Home Region:  Pakistan (South Asia)

Kachi Plain - Post-Urban Period

D G SC WF HS EQ 2020  pk_kachi_post_urban / PkPostU

Preceding:
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
No Polity found. Add one here.

The Kachi Plain, in modern-day Pakistan, is hemmed in on two of its three sides by the mountains of Baluchistan, while its southeastern side opens up to the Indus Valley. [1] Here, the settlement of Pirak was established not long after the beginning of the second millennium BCE, and it was continuously occupied from that time up until the sixth or seventh century BCE. Here we consider Pirak I, that is, the phase of Pirak’s occupation that corresponds to the best part of the second millennium BCE. [2] It seems very likely that Pirak was part of a larger assemblage of culturally similar settlements, but, perhaps due to the erosive effects of nearby rivers, only Pirak remains. [3] Notable archaeological finds from the site at this time include terracotta seals, horse and camel figurines, and zoomorphic game pieces, and the site’s architecture and agricultural infrastructure is somewhat reminiscent of the Indus Valley Civilization. [4]
Population and political organization
Not much appears to be known about Pirak’s political organization, although the retrieval of terracotta seals [5] suggests perhaps the existence of some form of bureaucracy.
The scholarly literature does not provide population estimates.

[1]: (Jarrige & Enault 1976, 29) Jean-Francois Jarrige and Jean-Francois Enault. 1976. Fouilles de Pirak. Arts Asiatiques 32: 29-70.

[2]: (Jarrige & Enault 1976, 32-33) Jean-Francois Jarrige and Jean-Francois Enault. 1976. Fouilles de Pirak. Arts Asiatiques 32: 29-70.

[3]: (Jarrige & Enault 1976, 45-46) Jean-Francois Jarrige and Jean-Francois Enault. 1976. Fouilles de Pirak. Arts Asiatiques 32: 29-70.

[4]: (Jarrige & Enault 1976, 33-36) Jean-Francois Jarrige and Jean-Francois Enault. 1976. Fouilles de Pirak. Arts Asiatiques 32: 29-70.

[5]: (Jarrige & Enault 1976, 36) Jean-Francois Jarrige and Jean-Francois Enault. 1976. Fouilles de Pirak. Arts Asiatiques 32: 29-70.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
42 R  
Original Name:
Kachi Plain - Post-Urban Period  
Capital:
unknown  
Alternative Name:
Late Harappan  
Pirak I  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[1,800 BCE ➜ 1,300 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
unknown [---]  
Succeeding Entity:
Kachi Plain - Proto-Historic Period  
Preceding Entity:
Preceding:   Kachi Plain - Urban Period II (pk_kachi_urban_2)    [None]  
Degree of Centralization:
loose  
Language
Linguistic Family:
unknown  
Language:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[450 to 1,800] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[1 to 2]  
Religious Level:
1  
Military Level:
[0 to 1]  
Administrative Level:
[0 to 2]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred absent  
Professional Priesthood:
inferred present  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred absent  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
inferred absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
inferred absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent  
Judge:
absent  
Formal Legal Code:
inferred absent  
Court:
absent  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
unknown  
Irrigation System:
inferred absent  
Food Storage Site:
absent  
Drinking Water Supply System:
inferred absent  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
inferred absent  
Port:
absent  
Canal:
inferred present  
Bridge:
inferred present  
Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent  
Script:
absent  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Nonwritten Record:
inferred present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent  
Sacred Text:
absent  
Religious Literature:
absent  
Practical Literature:
absent  
Philosophy:
absent  
Lists Tables and Classification:
absent  
History:
absent  
Fiction:
absent  
Calendar:
absent  
Information / Money
Token:
inferred present  
Precious Metal:
inferred present  
Paper Currency:
inferred absent  
Indigenous Coin:
inferred absent  
Foreign Coin:
inferred absent  
Article:
inferred present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
absent  
General Postal Service:
absent  
Courier:
absent  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
absent  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred absent  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
absent  
  Fortified Camp:
absent  
  Earth Rampart:
absent  
  Ditch:
absent  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
absent  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
absent  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
absent  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
absent  
  Sword:
absent  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
absent  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
absent  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
present  
absent  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
absent  
  Shield:
absent  
  Scaled Armor:
absent 1800 BCE 1700 BCE
unknown 1600 BCE 1301 BCE
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
absent  
  Leather Cloth:
absent 1800 BCE 1700 BCE
unknown 1600 BCE 1301 BCE
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
absent  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
absent  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
absent  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Kachi Plain - Post-Urban Period (pk_kachi_post_urban) was in:
 (1800 BCE 1301 BCE)   Kachi Plain
Home NGA: Kachi Plain

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Kachi Plain - Post-Urban Period

Capital:
unknown

Given that the degree of integration with the wider Indus Valley is not clear, a capital cannot be named.



Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[1,800 BCE ➜ 1,300 BCE]

Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
unknown [---]

It is impossible to say what sort of polity or what size might be connected with Pirak, however it seems to have been part of a larger network of exchange from I onwards, and the buildings discovered are larger than one would expect in a small village. [1] [2] "...it has proved impossible for the moment to define in a less summary fashion its probable area of geographical distribution. As far as the region is concerned, the mound of Pirak is the only one of its kind." [3]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1997) From Nausharo to Pirak: Continuity and Change in the Kachi/Bolan Region from the 3rd to the 2nd Millennium BC. In, Allchin, R. and Allchin, B. (eds) South Asian Archaeology, 1995, volume I. The Ancient India and Iran Trust, Cambridge., pp 11-32.

[2]: Jarrige, J-F. (2000) Continuity and Change in the North Kachi Plain (Baluchistan, Pakistan) at the beginning of the Second Millennium BC. In, Lahiri, N. The Decline and Fall of the Indus Civilization. Permanent Black, Delhi., pp345-362.

[3]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.p388


Succeeding Entity:
Kachi Plain - Proto-Historic Period

Preceding Entity:
Kachi Plain - Urban Period II [pk_kachi_urban_2] ---> Kachi Plain - Post-Urban Period [pk_kachi_post_urban]

Degree of Centralization:
loose

According to Coningham, there is no evidence of centralized systems of government during this period. Attempts by scholars such as Maurizio Tosi to find evidence of differentiation and increasing complexity were not born out by the evidence. While recording systems are present, stamp seals and sealing, these appeared to be quite localized in terms of their production. [1]

[1]: Coningham pers. comm. interview with Harvey Whitehouse and Christina Collins, Jan 2017


Language

Language:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI

Nothing is known about the spoken language(s) in use. [1]

[1]: Possehl, Gregory L., ‘The Transformation of the Indus Civilization’, Journal of World Prehistory, 11 (1997): 462


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[450 to 1,800] people

Assuming 50-200 people per ha and 9 ha, we have an estimate of 450-1800. “The extent of the built up areas [of Pirak] remains practically constant, almost 9 hectares, and the apparent conservatism of the material culture are factors that bear witness to an undeniable stability of the settlement.” [1] but "...it has proved impossible for the moment to define in a less summary fashion its probable area of geographical distribution. As far as the region is concerned, the mound of Pirak is the only one of its kind." [2] . Although, the material culture found at Pirak has also been uncovered in a much wider area in the north of the Kachi Plain [3] , and as far as southern Central Asia and the Ganges valley. [4] The population of Pirak has not been estimated. [5] [6]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard. p390

[2]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.p388

[3]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard. p389

[4]: Jarrige, J-F. (2000) Continuity and Change in the North Kachi Plain (Baluchistan, Pakistan) at the beginning of the Second Millennium BC. In, Lahiri, N. The Decline and Fall of the Indus Civilization. Permanent Black, Delhi., pp345-362. p355

[5]: Jarrige, J-F. (1997) From Nausharo to Pirak: Continuity and Change in the Kachi/Bolan Region from the 3rd to the 2nd Millennium BC. In, Allchin, R. and Allchin, B. (eds) South Asian Archaeology, 1995, volume I. The Ancient India and Iran Trust, Cambridge., pp 11-32.

[6]: Jarrige, J-F. (2000) Continuity and Change in the North Kachi Plain (Baluchistan, Pakistan) at the beginning of the Second Millennium BC. In, Lahiri, N. The Decline and Fall of the Indus Civilization. Permanent Black, Delhi., pp345-362.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[1 to 2]

Inferred. Pirak is the best-preserved site in the Kachi Plain from this time. Although other sites such as Pathani Damb have also been found, it is difficult to estimate their extent due to the poor preservation of the site. “Although no systematic surveys have been carried out in the Kachi plain, it appears that this region lying between highland Baluchistan and the Indus valley was occupied without break by sizable settlements throughout the second and into the first millennium BC.” [1] [2]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (2000) Continuity and Change in the North Kachi Plain (Baluchistan, Pakistan) at the beginning of the Second Millennium BC. In, Lahiri, N. The Decline and Fall of the Indus Civilization. Permanent Black, Delhi., pp345-362. p346

[2]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.p390


Religious Level:
1

There is no evidence of a systematic religion at Pirak at this time. [1] There is little evidence for an integrated religious system, as regional cultures split from the previous Mature Harappan system. [2] [3] In the broader context of the Mature Harappan there is evidence for priests, and Kenoyer refers to "ritual specialist". [4] [5]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.

[2]: Wright, R. P. (2010) The Ancient Indus: urbanism, economy and society. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press

[3]: Possehl, G. L. (2002) The Indus Civilization, A contemporary perspective. AltaMira Press: Walnut Creek.

[4]: Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark, ‘The Indus Valley Tradition of Pakistan and Western India’, Journal of World Prehistory, 5 (1991), 370

[5]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 6.


Military Level:
[0 to 1]

There is no evidence of organized warfare at Pirak at this time. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


Administrative Level:
[0 to 2]

The remains of terracotta and bronze/copper seals, and numerous impressions of them, "...lead us to suppose that some form of commercial business was carried on in this part of the site [PK.C]" [1] ; and processing remains suggest that there were craft specialists at Pirak. [2] There may therefore have been some form of administrative levels, but this is not certain.

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard. p368

[2]: Jarrige, J-F. (2000) Continuity and Change in the North Kachi Plain (Baluchistan, Pakistan) at the beginning of the Second Millennium BC. In, Lahiri, N. The Decline and Fall of the Indus Civilization. Permanent Black, Delhi., pp345-362.


Professions
Professional Soldier:
absent

There is no evidence of organized warfare at Pirak at this time. [1] In the concurrent

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


Professional Priesthood:
present

There is no evidence of a systematic religion at Pirak at this time. Only animal and human figurines have been found. [1] There is little evidence for an integrated religious system, as regional cultures split from the previous Mature Harappan system. [2] [3] In the broader context of the preceding Mature Harappan there is evidence for priests, and Kenoyer refers to "ritual specialist". [4] [5]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.

[2]: Wright, R. P. (2010) The Ancient Indus: urbanism, economy and society. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press

[3]: Possehl, G. L. (2002) The Indus Civilization, A contemporary perspective. AltaMira Press: Walnut Creek.

[4]: Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark, ‘The Indus Valley Tradition of Pakistan and Western India’, Journal of World Prehistory, 5 (1991), 370

[5]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 6.


Professional Military Officer:
absent

There is no evidence of organized warfare at Pirak at this time. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent

According to Coningham, there is no evidence of centralized systems of government during this period. Attempts by scholars such as Maurizio Tosi to find evidence of differentiation and increasing complexity were not born out by the evidence. While recording systems are present, stamp seals and sealing, these appeared to be quite localized in terms of their production. [1] The remains of terracotta and bronze/copper seals, and numerous impressions of them, "...lead us to suppose that some form of commercial business was carried on in this part of the site [PK.C]" [2] ; and processing remains suggest that there were craft specialists at Pirak. [3] However, this evidence does not seem strong enough to code for specialized government buildings: as Coningham stated, even the existence of a government is in doubt.

[1]: Coningham pers. comm. interview with Harvey Whitehouse and Christina Collins, Jan 2017

[2]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard. p368

[3]: Jarrige, J-F. (2000) Continuity and Change in the North Kachi Plain (Baluchistan, Pakistan) at the beginning of the Second Millennium BC. In, Lahiri, N. The Decline and Fall of the Indus Civilization. Permanent Black, Delhi., pp345-362.


Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent

According to Coningham, there is no evidence of centralized systems of government during this period. Attempts by scholars such as Maurizio Tosi to find evidence of differentiation and increasing complexity were not born out by the evidence. While recording systems are present, stamp seals and sealing, these appeared to be quite localized in terms of their production. [1] The remains of terracotta and bronze/copper seals, and numerous impressions of them, "...lead us to suppose that some form of commercial business was carried on in this part of the site [PK.C]" [2] ; and processing remains suggest that there were craft specialists at Pirak. [3] There may therefore have been some form of bureaucracy, but this is not certain. Coded ’inferred absent’ because this evidence does not seem strong enough to demonstrate that there were full-time bureaucrats.

[1]: Coningham pers. comm. interview with Harvey Whitehouse and Christina Collins, Jan 2017

[2]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard. p368

[3]: Jarrige, J-F. (2000) Continuity and Change in the North Kachi Plain (Baluchistan, Pakistan) at the beginning of the Second Millennium BC. In, Lahiri, N. The Decline and Fall of the Indus Civilization. Permanent Black, Delhi., pp345-362.


Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent

According to Coningham, while archaeologists such as Maurizio Tosi attempted to find evidence of courts and the rule of law, they have only found stamp seals that did not change over time or, by their concentration in a given place, indicate an authoritarian locus. [1]

[1]: Coningham pers. comm. interview with Harvey Whitehouse and Christina Collins, Jan 2017


According to Coningham, while archaeologists such as Maurizio Tosi attempted to find evidence of courts and the rule of law, they have only found stamp seals that did not change over time or, by their concentration in a given place, indicate an authoritarian locus. [1]

[1]: Coningham pers. comm. interview with Harvey Whitehouse and Christina Collins, Jan 2017


Formal Legal Code:
absent

There is no written or other evidence for a system of law at Pirak. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


According to Coningham, while archaeologists such as Maurizio Tosi attempted to find evidence of courts and the rule of law, they have only found stamp seals that did not change over time or, by their concentration in a given place, indicate an authoritarian locus. [1]

[1]: Coningham pers. comm. interview with Harvey Whitehouse and Christina Collins, Jan 2017


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
unknown

"The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2008, 91-92) Jane McIntosh. 2008. The Ancient Indus Civilization. Oxford; Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio.


Irrigation System:
absent

Irrigation systems were present, but were not state owned. “…the main economic activity of the site was the cultivation of rice, Oryza sativa. There is evidence of rice-growing right from the beginning of the occupation and impressions of rice have been found in all the excavated areas… Only by the use of a system of dams… could it have been possible to fill the channels that were necessary to water the paddy-fields. We cannot doubt the ability of the inhabitants of Pirak to build such structures; since we have reported the discovery of a large channel running along the western side of the site, at the beginning of period IA.” [1] [2]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard. p402

[2]: Jarrige, J-F. (2000) Continuity and Change in the North Kachi Plain (Baluchistan, Pakistan) at the beginning of the Second Millennium BC. In, Lahiri, N. The Decline and Fall of the Indus Civilization. Permanent Black, Delhi., pp345-362. p347


Food Storage Site:
absent

Food storage sites are present, but were not state owned. Pirak IA: “In locus LXXII four circular structures of unbaked clay, with a diameter varying from 0.80 to 1.25 m, are double the bases of silos that had been levelled off. Installations of this type are common all over the site and in all periods…” [1]
“As for storage facilities, those at Pirak are circular clay silos of a type still used in the region today but unknown even in the third millennium BC.” [2]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard. p357

[2]: Jarrige, J-F. (2000) Continuity and Change in the North Kachi Plain (Baluchistan, Pakistan) at the beginning of the Second Millennium BC. In, Lahiri, N. The Decline and Fall of the Indus Civilization. Permanent Black, Delhi., pp345-362. p348


Drinking Water Supply System:
absent

Drinking water supply systems are present, but were not state owned. “At Pirak, however, it is in post-900 BC levels, Iron Age, that a brick-lined well was found, the bricks being trapezoid in shape”. [1]

[1]: Ratnagar, S. (2007) Markers and Shapers, Early Indian technology in the household, village and urban workshop. Tulika Books: New Delhi. p89


Transport Infrastructure

"The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2008, 91-92) Jane McIntosh. 2008. The Ancient Indus Civilization. Oxford; Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio.


"The early second millennium saw new developments in the Indus region. By 1900 BCE many of the cities were in decline. The cultural (and probably political) unity of the Indus region was breaking down and with it the ability to organize large-scale trade and distribution networks. [...] Lothal, a major trade center in Harappan times, was reduced to a village of mud huts and the “dock” abandoned." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2008, 194) Jane McIntosh. 2008. The Ancient Indus Civilization. Oxford; Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio.




Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent

"The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2008, 91-92) Jane McIntosh. 2008. The Ancient Indus Civilization. Oxford; Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio.


"The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2008, 91-92) Jane McIntosh. 2008. The Ancient Indus Civilization. Oxford; Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio.


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent

"The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2008, 91-92) Jane McIntosh. 2008. The Ancient Indus Civilization. Oxford; Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio.


Nonwritten Record:
present

In the wider context of the concurrent Early Vedic, the Rig Veda had not yet been written down [1] and was composed and transmitted orally. [1] [2]

[1]: Singh, Upinder, A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century (New Delhi: Pearson Education, 2008) p.184.

[2]: Avari, B. (2007) India: The Ancient Past: A history of the India sub-continent from c. 7,000 BC to AD 1200. Routledge: London and New York. p76


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

"The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2008, 91-92) Jane McIntosh. 2008. The Ancient Indus Civilization. Oxford; Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio.


Mnemonic Device:
unknown

The following may or may not be relevant: “The terracotta seals form a collection of little more than fifty examples, to which we can add a whole series of seal-impressions from a period II locus in PK.C… In the Indus valley and in the Kachi Plain, notably at Pirak (Pl. XXXV, A), they [seals found at Mehrgahr and Pirak] are replaced after 2500 BCE by inscribed seals of the Harappan civilisation, which perhaps represent a phase of state control that is exceptional in these regions. But the disappearance of the seals with geometric designs is only temporary and we see them re-appear once more as part of regional cultures, such as that of Pirak or of Jhukar, which followed upon the Harappan civilization.” [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard. p396-7


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent

"The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2008, 91-92) Jane McIntosh. 2008. The Ancient Indus Civilization. Oxford; Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio.


Sacred Text:
absent

"The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2008, 91-92) Jane McIntosh. 2008. The Ancient Indus Civilization. Oxford; Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio.


Religious Literature:
absent

"The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2008, 91-92) Jane McIntosh. 2008. The Ancient Indus Civilization. Oxford; Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio.


Practical Literature:
absent

"The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2008, 91-92) Jane McIntosh. 2008. The Ancient Indus Civilization. Oxford; Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio.


Philosophy:
absent

"The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2008, 91-92) Jane McIntosh. 2008. The Ancient Indus Civilization. Oxford; Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio.


Lists Tables and Classification:
absent

"The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2008, 91-92) Jane McIntosh. 2008. The Ancient Indus Civilization. Oxford; Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio.


History:
absent

"The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2008, 91-92) Jane McIntosh. 2008. The Ancient Indus Civilization. Oxford; Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio.


Fiction:
absent

"The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2008, 91-92) Jane McIntosh. 2008. The Ancient Indus Civilization. Oxford; Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio.


Calendar:
absent

"The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2008, 91-92) Jane McIntosh. 2008. The Ancient Indus Civilization. Oxford; Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio.


Information / Money
Token:
present

Assumed present for the trade of stone beads, shell objects and ivory materials [1] .

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard. p363, 372, 379, 401


Precious Metal:
present

Two pieces of gold have been found at Pirak, but it is not known whether they were used for a monetary function. [1] In the context of the concurrent Early Vedic, Gold pieces are mentioned in the Vedic texts, and so may have been used as items for exchange. [2]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard. p363, 372, p379

[2]: Singh, Upinder, A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century (New Delhi: Pearson Education, 2008), p.190-191.


Paper Currency:
absent

No evidence of paper currency has survived from Pirak. Only seal impressions on clay give any evidence of administrative records. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


Indigenous Coin:
absent

No coins have been found at Pirak. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


Foreign Coin:
absent

No coins have been found at Pirak. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.



Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
absent

The following suggests that, even if a postal system had existed in previous centuries (something for which there is no evidence), it most likely would have disappeared by this time. "The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2008, 91-92) Jane McIntosh. 2008. The Ancient Indus Civilization. Oxford; Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio.


General Postal Service:
absent

The following suggests that, even if a postal system had existed in previous centuries (something for which there is no evidence), it most likely would have disappeared by this time. "The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2008, 91-92) Jane McIntosh. 2008. The Ancient Indus Civilization. Oxford; Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio.


Courier:
absent

The following suggests that, even if a postal system had existed in previous centuries (something for which there is no evidence), it most likely would have disappeared by this time. "The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2008, 91-92) Jane McIntosh. 2008. The Ancient Indus Civilization. Oxford; Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
absent

No evidence of fortifications have been found at Pirak. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent

No evidence of fortifications have been found at Pirak. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


Stone Walls Mortared:
absent

No evidence of fortifications have been found at Pirak. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
absent

inferred absent due to lack of evidence for warfare


Modern Fortification:
absent

Pirak is pre-modern warfare.



Fortified Camp:
absent

No evidence of fortifications have been found at Pirak. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


Earth Rampart:
absent

No evidence of fortifications have been found at Pirak. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.



Complex Fortification:
absent

No evidence of fortifications have been found at Pirak. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.



Military use of Metals

Steel is not present at Pirak. [1] However, Harappan weapons are "characterised by the absence of shields, helmets and armour". [2]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.

[2]: Sharma, R. S., ‘Material Background of Vedic Warfare’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 9 (1966):305.


No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [1] Frequent production and usage of iron in Baluchistan and Pakistan coincided with the Yaz I culture around 1500 BCE “as the smelting of iron daggers and arrowheads spread from the steppes”. [2] However, whilst agreeing iron was present at this time, Singh calls this popular view of an imported technology "a widely prevalent but misplaced belief that iron technology was introduced into the subcontinent by the Indo-Aryans.” [3] Kte’pi says the Iron Age arrived at the end of the Late Harappan culture, but iron smelting may have been present since 1600 BCE, [4] that is, before the Yaz I culture.

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.

[2]: (Kelekna 2009, 14) Kelekna, Pita "The Politico-Economic Impact of the Horse on Old World Cultures: An Overview" in Mair, Victor H. ed. June 2009. Sino-Platonic Papers. Number 190. University of Pennsylvannia.

[3]: (Singh 2008, 241) Singh, Upinder. 2008. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Longman. Delhi.

[4]: (Kte’pi 2012, 5) Kte’pi, Bill. in Stanton, Andrea L. ed. 2012. Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia & Africa. An Encyclopedia. Sage. Los Angeles.


No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

There is no evidence for tension siege engines at Pirak. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

There is no evidence for sling siege engines at Pirak. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


Barbed arrowheads and tangled blades were found at Pirak in the Iron Age which implies that foot soldiers/horse-mounted warriors used bows and arrows. [1] And: “At Pirak, (Jarrige and Santoni 1989:400) a handful of bone points in the early, Chalcolithic, stratum contrasts with mass-produced square-sectioned and tanged bone points/arrows in iron-using Period III - debitage pieces occur here in the thousands.” [2]

[1]: Ratnagar, S. (2007) Markers and Shapers, Early Indian technology in the household, village and urban workshop. Tulika Books: New Delhi. p191

[2]: Ratnagar, S. (2007) Markers and Shapers, Early Indian technology in the household, village and urban workshop. Tulika Books: New Delhi. p198


No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

There is no evidence for gunpowder at Pirak. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

There is no evidence for gunpowder at Pirak. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


Composite Bow:
absent

No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


Handheld weapons

No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


"In the midst of pieces that are hard to identify fragments of points, the only object that is more or less complete in these levels is a spear-head whose point is quite blunt." It is unknown whether the object is copper or bronze, but most other objects in later periods were tested as bronze. [1] Spearheads have been found in other Late Harappan contexts. [2]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard. p361

[2]: Agrawal, D. P. (2007) The Indus Civilization: An interdisciplinary perspective. Aryan Books International: New Delhi. p210


No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


“[At Pirak] Several metal artifacts (flat axes and daggers) have shaped known from Harappan sites, but others (moulded daggers and arrowheads) represent technological innovations.” [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (2000) Continuity and Change in the North Kachi Plain (Baluchistan, Pakistan) at the beginning of the Second Millennium BC. In, Lahiri, N. The Decline and Fall of the Indus Civilization. Permanent Black, Delhi., pp345-362. p353


Battle Axe:
present

“[At Pirak] Several metal artifacts (flat axes and daggers) have shaped known from Harappan sites, but others (moulded daggers and arrowheads) represent technological innovations.” [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (2000) Continuity and Change in the North Kachi Plain (Baluchistan, Pakistan) at the beginning of the Second Millennium BC. In, Lahiri, N. The Decline and Fall of the Indus Civilization. Permanent Black, Delhi., pp345-362. p353


Animals used in warfare

Although horses were present later in the Pirak occupation sequence, there is no evidence for organized warfare at Pirak. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


Although ivory is present at Pirak, it is assumed to be imported and that there were no elephants at Pirak. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


There is no evidence for organized warfare at Pirak. [1] (From the ’Historical Dictionary of Ancient India’) Amri, mid-4th millennium BCE onward: "There is evidence for the domestication of cattle, sheep, goat, and donkey." [2]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.

[2]: (Roy ed. 2009, 17) Kumkum Roy. ed. 2009. Historical Dictionary of Ancient India. The Scarecrow Press, Inc. Lanham.

There is no evidence for organized warfare at Pirak. [1] (From the ’Historical Dictionary of Ancient India’) Amri, mid-4th millennium BCE onward: "There is evidence for the domestication of cattle, sheep, goat, and donkey." [2]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.

[2]: (Roy ed. 2009, 17) Kumkum Roy. ed. 2009. Historical Dictionary of Ancient India. The Scarecrow Press, Inc. Lanham.


There is no evidence for organized warfare at Pirak. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


Although camels were present at Pirak, there is no evidence for organized warfare at Pirak. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard. p404


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
absent

No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


Scaled Armor:
absent
1800 BCE 1700 BCE

"In India, protective body armor was in use around 1600 B.C.E. The Vedic Epics use the word varman to describe what was probably a coat of mail, probably a leather garment or coat reinforced with brass plates at critical points." [1] No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [2] However, Harappan weapons are "characterised by the absence of shields, helmets and armour". [3]

[1]: (Gabriel 2007, 79) Richard A Gabriel. 2007. Soldiers’ Lives Through History: The Ancient World. Greenwood Press. Westport.

[2]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.

[3]: Sharma, R. S., ‘Material Background of Vedic Warfare’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 9 (1966):305.

Scaled Armor:
unknown
1600 BCE 1301 BCE

"In India, protective body armor was in use around 1600 B.C.E. The Vedic Epics use the word varman to describe what was probably a coat of mail, probably a leather garment or coat reinforced with brass plates at critical points." [1] No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [2] However, Harappan weapons are "characterised by the absence of shields, helmets and armour". [3]

[1]: (Gabriel 2007, 79) Richard A Gabriel. 2007. Soldiers’ Lives Through History: The Ancient World. Greenwood Press. Westport.

[2]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.

[3]: Sharma, R. S., ‘Material Background of Vedic Warfare’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 9 (1966):305.


Plate Armor:
absent

No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [1] However, Harappan weapons are "characterised by the absence of shields, helmets and armour". [2]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.

[2]: Sharma, R. S., ‘Material Background of Vedic Warfare’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 9 (1966):305.


Limb Protection:
absent

No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [1] However, Harappan weapons are "characterised by the absence of shields, helmets and armour". [2]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.

[2]: Sharma, R. S., ‘Material Background of Vedic Warfare’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 9 (1966):305.


Leather Cloth:
absent
1800 BCE 1700 BCE

"In India, protective body armor was in use around 1600 B.C.E. The Vedic Epics use the word varman to describe what was probably a coat of mail, probably a leather garment or coat reinforced with brass plates at critical points." [1]

[1]: (Gabriel 2007, 79) Richard A Gabriel. 2007. Soldiers’ Lives Through History: The Ancient World. Greenwood Press. Westport.

Leather Cloth:
unknown
1600 BCE 1301 BCE

"In India, protective body armor was in use around 1600 B.C.E. The Vedic Epics use the word varman to describe what was probably a coat of mail, probably a leather garment or coat reinforced with brass plates at critical points." [1]

[1]: (Gabriel 2007, 79) Richard A Gabriel. 2007. Soldiers’ Lives Through History: The Ancient World. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Laminar Armor:
absent

No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [1] However, Harappan weapons are "characterised by the absence of shields, helmets and armour". [2]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.

[2]: Sharma, R. S., ‘Material Background of Vedic Warfare’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 9 (1966):305.


No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [1] However, Harappan weapons are "characterised by the absence of shields, helmets and armour". [2]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.

[2]: Sharma, R. S., ‘Material Background of Vedic Warfare’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 9 (1966):305.


No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [1] However, Harappan weapons are "characterised by the absence of shields, helmets and armour". [2]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.

[2]: Sharma, R. S., ‘Material Background of Vedic Warfare’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 9 (1966):305.


Breastplate:
absent

No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [1] However, Harappan weapons are "characterised by the absence of shields, helmets and armour". [2]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.

[2]: Sharma, R. S., ‘Material Background of Vedic Warfare’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 9 (1966):305.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

Pirak is landlocked, and there is no evidence for organized military activity. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
absent

Pirak is landlocked.


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent

Pirak is landlocked.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions
- Nothing coded yet.