." [1]

[1]: (Phillips 2016) Henry Pratap Phillips. 2016. The History and Chronology of Gunpowder and Gunpowder Weapons (c.1000 to 1850). Notion Press.


Composite Bow:
absent

"The Hindus used bows made of cane or bamboos which were inferior in range, accuracy and penetrative power when compared to the composite bows." [1] Composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but "after the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India." [1]

[1]: (Roy 2011, 122) Kaushik Roy. Historiographical Survey of the Writings on Indian Military History. Sabyasachi Bhattacharya. ed. 2011. Approaches to History: Essays in Indian Historiography. Primus Books. Delhi.


Weapon found only in the New World.


Handheld weapons

The Agni-purana (composed perhaps 600-1000 CE?) mentions weapons training with the sword, club and lasso. [1] Potent force by the fourth century BCE. [2] "There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo." [3]

[1]: (Eraly 2011, 167) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.

[2]: (Eraly 2011, 165) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.

[3]: (Eraly 2011, 169) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.


"The popular weapons of warfare seem to be the sword, the trident or spear, the javelin, the battleaxe, the shield, etc." [1]

[1]: N.S. Ramachandra Murthy, Military Administration of the Rashtrakutas in the Telugu Country, in B.R. Gopal, The Rashtrakutas of Malkhed (1994), p. 116


"The popular weapons of warfare seem to be the sword, the trident or spear, the javelin, the battleaxe, the shield, etc." [1]

[1]: N.S. Ramachandra Murthy, Military Administration of the Rashtrakutas in the Telugu Country, in B.R. Gopal, The Rashtrakutas of Malkhed (1994), p. 116



Battle Axe:
present

"The popular weapons of warfare seem to be the sword, the trident or spear, the javelin, the battleaxe, the shield, etc." [1]

[1]: N.S. Ramachandra Murthy, Military Administration of the Rashtrakutas in the Telugu Country, in B.R. Gopal, The Rashtrakutas of Malkhed (1994), p. 116


Animals used in warfare

"Next to the infantry, cavalry and elephants occupy the place of pride in the military organization". [1] "In the classical age, Indian armies were still organized, as they had been a thousand years earlier, into four divisions: infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants." [2] However, cavalry was a less significant force for the Rashtrakuta army which "consisted mainly of infantry, for, as Al Masudi noted, ’the seat of this government was among the mountains,’ and it was impossible to deploy cavalry, elephants or chariots there.’ [2]

[1]: N.S. Ramachandra Murthy, Military Administration of the Rashtrakutas in the Telugu Country, in B.R. Gopal, The Rashtrakutas of Malkhed (1994), p. 116

[2]: (Eraly 2011, 163) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.


"Next to the infantry, cavalry and elephants occupy the place of pride in the military organization". [1] "In the classical age, Indian armies were still organized, as they had been a thousand years earlier, into four divisions: infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants." [2] However, elephants were a less significant force for the Rashtrakuta army which "consisted mainly of infantry, for, as Al Masudi noted, ’the seat of this government was among the mountains,’ and it was impossible to deploy cavalry, elephants or chariots there.’ [2] "But there can be little doubt that war-elephants were not used in the same numbers under the Islamic dynasties of India as they were in the early medieval period and before. We have seen that the Arabic sources described the most important ninth- and tenth-century Hindu dynasties as equipped with tens of thousands or more elephants of various kinds. Although it is unlikely that these numbers indicated war-elephants in a state of readiness - they probably included the guessed number of untamed and half-tamed ones -, and although some of the figures are contradictory, they are larger than those of later times." [3]

[1]: N.S. Ramachandra Murthy, Military Administration of the Rashtrakutas in the Telugu Country, in B.R. Gopal, The Rashtrakutas of Malkhed (1994), p. 116

[2]: (Eraly 2011, 163) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.

[3]: (Wink 1997, 102-103) Andre Wink. 1997. Al-Hind. The Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Volume II. The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest 11th-13th Centuries. BRILL. Leiden.


In ancient India the buffalo, bullock, yak, goat, camel, elephant, horse, ass and the mule were all used for transport [1] [2] in different regions according to local conditions. [2]

[1]: (Mishra 1987, 83) Kamal Kishore Mishra. 1987. Police Administration in Ancient India. Mittal Publications. Delhi.

[2]: Prakash Charan Prasad. 1977. Foreign Trade and Commerce in Ancient India. Abhinav Publications. New Delhi.


Absent could be inferred from the fact that only the use of horses and elephants is mentioned in Ramachandra Murthy’s overview of Rashtrakuta military organisation [1] .

[1]: N.S. Ramachandra Murthy, Military Administration of the Rashtrakutas in the Telugu Country, in B.R. Gopal, The Rashtrakutas of Malkhed (1994), p. 116


Inferred from the fact that only the use of horses and elephants is mentioned in Ramachandra Murthy’s overview of Rashtrakuta military organisation. [1]

[1]: N.S. Ramachandra Murthy, Military Administration of the Rashtrakutas in the Telugu Country, in B.R. Gopal, The Rashtrakutas of Malkhed (1994), p. 116


Armor

Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a leather shield. [1] "The popular weapons of warfare seem to be the sword, the trident or spear, the javelin, the battleaxe, the shield, etc." [2]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: N.S. Ramachandra Murthy, Military Administration of the Rashtrakutas in the Telugu Country, in B.R. Gopal, The Rashtrakutas of Malkhed (1994), p. 116


Scaled Armor:
unknown

Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, and corselet. [1]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Plate Armor:
present

Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, corselet, and breast plate. [1]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Limb Protection:
present

Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a thigh guard. [1]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Leather Cloth:
present

Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions "dense structures made of the skin, hooves, and horns/tusks of the river dolphin, rhinocerous, Dhenuka, and cattle" used as armor. [1]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Laminar Armor:
unknown

Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, and corselet. [1]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a helmet. [1]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Chainmail:
present

Gupta period soldiers who could afford to do so and were willing to bear the heat (or for night operations?) wore chain mail. [1] Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions s metal coat of mail. [2]

[1]: (Rowell 2015 89) Rebecca Rowell. 2015. Ancient India. Abdo Publishing. Minneapolis.

[2]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Breastplate:
present

Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a breastplate. [1]

[1]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

’Chalukyas, Pallavas and the Cholas are noted for their naval forces." [1] It can be inferred that no other state had a significant naval force although some of them may have had a smaller navy. The Rashtrakuta kingdom had a lengthy coastline and may have had a small navy.

[1]: (Eraly 2011, 163) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown

Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown


Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions