Home Region:  Central India (South Asia)

Chalukyas of Badami

EQ 2020  in_badami_chalukya_emp / InChaBd

The Chalukyas of Badami (or Chalukyas of Vatapi) [1] ruled over an area roughly corresponding to the modern-day Indian states of Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Telangana, the region of South Gujarat, half of the state of Madhya Pradesh, the Rayaseema district and half the Andhra district of Andhra Pradesh. [2] This polity was founded in 543 CE, when Pulakesin I established the capital of Badami or Vatapi, [3] and it was supplanted by the Rashtrakuta polity in the 750s. [4] The peak of the polity can be considered to correspond to the reign of Pulakesin II (609-643 CE), who re-established his dynasty’s power throughout much of the Deccan after a period of instability, further extended the empire’s bounds through a series of successful military campaigns, and founded new dynastic lines in eastern India and in the Gujarat region. [5]
Population and political organization
At the head of this polity was an emperor, who often ruled over conquered territories indirectly, through feudal subordinates or family relations. [6] The emperor was also the polity’s supreme military commander. [7] In both military and administrative matters, he was assisted by the sandhivigrahika, or minister of war and peace: the only minister in the emperor’s council mentioned explicitly in Chalukya inscriptions, and probably the most powerful. [7]
No population estimates for the entire polity could be found in the literature. However, the capital may have been inhabited by as many as 70,000 people. [8]

[1]: (Kadambi 2007, 158) Hemanth Kadambi. 2007. ’Negotiated Pasts and Memorialized Present in Ancient India’, in Negotiating the Past in the Past: Identity, Memory, and Landscape in Archaeological Research, edited by Norman Yoffee, 155-82. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

[2]: (Kamath 1980) Suryanath Kamath. 1980. A Concise History of Karnataka: From Pre-historic Times to the Present. Bangalore: Archana Prakashana.

[3]: (Kadambi 2007, 178) Hemanth Kadambi. 2007. ’Negotiated Pasts and Memorialized Present in Ancient India’, in Negotiating the Past in the Past: Identity, Memory, and Landscape in Archaeological Research, edited by Norman Yoffee, 155-82. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

[4]: (Basavaraja 1984, 62) K. R. Basavaraja. 1984. History and Culture of Karnataka: Early Times to Unification. Dharwad: Chalukya Publications.

[5]: (Sastri 1960, 212) K. A. Nilakanta Sastri. 1960. ’The Chalukyas of Badami’, in The Early History of the Deccan, Vol. 1, edited by Ghulam Yazdani, 201-46. London: Oxford University Press.

[6]: (Dikshit 1980, 219-21) D. P. Dikshit. 1980. Political History of the Chalukyas of Badami. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications.

[7]: (Dikshit 1980, 267) D. P. Dikshit. 1980. Political History of the Chalukyas of Badami. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications.

[8]: Christopher Chase-Dunn 2001, personal communication.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
43 P  
Original Name:
Chalukyas of Badami  
Capital:
Badami  
Alternative Name:
Badami Dynasty  
Chalukyas of Badami  
Chalukyas of Vatapi  
Chalukyas of Vathapi  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[609 CE ➜ 643 CE]  
Duration:
[543 CE ➜ 753 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
Succeeding Entity:
Rashtrakuta Empire  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Kadamba Empire  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-Iranian  
Dravidian  
Language:
Sanskrit  
Kannada  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Hinduism  
Religion Family:
Saiva Traditions  
Alternate Religion Genus:
Hinduism  
Alternate Religion Family:
Vaisnava Traditions  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
70,000 people  
Polity Territory:
750,000 km2  
Polity Population:
[550,000 to 6,500,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4  
Religious Level:
5  
Military Level:
[5 to 7]  
Administrative Level:
[5 to 6]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
inferred present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
unknown  
Port:
present  
Canal:
unknown  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
unknown  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
inferred present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
unknown  
Information / Money
Paper Currency:
unknown  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
inferred present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
inferred present  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
inferred present  
  Complex Fortification:
unknown  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
inferred present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
present  
  Donkey:
unknown  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
inferred present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
inferred present  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
inferred present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
inferred present  
  Breastplate:
inferred present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Chalukyas of Badami (in_badami_chalukya_emp) was in:
 (541 CE 756 CE)   Deccan
Home NGA: Deccan

General Variables
Identity and Location


Capital:
Badami

Known, at the time, as Vatapi [1] .

[1]: H. Kadambi, Negotiated Pasts and Memorialized Present in Ancient India, in N. Yoffee (ed), Negotiating the Past in the Past (2008), p. 158


Alternative Name:
Badami Dynasty

[1] . It is worth noting that the ruling dynasty is both known as Chalukyas of Badami and Chalukyas of Vatapi (or Vathapi or Vatapai).

[1]: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/90201/Chalukya-dynasty

Alternative Name:
Chalukyas of Badami

[1] . It is worth noting that the ruling dynasty is both known as Chalukyas of Badami and Chalukyas of Vatapi (or Vathapi or Vatapai).

[1]: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/90201/Chalukya-dynasty

Alternative Name:
Chalukyas of Vatapi

[1] . It is worth noting that the ruling dynasty is both known as Chalukyas of Badami and Chalukyas of Vatapi (or Vathapi or Vatapai).

[1]: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/90201/Chalukya-dynasty

Alternative Name:
Chalukyas of Vathapi

[1] . It is worth noting that the ruling dynasty is both known as Chalukyas of Badami and Chalukyas of Vatapi (or Vathapi or Vatapai).

[1]: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/90201/Chalukya-dynasty


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[609 CE ➜ 643 CE]

Despite inheriting an empire torn apart by succession wars and the rebellions of provincial rulers, Pulakesin II was able to re-establish his dynasty’s power through much of the Deccan, further extended the empire’s bounds through a series of successful military campaigns, and founded new dynastic lines in Eastern India and in the Gujarat region [1] .

[1]: K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, The Chalukyas of Badami, in G. Yasdan, The Early History of the Deccan, vol. 1 (1960), pp. 212


Duration:
[543 CE ➜ 753 CE]

The start of the Chalukya Empire is generally said to coincide with the establishment of Badami as capital, and its end with with the last Emperor’s military defeat at the hands of the Rashtrakutas [1] .
Pulakesi I (543-566); Kirtivarman I (566-597); Mangalesa (597-609); Pulakesi II (609-642); Vikramaditya I (655-680); Vinayaditya (680-696); Vijayaditya (696-733); Vikramaditya II (733-746); Kirtivarman II (746-753); Dantidurga (753-756). [2] Ed: Notice that there is a gap between 642-655 CE.

[1]: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/90201/Chalukya-dynasty

[2]: (Pant 2012, 31) Ashok Pant. 2012. The Truth of Babri Mosque. iUniverse. Bloomington.


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none

Independent polity.


Succeeding Entity:
Rashtrakuta Empire

[1] .

[1]: H. Kadambi, Negotiated Pasts and Memorialized Present in Ancient India, in N. Yoffee (ed), Negotiating the Past in the Past (2008), p. 158


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

feudal subordinates [1] .

[1]: H. Kadambi, Negotiated Pasts and Memorialized Present in Ancient India, in N. Yoffee (ed), Negotiating the Past in the Past (2008), p. 158


Preceding Entity:
Kadamba Empire

[1] .

[1]: H. Kadambi, Negotiated Pasts and Memorialized Present in Ancient India, in N. Yoffee (ed), Negotiating the Past in the Past (2008), p. 158


Degree of Centralization:
unitary state

feudal empire The emperor often ruled over conquered territories indirectly, through feudal subordinates or family relations [1] .

[1]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), pp. 219-221


Language

Language:
Sanskrit

[1] .

[1]: Suryanatha Kamath, A Concise History of Karnataka (1980), p. 73

Language:
Kannada

[1] .

[1]: Suryanatha Kamath, A Concise History of Karnataka (1980), p. 73



Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
70,000 people

Inhabitants [1]

[1]: Chase-Dunn spreadsheet (2001)


Polity Territory:
750,000 km2

in squared kilometers. Roughly the equivalent of the sum of the modern-day Indian states of Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Telangana, the region of South Gujarat, half of the state of Madhya Pradesh, the Rayaseema district and half the Andhra district of Andhra Pradesh.


Polity Population:
[550,000 to 6,500,000] people

People. [1]

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 182-185) McEvedy, Colin. Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd. London.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4

levels.
None of the sources clearly describe a settlement hierarchy. However, from information on the Emperor’s administration [1] , the following rough hierarchy may be inferred:
1. Capital2. Provincial centre3. Town4. Village

[1]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), pp. 219-222


Religious Level:
5

levels.
_Hinduism_
There are no official priestly hierarchies in Hinduism [1] . However, several sources allude to the importance, at least for some branches of the religion, of the relationship between student and teacher or guru (e.g. [2] ), which suggests that perhaps it would not be entirely inappropriate to say that there is indeed a Hindu religious hierarchy, and that it is composed of two levels.
_Jainism_
NOTE: I have found two equally authoritative sources on Jain hierarchy:
(1) [3]
1. Arihants (ones who have conquered their inner enemies)2. Siddhas (Liberated Ones)3. Acharyas (who head the Order)4. Upadhyays (who teach the message)5. Sadhus (Monks/Seekers)
(2) [4]
1. Guru (teacher)2. Monks
2. Male figure (not specified by author whether a monk) in charge of nuns3. Pravartini or ganini (aides to the male figure in charge of nuns)4. Nuns
_Buddhism_
"Buddhist monastic communities replaced the caste system with one based on year of ordination. Previously ordained monks enjoyed rights and privileges higher in status than monks ordained later, and monks were categorically of higher status and privilege than nuns. In effect seniority and gender provided criteria for social status and increased access to ’pure’ teachings and exemption from ’impure’ duties." [5] .

[1]: http://ezinearticles.com/?Religious-Hierarchy-in-Hinduism&id=1864556

[2]: G. Flood, Introduction, in G. Flood (ed), The Blackwell Comapnion to Hinduism (2003), p. 4

[3]: Singh, Upinder. A History of Ancient and Early medieval India, pp 312-319

[4]: M. Adiga, The Making of Southern Karnataka (2006), pp. 269-276

[5]: P. Nietupsky, Hygiene: Buddhist Perspective, in W.M. Johnson, Encyclopedia of Monasticism (2000), p. 628


Military Level:
[5 to 7]

levels.
1. Emperor [1] 2. Sandhivigrahika (minister of war and peace) [1] 3. Mahabaladihktra or mahasandhivigrahikaMost likely the chief general, perhaps assigned the duty of assisting the minister of war and peace and/or supervising ten other generals [1] 4. Officials supervised by the mahabaladihktra or mahasandhivigrahika [1] - presumably more than one level5. Soldiers [1]

[1]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 267


Administrative Level:
[5 to 6]

levels.
1. Emperor [1] .
_Court_
2. Sandhivigrahika (Minister of War and Peace)This is the only minister in the Emperor’s council mentioned explicitly in Chalukya inscriptions, and there is much evidence that this was the most powerful of the ministers [2] . Indeed, it seems that, on at least one occasion, the sandhivigrahika also held the post of "chief of the secretariat" (divirapati) and was in charge of revenue administration (akshapataladhikaranadhipati) [3] .
3. Other ministersRecords here are a bit fuzzy. These "ministers and other administrators" may include the keeper of records, a guru, as well as the Crown Prince [1] and other loyal members of the royal family, including the Queen [4] . And, presumably, the divirapati and the akshapataladhikaranadhipati [3] , in those occasions where they were not titles held by the sandhivigrahika.
4. Administrative officialsThe long list of administrative officials includes: diviras (clerks) and akshapatalikas (revenue officers) [3] ; baladhirkta or mahabaladhirtkas (military officials with administrative duties); dutakas (in charge of conveyance of royal grants); durgapatis (fort administrators); dandapasika and chauradhikarana (in charge of crime and punishment); chatas and batas (possibly police-like officers); vasavakas (in charge of arranging the residences of touring officials and foreigners); viniyuktakas (unclear); gamagamikas (supervised egress and ingress of travellers, including inspecting "passports") [5]
5.e.g. senior batas?
6.e.g. batas?
_Provincial Government_
2. "Viceroys"Members of the royal family who ruled over vishayas, or provinces [6] .
2. Rajasamantas or "Governors"Defeated rulers whom the Emperor trusted to keep in charge of their territories, now made into vishayas, or provinces [7] . It is not entirely clear, from the source, whether rajasamanta and "governor" are the same office.
3. SamantasFeudal subordinates of the rajasamantas, they provided troops and tribute to the Emperor when required [8] .
4. Town assembliesMade up of elders (mahajanas), guild chiefs, mahallakas, and "head of business communities" [9] .
5. Village administrationMade up of mahajanas (elders), mahattaras, mahattaradhikarins and gavundas (royal representatives) [9] . There also existed "gramabhogikas" or "village leaders" and karanas or "village accountants" [10] , but it is unclear what their position was in relation to other village administrators.

[1]: Suryanatha Kamath, A Concise History of Karnataka (1980), p. 70

[2]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), pp. 211-212

[3]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), pp. 213-214

[4]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), pp. 208-210

[5]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), pp. 224-230

[6]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 219

[7]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), pp. 220

[8]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), pp. 219-220

[9]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 222

[10]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 228


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

Inferred from the fact that there was a standing army [1] .

[1]: K. Reddy, Indian History (2006), p. A404


Professional Priesthood:
present

A guru may have been part of the Emperor’s ministerial council [1] . Hinduism had its representatives in Brahmanas [2] , Jainism and Buddhism in monks [3] [4] .

[1]: Suryanatha Kamath, A Concise History of Karnataka (1980), p. 70

[2]: L. Rocher, The Dharmasastras, in G. Flood (ed), The Balckwell Companion to Hinduism (2003), p. 103

[3]: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/jainism/worship/ministry.shtml

[4]: L. Aldritt, Buddhism (2009), p. 12


Professional Military Officer:
present

Although military officers also took on civic and administrative duties, e.g. [1] .

[1]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 228


Bureaucracy Characteristics

Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

[1]

[1]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), pp. 224-230



Law

The Emperor was the supreme judge, but he also dispensed justice through judges he himself appointed [1] .

[1]: B.K. Singh, The Early Chalukyas of Vatapi (1991), p. 159


Formal Legal Code:
present

Smirtis and dharmashastras [1] . The Smriti, or Manu-smriti, is a collection of texts prescribing correct behaviour, including a section explicitly devoted to "the law of kings" [2] , while the dharmashastras are a collection of more explicitly legal texts [3] .

[1]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 230

[2]: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/363055/Manu-smriti

[3]: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/160730/Dharma-shastra


A number of different courts existed, each probably dedicated to a different unit of administration [1] .

[1]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 230


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Inferred from the existence of a market tax [1] .

[1]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 248


Irrigation System:
present

"Dams were erected across the streams and from them channels taken out wherever and whenever necessary" [1] .

[1]: B.K. Singh, The Early Chalukyas of Vatapi (1991), p. 183



Transport Infrastructure

The Chalukyas conquered several "flourishing ports" on the West coast: Mangalore, Thana, Sopara and Kalyana [1] .

[1]: Suryanatha Kamath, A Concise History of Karnataka (1980), p. 74



Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Several contemporary inscriptions available [1] .

[1]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas of Badami, pp. 7-10


Script:
present

Inscriptions are in both Kannada and Telugu scripts [1] .

[1]: H. Kadambi, Negotiated Pasts and Memorialized Present in Ancient India, in N. Yoffee (ed), Negotiating the Past in the Past (2008), p. 158


Nonwritten Record:
present

Chalukya temples are often decorated with frescoes which provide much information on their military organisation [1] .

[1]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 266


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Sacred Text:
present

Hindu scriptures.


Religious Literature:
present

likely used by government officials


Practical Literature:
present

Treatises on Sanskrit grammar [1] .

[1]: K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, The Chalukyas of Badami, in G. Yasdan, The Early History of the Deccan, vol. 1 (1960), pp. 244-245


Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown

likely used by government officials


History:
present

The work of poet Ravikirtti is an important source on the military campaigns of Pulakesin II [1]

[1]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas of Badami, p. 10


Fiction:
present

The work of poet Ravikirtti is an important source on the military campaigns of Pulakesin II [1]

[1]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas of Badami, p. 10


Calendar:
unknown

likely used by government officials


Information / Money

Indigenous Coin:
present

A gold coin, the gadyana, is mentioned in an inscription; it weighed 120 grams in imitation of Gupta currency [1]

[1]: Suryanatha Kamath, A Concise History of Karnataka (1980), p. 71



Information / Postal System


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications

Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown

During the Satavahana period towns were protected by "high walls" [1] but the construction materials and methods are not mentioned.

[1]: S. Kamath, A Concise History of Karnataka (1980), p. 27


Stone Walls Mortared:
present

During the Satavahana period towns were protected by "high walls" [1] but the construction materials and methods are not mentioned. "The temple is enclosed by a stone wall and has evidently been used as a fort. On the outside of the east wall of the temple is a stone inscription of the Early Chalukya dynasty..." [2]

[1]: S. Kamath, A Concise History of Karnataka (1980), p. 27

[2]: (1884, 546) 1884. Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Bijápur. Government Central Press.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

Commenting on Jean Deloche’s ’Studies on Fortification in India’ a book reviewer says that fort construction "with long-term building and modification programs ... became the focal point for local populations as well as for their leaders" and often were "placed at points on the landscape that already were natural strongholds and places of ritual devolution". [1]

[1]: (Smith 2010, 273) Monica L Smith. January 2010. Journal of the American Oriental Society. 130.2. Studies on Fortification in India. Collection Indologie, vol. 104. Four Forts of the Deccan vol. 111. Senji (Gingee): A Fortified City in the Tamil Country. vol. 101 by Jean Deloche.



Present for the Satavahana period. [1] Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions ramparts constructed with earth and moats. [2]

[1]: (Chakrabarti 1995, 306) D K Chakrabarti. Post-Mauryan states of mainland South Asia (c. BC 185-AD 320). F R Allchin. 1995. The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Olivelle 2016, 103) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.



Earth Rampart:
present

"Till date, the best study of the evolution of fortifications in India from the Indus Valley Civilization till the rise of British power, remains Deloche’s monograph on fortification in India. Deloche notes that between the third and fourteenth centuries, the Hindu rulers constructed complex gateways, towers and thicker walls with earthen embankments in order to make their durgas (forts) impregnable." [1] Deloche’s studies on Indian fortifications are in French. Ditches and moats were present during the Satavahana period [2] and the simpler technology of earth rampart is therefore also likely. Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions ramparts constructed with earth and moats. [3]

[1]: (Roy 2011, 123) Kaushik Roy. Historiographical Survey of the Writings on Indian Military History. Sabyasachi Bhattacharya. ed. 2011. Approaches to History: Essays in Indian Historiography. Primus Books. Delhi.

[2]: (Chakrabarti 1995, 306) D K Chakrabarti. Post-Mauryan states of mainland South Asia (c. BC 185-AD 320). F R Allchin. 1995. The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[3]: (Olivelle 2016, 103) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Ditch:
present

Present for the Satavahana period. [1]

[1]: (Chakrabarti 1995, 306) D K Chakrabarti. Post-Mauryan states of mainland South Asia (c. BC 185-AD 320). F R Allchin. 1995. The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.



Military use of Metals

Metal armour was used for both warriors and horses [1] . Type of metal not specified. Indian iron smiths invented the ’wootz’ method of steel creation between 550-450 BCE. The Greek physician Ctesias of Cnidus commented on an Indian steel sword in the possession of Artaxerxes II of Persia (c400 BCE). [2]

[1]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 266

[2]: (Singh 1997, 102) Sarva Daman Singh. 1997. Ancient Indian Warfare: With Special Reference to the Vedic Period. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. Delhi.


Metal armour was used for both warriors and horses [1] . Type of metal not specified. Indian iron smiths invented the ’wootz’ method of steel creation between 550-450 BCE. The Greek physician Ctesias of Cnidus commented on an Indian steel sword in the possession of Artaxerxes II of Persia (c400 BCE). [2]

[1]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 266

[2]: (Singh 1997, 102) Sarva Daman Singh. 1997. Ancient Indian Warfare: With Special Reference to the Vedic Period. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. Delhi.


Copper:
present

Metal armour was used for both warriors and horses [1] . Type of metal not specified. Likely used primarily for ornamental reasons.

[1]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 266


Bronze:
present

Metal armour was used for both warriors and horses [1] . Type of metal not specified. ’Usually replaced by steel but likely used for ornamental reasons and for handles.

[1]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 266


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

According to Jaina texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone". [1] A military historian reports that ancient Indians had a weapon called the yantra that "may refer to a device for hurling stones and missiles at the enemy, but we have no information as to its design." [2] - what do specialist scholars of this period know about this? Ancient Indian armies had siege engines that could "fling stones and lead balls wrapped up in burning materials. The Mahabharata mentions an Asma-yantra (a stone-throwing machine) in the battle with Jarasandha and we have further records that such engines were used in later periods to set enemy fortifications alight and that ’liquid fires’ containing naphtha were in use in ancient India." [3]

[1]: (Singh 2008, 272) Upinder Singh. 2008. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Longman. Delhi.

[2]: (Gabriel 2007, 126-127) Richard A Gabriel. 2007. The Ancient World. Greenwood Publishing Group. Westport.

[3]: (Forbes 1959, 88-89) Robert James Forbes. 1959. More studies in early petroleum history. Brill Archive.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

Byzantines, or perhaps the Chinese, were the first.


Present for earlier Satavahanas but for this time no data.


Self Bow:
present

Artistic and written evidence for the use of bow and arrow (bow type not specified) [1] In the hot Monsoon climate of India the composite bow decomposed rapidly so Ancient Indians made bows out of Wootz steel. These were "considerably more rigid than their composite bretheren, meaning they were also less powerful. But they were reliable and predictable, and could be stored away in munitions vaults without worry of decomposition." [2] "The Hindus used bows made of cane or bamboos which were inferior in range, accuracy and penetrative power when compared to the composite bows." [3] Composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but "after the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India." [3]

[1]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 266

[2]: (O’Bryan 2013, 54) A History of Weapons: Crossbows, Caltrops, Catapults & Lots of Other Things that Can Seriously Mess You Up. Chronicle Books LLC. San Francisco.

[3]: (Roy 2011, 122) Kaushik Roy. Historiographical Survey of the Writings on Indian Military History. Sabyasachi Bhattacharya. ed. 2011. Approaches to History: Essays in Indian Historiography. Primus Books. Delhi.


Javelin:
present

The javelin was still being used as a weapon in the time of the Rashtrakutas who followed this period. [1]

[1]: N.S. Ramachandra Murthy, Military Administration of the Rashtrakutas in the Telugu Country, in B.R. Gopal, The Rashtrakutas of Malkhed (1994), p. 116




Crossbow:
present

"The hand crossbow was usd on Indian battlefields probably from the third century A.D. It was mainly used as an infantry weapon and occasionally as a cavalry weapon. A Sanskrit inscription at Avanthipuram, in South India, reads: ’... Of him who has the name of Ananta impelled with speed and skillfully discharged from the machines of his bow fitted with the well stretched string....’ Obviously, the machine referred to was a hand crossbow." [1]

[1]: (Phillips 2016) Henry Pratap Phillips. 2016. The History and Chronology of Gunpowder and Gunpowder Weapons (c.1000 to 1850). Notion Press.


Composite Bow:
absent

"The Hindus used bows made of cane or bamboos which were inferior in range, accuracy and penetrative power when compared to the composite bows." [1] Composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but "after the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India." [1]

[1]: (Roy 2011, 122) Kaushik Roy. Historiographical Survey of the Writings on Indian Military History. Sabyasachi Bhattacharya. ed. 2011. Approaches to History: Essays in Indian Historiography. Primus Books. Delhi.


Weapon found only in the New World.


Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

"among the weapons of warfare are mentioned swords, shields, spears, clubs, lances, bows and arrows etc." [1] .

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 75


Artistic evidence for the use of at least two types of sword [1] .

[1]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 266


"among the weapons of warfare are mentioned swords, shields, spears, clubs, lances, bows and arrows etc." [1] .

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 75


Polearm:
present

Artistic and written evidence for the use of lances [1] .

[1]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 266


Dagger:
present

Artistic evidence for both daggers and double-bladed "dagger-like" vajra [1] .

[1]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 266


Battle Axe:
present

"There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo." [1]

[1]: (Eraly 2011, 169) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.


Animals used in warfare

[1] "The Chalukyan army no doubt consisted of infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants, besides the naval unit." [2] By the medieval period cavalry had mostly relegated the chariot to ceremonial function. [3] "In the classical age, Indian armies were still organized, as they had been a thousand years earlier, into four divisions: infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants." [4]

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 75

[2]: (Dikshit 1980, 263) Durga Prasad Dikshit. 1980. Political History of the Chalukyas of Badami. Abhinav Publications. New Delhi.

[3]: (Dikshit 1980, 265) Durga Prasad Dikshit. 1980. Political History of the Chalukyas of Badami. Abhinav Publications. New Delhi.

[4]: (Eraly 2011, 163) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.


Elephant:
present

[1] "The Chalukyan army no doubt consisted of infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants, besides the naval unit." [2] "In the classical age, Indian armies were still organized, as they had been a thousand years earlier, into four divisions: infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants." [3]

[1]: H.V. Sreenivasa Murthy and R. Ramakrishnan, A History of Karnataka (1978), p. 75

[2]: (Dikshit 1980, 263) Durga Prasad Dikshit. 1980. Political History of the Chalukyas of Badami. Abhinav Publications. New Delhi.

[3]: (Eraly 2011, 163) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.


Donkey:
unknown

In ancient India the buffalo, bullock, yak, goat, camel, elephant, horse, ass and the mule were all used for transport [1] [2] in different regions according to local conditions. [2]

[1]: (Mishra 1987, 83) Kamal Kishore Mishra. 1987. Police Administration in Ancient India. Mittal Publications. Delhi.

[2]: Prakash Charan Prasad. 1977. Foreign Trade and Commerce in Ancient India. Abhinav Publications. New Delhi.



Camel:
present

In ancient India the buffalo, bullock, yak, goat, camel, elephant, horse, ass and the mule were all used for transport [1] [2] in different regions according to local conditions. [2]

[1]: (Mishra 1987, 83) Kamal Kishore Mishra. 1987. Police Administration in Ancient India. Mittal Publications. Delhi.

[2]: Prakash Charan Prasad. 1977. Foreign Trade and Commerce in Ancient India. Abhinav Publications. New Delhi.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
unknown

A military historian states that the Maurayans carried shields made of raw oxhide stretched over a wood or wicker frame [1] - do Maurayan specialists agree?

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 219) Gabriel, Richard A. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Greenwood Publishing Group.


Shield:
present

Artistic evidence for shields made of metal and hide [1] .

[1]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 266


Scaled Armor:
unknown

"Several Chalukyan epigraphs refer to kavacha or armour. A good number of sculptures at Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal show not only armoured soldiers but also caparisoned horses. Metal armours served as shields against attack by enemies, protecting both men and animal forces." [1] Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, corselet, mail and breast plate. [2]

[1]: (Dikshit 1980, 266) Durga Prasad Dikshit. 1980. Political History of the Chalukyas of Badami. Abhinav Publications. New Delhi.

[2]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Plate Armor:
present

Ancient Indians used iron for armour cuirasses and breastplates but copper was also used. [1] "Several Chalukyan epigraphs refer to kavacha or armour. A good number of sculptures at Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal show not only armoured soldiers but also caparisoned horses. Metal armours served as shields against attack by enemies, protecting both men and animal forces." [2] Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal plate, cuirass, corselet and breast plate. [3]

[1]: (Singh 1997) Sarva Daman Singh. 1997. Ancient Indian Warfare: With Special Reference to the Vedic Period. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. Delhi.

[2]: (Dikshit 1980, 266) Durga Prasad Dikshit. 1980. Political History of the Chalukyas of Badami. Abhinav Publications. New Delhi.

[3]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Limb Protection:
present

"Several Chalukyan epigraphs refer to kavacha or armour. A good number of sculptures at Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal show not only armoured soldiers but also caparisoned horses. Metal armours served as shields against attack by enemies, protecting both men and animal forces." [1] Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a thigh guard. [2]

[1]: (Dikshit 1980, 266) Durga Prasad Dikshit. 1980. Political History of the Chalukyas of Badami. Abhinav Publications. New Delhi.

[2]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Leather Cloth:
present

A military historian states that helmets were not widely used until the CE period; soldiers used thick turbans to protect their heads [1] - do ancient Indian specialists agree? Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions "dense structures made of the skin, hooves, and horns/tusks of the river dolphin, rhinocerous, Dhenuka, and cattle" used as armor. [2]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 220) Gabriel, Richard A. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Greenwood Publishing Group.

[2]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Laminar Armor:
unknown

"Several Chalukyan epigraphs refer to kavacha or armour. A good number of sculptures at Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal show not only armoured soldiers but also caparisoned horses. Metal armours served as shields against attack by enemies, protecting both men and animal forces." [1] Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, corselet, mail and breast plate. [2]

[1]: (Dikshit 1980, 266) Durga Prasad Dikshit. 1980. Political History of the Chalukyas of Badami. Abhinav Publications. New Delhi.

[2]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Helmet:
present

Earlier period Vakataka "soldiers were provided with armours and helmets." [1] A military historian states that helmets were not widely used until the CE period; soldiers used thick turbans to protect their heads [2] - do ancient Indian specialists agree? "Several Chalukyan epigraphs refer to kavacha or armour. A good number of sculptures at Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal show not only armoured soldiers but also caparisoned horses. Metal armours served as shields against attack by enemies, protecting both men and animal forces." [3]

[1]: (Majumdar and Altekar 1986, 277) Anant Sadashiv Altekar. The Administrative Organisation. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. Anant Sadashiv Altekar. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. Delhi.

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 220) Gabriel, Richard A. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Greenwood Publishing Group.

[3]: (Dikshit 1980, 266) Durga Prasad Dikshit. 1980. Political History of the Chalukyas of Badami. Abhinav Publications. New Delhi.


Chainmail:
present

In Ancient India soldiers of the Gupta Empire who could afford to do so and were willing to bear the heat (or for night operations?) wore chain mail. [1] "Several Chalukyan epigraphs refer to kavacha or armour. A good number of sculptures at Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal show not only armoured soldiers but also caparisoned horses. Metal armours served as shields against attack by enemies, protecting both men and animal forces." [2] Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a coat of mail. [3]

[1]: (Rowell 2015 89) Rebecca Rowell. 2015. Ancient India. Abdo Publishing. Minneapolis.

[2]: (Dikshit 1980, 266) Durga Prasad Dikshit. 1980. Political History of the Chalukyas of Badami. Abhinav Publications. New Delhi.

[3]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Breastplate:
present

"Several Chalukyan epigraphs refer to kavacha or armour. A good number of sculptures at Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal show not only armoured soldiers but also caparisoned horses. Metal armours served as shields against attack by enemies, protecting both men and animal forces." [1] Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a breastplate.; Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions "Helmet, neck guard, cuirass, corselet, mail, breast plate, and thigh guard". [2]

[1]: (Dikshit 1980, 266) Durga Prasad Dikshit. 1980. Political History of the Chalukyas of Badami. Abhinav Publications. New Delhi.

[2]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

Contemporary inscriptions mention the "war boats" of both Emperors Vinayaditya and Mangalesha [1] . "There was also a strong division of navy to guard the sea-coast and conduct maritime operations." [2] ’Chalukyas, Pallavas and the Cholas are noted for their naval forces." [3]

[1]: D.P. Dikshit, Political History of the Chalukyas (1980), p. 265

[2]: (Dikshit 1980, 262) Durga Prasad Dikshit. 1980. Political History of the Chalukyas of Badami. Abhinav Publications. New Delhi.

[3]: (Eraly 2011, 163) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.





Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.