Home Region:  Anatolia-Caucasus (Southwest Asia)

Konya Plain - Late Bronze Age II

D G SC WF HS EQ 2020  tr_konya_lba / TrBrzL2

Preceding:
1650 BCE 1500 BCE Hatti - Old Kingdom (tr_hatti_old_k)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
1400 BCE 1180 BCE Hatti - New Kingdom (tr_hatti_new_k)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

The period of 1500-1400 BCE was an ’intermediate period’ for the Hittite people that is sometimes referred to as the Middle Kingdom, which existed before the Empire period of the New Kingdom. [1]
According to McEvedy and Jones (1978) the population of the whole of Turkey was about 1.5 million by the Chalcolithic era (2500 BC) and reached 3 million "during the course of the full Bronze age". [2] However, the area corresponding to Hittite control at this time was just a fraction of the 750,000 km2 of Anatolia, so it is unlikely there were more than a million Hittites, possibly much less.
As a time of troubles, not much is known about the Middle Kingdom of the Hittites, but by around 1450 CE Hantili II is noted for building achievements being "responsible for the first extensive fortification of the capital" Hattusa. [3]

[1]: (Gurney 1952, 25) O R Gurney. 1952.The Hittites. Penguin.

[2]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 133) Colin McEvedy. Richard Jones. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd. London.

[3]: (Bryce 2002, 30) Bryce T. 2002. Life and Society in the Hittite World, New York: Oxford University Press.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
36 N  
Original Name:
Konya Plain - Late Bronze Age II  
Capital:
Hattusa  
Alternative Name:
Kingdom of Hatti  
Hittite Intermediate Period  
Hittite Kingdom  
Hethiter  
Hittites  
Hetyci  
Hititler veya Etiler  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,450 BCE  
Duration:
[1,500 BCE ➜ 1,400 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Succeeding Entity:
Hatti - New Kingdom  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Preceding:   Hatti - Old Kingdom (tr_hatti_old_k)    [continuity]  
Succeeding: Hatti - New Kingdom (tr_hatti_new_k)    [continuity]  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
Nesite  
Luwian  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Hittite Religions  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[12,000 to 17,000] people  
Polity Territory:
[50,000 to 75,000] km2  
Polity Population:
[300,000 to 400,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3  
Religious Level:
3  
Military Level:
7  
Administrative Level:
3  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
unknown  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
unknown  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
inferred absent  
Merit Promotion:
inferred present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
absent  
Law
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
absent  
Canal:
unknown  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
inferred present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
unknown  
Sacred Text:
unknown  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
unknown  
Philosophy:
unknown  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
unknown  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Token:
inferred absent  
Precious Metal:
present  
Paper Currency:
inferred absent  
Indigenous Coin:
absent  
Foreign Coin:
inferred absent  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
inferred present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
absent  
  Fortified Camp:
absent  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
absent  
  Complex Fortification:
present  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
inferred absent  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
unknown  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
present  
absent  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
present  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
present  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
absent  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Konya Plain - Late Bronze Age II (tr_konya_lba) was in:
 (1500 BCE 1400 BCE)   Konya Plain
Home NGA: Konya Plain

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Konya Plain - Late Bronze Age II

Capital:
Hattusa

[1] [2] [3]
Hattusa was the capital of the Hittite Empire in the late Bronze Age. It was found to be located near modern Boğazkale, Turkey, within the great loop of the Kızılırmak River. Hattusa exerted dominating influence upon the civilizations of the 2nd and 1st millennia BC in Anatolia and Northern Syria. The palaces, temples, trading quarters and necropolis of this political and religious metropolis provide a comprehensive picture of a capital and bear a unique testimony to the disappeared Hittite civilization. The city’s fortifications, along with the Lion Gate, the Royal Gate and the Yazılıkaya rupestral ensemble with its sculptured friezes, represent unique artistic achievements as monuments.
Hattusa was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1986 [4] .

[1]: Makowski M. (2009) Świat późnej epoki brązu. pp.154-156 [In:] A. Smogorzewska (ed.) Archeologia starożytnego Bliskiego Wschodu, Warszawa: Instytut Archeologii UW, pp. 151-187

[2]: Neve P. (1992). Hattuša-- Stadt der Götter und Tempel : neue Ausgrabungen in der Hauptstadt der Hethiter (2., erw. Aufl. ed.). Mainz am Rhein: P. von Zabern.

[3]: Bryce T. (2004) Life and Society in the Hittite World, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 230-257

[4]: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/377


Alternative Name:
Kingdom of Hatti

Hethiter; Hittites; Hetyci; חתים; Hititler veya Etiler

Alternative Name:
Hittite Intermediate Period

Hethiter; Hittites; Hetyci; חתים; Hititler veya Etiler

Alternative Name:
Hittite Kingdom

Hethiter; Hittites; Hetyci; חתים; Hititler veya Etiler

Alternative Name:
Hethiter

Hethiter; Hittites; Hetyci; חתים; Hititler veya Etiler

Alternative Name:
Hittites

Hethiter; Hittites; Hetyci; חתים; Hititler veya Etiler

Alternative Name:
Hetyci

Hethiter; Hittites; Hetyci; חתים; Hititler veya Etiler

Alternative Name:
Hititler veya Etiler

Hethiter; Hittites; Hetyci; חתים; Hititler veya Etiler


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,450 BCE

Hantili II noted for building achievements: "responsible for the first extensive fortification of the capital" [1]

[1]: (Bryce 2002, 30)


Duration:
[1,500 BCE ➜ 1,400 BCE]

1650-1175 BCE [1] c. 1650 BC: (Old Kingdom) The founding of the Hittite Kingdom. (Labarna I or Hattusili I) -c. 1175 BC: The fall of the Hittite state caused by the invasions of the Sea Peoples, and attacks the people of Kaskians and Assyrians. End date: the destruction of Hattusa.

[1]: Bryce T. R. (2005) The Kingdom of the Hittites, New York: Oxford University Press


Political and Cultural Relations
Succeeding Entity:
Hatti - New Kingdom

Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

Preceding Entity:
Hatti - Old Kingdom [tr_hatti_old_k] ---> Konya Plain - Late Bronze Age II [tr_konya_lba]
Preceding Entity:
Konya Plain - Late Bronze Age II [tr_konya_lba] ---> Hatti - New Kingdom [tr_hatti_new_k]

Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European

Language:
Nesite

And many others. [1] "The official language of the kingdom was an Indo-European language called Nesite, which we commonly refer to today as the ’Hittite’ language." [2]

[1]: Popko M. (1999) Ludy i języki starożytnej Anatolii, Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Akademickie Dialog, pp. 51-70

[2]: (Bryce 2002, 8)

Language:
Luwian

And many others. [1] "The official language of the kingdom was an Indo-European language called Nesite, which we commonly refer to today as the ’Hittite’ language." [2]

[1]: Popko M. (1999) Ludy i języki starożytnej Anatolii, Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Akademickie Dialog, pp. 51-70

[2]: (Bryce 2002, 8)


Religion
Religion Genus:
Hittite Religions

Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI


Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[12,000 to 17,000] people

Inhabitants. Hattusa.
Hattusa (Bogazköy)
Reconstruction of the population is very difficult. Researchers suggest very different populations. 15,000-20,000 inhabitants [1] or 9000-11,000 [2] or 9000 - 15,000 [3]
Sarissa
5000 inhabitants [4] based on the capacity of the granary.
Lisipra
2400-3000 inhabitants [5]
Even for sites which have been excavated more extensively, such as Bogazköy or Kusaklı, a realistic estimate of the number of inhabitants cannot be given yet [6]

[1]: Bittel K. and Naumann R. (1952) Bogazköy-Hattusa I. Architektur, Topographie, Landes kunde und Siedlungsgeschichte Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, pp. 26 n. 16.

[2]: Mora, C. (1977) ‘Saggio per uno studio sulla popolazione urbana nell’Anatolica Antica. I. Hattuscha’. "Studi micenei ed egeo-anatolici" 18, pp. 227-41.

[3]: Bittel K. (1983) 1983: Hattuscha. Hauptstadt der Hethiter. Geschichte und Kultur einer altorientalischen Großmacht,Cologne, p. 85

[4]: Müller-Karpe A. (2002) ‘Kusaklı-Sarissa. Kultort im Oberen Land’,pp. 182[In:] Die Hethiter und ihr Reich. Das Volk der 1000 Götter, Katalog der Ausstellung, Bonn 18. Januar-28. April 2002, Bonn, pp.176-189. 2002, 176-89.

[5]: Alp S. (1991) Hethitische Briefe aus Masat Höyük (Turk Tarih Kurumu Yayinlari VI.35) Ankara, p. 119

[6]: Mielke D. P. (2011) Hittite Cities: Looking for a Concept, pp. 184 [In:] H. Genz and D. P. Mielke (ed.) Insights Into Hittite History And Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven, Paris, Walpole MA: PEETERS, pp. 184


Polity Territory:
[50,000 to 75,000] km2

Polity Population:
[300,000 to 400,000] people

People.
Turkey contained 1.5 million by the chalcolithic (2500 BC) and 3 million "during the course of the full Bronze age". [1]
The polity territory isn’t anywhere near 750,000 km2 of Anatolia. If we assume at this time the polity controlled 10% of the region that would be 300,000 people. This would be a lower limit if we further suppose that the Hittite region, being the most developed, would be the most densely populated.

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 133) McEvedy, Colin. Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd. London.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3

1. Capital Bogazköy-Hattusa.
2. Large settlements (e.g. Masat Höyük-Tapikka, Ortaköy-Sapinuwa, Alaca Höyük, Inandıktepe).3. Small villages and farmsteads 0,1-5 ha (very poorly investigated, data about their existence comes from field walking surveys, not regular excavation).


Religious Level:
3

levels.
King
"The king himself was not only his kingdom’s war leader, but also its supreme judicial authority and chief priest." [1]
Priests SANGA (het. sankunni-). The distinction of priests of the great (SANGA GAL) and priests minor (SANGA TUR) was made. [2]
Eg. priest GUDU, priestess "lady of daity" (EREŚ.DINGER), priestess "mother of God" (AMA DINGIR). [3]
Different priests (eg. priest tazzeli, priest hamina-). [3]

[1]: (Bryce 2007, 11)

[2]: Tarach P. (2008) Religie Anatolii hetyckiej, pp. 206, [In:] K. Pilarczyk and J. Drabina (ed.) Religie starożytnego Bliskiego Wschodu, Kraków: Wydawnictwo WAM, pp. 177-259

[3]: Tarach P. (2008) Religie Anatolii hetyckiej, pp. 207, [In:] K. Pilarczyk and J. Drabina (ed.) Religie starożytnego Bliskiego Wschodu, Kraków: Wydawnictwo WAM, pp. 177-259


Military Level:
7

1. King
king could "delegate military command to a subordinate, probably a member of his own family." [1]
2. High Military Command / Chief of the Bodyguards"The king’s brothers often seem to have been appointed to high military commands immediately below the king and the crown prince, particularly if they held the highly prestigious post of GAL MESHEDI (chief of the Bodyguards). [1]
2. ’Chief of the Wine (Stewards)’ Commander-in-chief"an unpretentious-sounding but in fact highly prestigious title. Its holder was assigned important military commands either under the general command of the king or as commander-in-chief in his own right. The use of such a term, which goes back to the early days of the Old Kingdom, no doubt reflects a time in early Hittite history when the king’s most trusted confidants and advisers were those who attended him in a range of capacities, some quite humble, on a daily basis." [2]
3. Chief of the Chariot-Warriors of the Right / Chief of the Chariot-Warriors of the Left"usually of princely status" [1]
"Each of these officers apparently commanded a brigade of 1000 men." [3]
3. Chief of the Standing Army-Troops of the Right / Chief of the Standing Army-Troops of the Left"Each of these officers apparently commanded a brigade of 1000 men." [3]
3. Chief of the ’Shepherds’ of the Right / Chief of the ’Shepherds’ of the Left."Each of these officers apparently commanded a brigade of 1000 men." [3]
4."The lower-ranking officers included, in descending order of importance, ’overseers of military heralds’, ’dignitaries’, and ’gentlemen’. There was a gradation of rank within the dignitaries category, raging (in modern equivalents) from captain to sergeant. The gentlemen were the lowest-ranking officers. Each officer’s importance was determined by the number of men he led. At the lower levels, some were in charge of 100 men, some of just 10." [3]
5. Officer of 100 men"The lower-ranking officers included, in descending order of importance, ’overseers of military heralds’, ’dignitaries’, and ’gentlemen’. There was a gradation of rank within the dignitaries category, raging (in modern equivalents) from captain to sergeant. The gentlemen were the lowest-ranking officers. Each officer’s importance was determined by the number of men he led. At the lower levels, some were in charge of 100 men, some of just 10." [3]
6. Officer of 10 ("Gentlemen"?)"The lower-ranking officers included, in descending order of importance, ’overseers of military heralds’, ’dignitaries’, and ’gentlemen’. There was a gradation of rank within the dignitaries category, raging (in modern equivalents) from captain to sergeant. The gentlemen were the lowest-ranking officers. Each officer’s importance was determined by the number of men he led. At the lower levels, some were in charge of 100 men, some of just 10." [3]
7. Individual soldier

[1]: Bryce T. and A. Hook (2007). Hittite Warrior. Warrior. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. pp. 8-9

[2]: (Bryce 2002, 23)

[3]: (Bryce 2007, 7)


Administrative Level:
3

levels.
The Old Kingdom was a feudal and agrarian society.
1. The King
judge and a military leader.
2. The assembly (panku/tuliya)had a greater role in the Old Kingdom. It comprised of non-nobility, formed the bureaucracy and was subservient to the king [1] .
To the panku (assembly) Telipinu (c.1460 BCE) "assigned extensive executive and disciplinary powers, even over members of the royal familiy." [2]
2. Governors [3] Provincial administrators [4] appointed directly by the king?
3. "Council of Elders"Locally administered justice. [5] . Local council lowest identifiable judicial authority. [6]

[1]: Burney C. 2004 Historical Dictionary of the Hittites, Lanham: Scarecrow Press, pp. 35

[2]: (Bryce 2002, 23)

[3]: Bryce T. (2002) Life and Society in the Hittite World. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 38-39

[4]: Bryce T. (2002) Life and Society in the Hittite World. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 33

[5]: Bryce T. (2002) Life and Society in the Hittite World. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 38

[6]: Bryce T. (2002) Life and Society in the Hittite World. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 41


Professions
Professional Soldier:
unknown

Not known for Old Kingdom, present in the New Kingdom. [1]

[1]: Bryce T. (2002) Life and Society in the Hittite World. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 111


Professional Priesthood:
present

Present in both Old Kingdom and New Kingdom. [1]

[1]: Burney C. (2004) Historical Dictionary of the Hittites, Lanham: Scarecrow Press, pp. 20


Professional Military Officer:
unknown

Not known for Old Kingdom, present in the New Kingdom. [1]

[1]: Bryce T. (2002) Life and Society in the Hittite World. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 111


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent

Palaces. The most important elements in the larger cities were palaces, which in textual sources are characterized with the Sumerogram É.GAL = great house. The palaces were a crucial element for the administration and organisation of the Hittite state. However, they were not necessarily specialized buildings--expert confirmation required.
Hittite palaces:
(1) Büyükkale/Bogazköy-Hattusa [1]
(2) Masat Höyük-Tapikka [2]
(3) Ortaköy-Sapinuwa, Building A [3]
(4) Alaca Höyük [4]
(5) Inandıktepe [5]

[1]: Seeher J. (2002) ‘Großkönigliche Residenz - Mittelpunkt staatlichen Lebens. Die Palastanlage in der hethitischen Hauptstadt’, [In:] Die Hethiter und ihr Reich. Das Volk der 1000 Götter, Katalog der Ausstellung, Bonn 18. Januar-28. April 2002, Bonn, pp. 94-99.

[2]: Özgüç, T. (1982) Masat Höyük II. Bogazköy’ün kuzeydogusunda bir Hitit merkezi. Masat Höyük II. A Hittite Center Northeast of Bogazköy (Turk Tarih Kurumu Yayinlari V.38a)Ankara

[3]: Süel A. (2002) ‘Ortaköy-Sapinuwa’. [In:] K.A. Yener and H.A. jr Hoffner (eds.) 2002: Recent Developments in Hittite Archaeology and History. Papers in Memory of Hans G. Güterbock,Winona Lake, IN., pp 157-65.

[4]: Bittel K. (1976) Die Hethiter, Munich, Abb. 111

[5]: Özgüç, T. (1988) Inandıktepe. Eski Hitit çagında önemli bir kült merkezi. An Important Cult Center in the Old Hittite Period (Turk Tarih Kurumu Yayinlari V.43) Ankara.


Merit Promotion:
present

There is evidence of upward mobility in the scribal profession [1] .

[1]: Bryce T. (2002) Life and Society in the Hittite World. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 66


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

Old Kingdom
Scribes [1] [2] . The assembly panku/tuliya.
"Chief of the Scribes", a powerful figure [3] - a professional official.
New Kingdom:The Hittite Empire was probably more developed than the Old Kingdom.

[1]: Burney C. (2004) Historical Dictionary of the Hittites, Lanham: Scarecrow Press, pp. 242

[2]: Bryce T. (2002) Life and Society in the Hittite World. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 11

[3]: Bryce T. (2002) Life and Society in the Hittite World. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 67



Law

[1]
The king functioned as the prime judiciary in the Hittite state. But judgements seemed the officials of the king and the Council of Eders in local matters.

[1]: Bryce T. (2002) Life and Society in the Hittite World, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 40-43


Formal Legal Code:
present

"... the collection we have called The Laws ... consists of some 200 clauses, the earliest surviving version of which dates to the Old Kingdom, around 1650 BC. From references it makes to revisions to previous laws we know there must have been an even earlier version, probably going back to the reign of the original Labarna, the earliest known Hittite monarch... only one New Kingdom version, the so-called ’Late Parallel Version’, contains any substantive revisions." [1]
Archaeological research in the twentieth century has produced interesting findings, demonstrating the existing legal culture of the Hittites. The result of this research is to find two pieces of code of the Hittite from the end of the XV or the beginning of the XIV century BC, and therefore subsequent to the Code of Hammurabi, early and from a set of assarynian law, including customary law. Also found Hittite texts of several laws and contracts concluded with Egypt. One of the pieces of that code was given to us in two editorial and this is the year 1390 BC and later contains only 22 articles. Recognition of specific issues in the code allows you to present as part of the most general laws of the Hittite. [2]
Public Law
In terms of political system, the law regulates the powers and duties of Hittite warriors from the tribe of Manda presumably later Medes or would be the position of slaves who knows the different types (public and private). More specifically, however, deals with the Hittite code of criminal law. A feature of his in this area is greater than humanity criminal legislation of other peoples of the Ancient East . Penalties for offenses are too harsh and often meets next penalty fines for damages in nature. Qualification of murder and murder of passion or would be unintentional homicide near complete removal of private vengeance, argues with already developed legal concepts , but on the other hand, determination of penalties in a casuistic points to the primitive nature of the legislation. [2]
Private Law
Family law is based on the exogamous patriarchal family organization, since endogamous marriage within the family is forbidden under death penalty. In the field of trade and commerce law, there are set prices for individual goods, thereby controlling the development of economic relations in the country. The uniformity of legislation throughout the Hittite is intended to more closely anastomosis various neighboring provinces of the country of Hatti. [2]

[1]: (Bryce 2002, 34)

[2]: Hoffner H. A.Jr. (1997) The Laws of the Hittites: a Critical Edition, Leiden, New York, Köln: Brill


[1]
Level 2: Royal Courts [2]
Level 1: the Council of Elders

[1]: Bryce T. (2002) Life and Society in the Hittite World. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 38-39

[2]: Billie J. C.(2007) The Hittites and Their World, (Society of Biblical literature archaeology and Biblical studies ; no. 7) Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, pp. 101-103


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

[1] [2] Public squares such as the Agora in Athens or the Forum Romanum are so far unknown in the Hittite period. Nevertheless, smaller squares, for instance for market places, surely must have existed [3] .

[1]: Hoffner H. A. (2002) Some Thoughts on Merchants and Trade in the Hittite Kingdom, [In:] T. Richter, D. Prechel and J. Klinger (ed), Kulturgeschichten. Altorientalistische Studien für Volkert Haas Zum 65. Geburtstag, Saarbrücken: Saarbrücker Druckerei und Verlag, pp. 179-89.

[2]: Bryce T. (2002) Life and Society in the Hittite World, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 92.

[3]: Mielke D. P. (2011) Hittite Cities: Looking for a Concept, pp. 175 [In:] H. Genz and D. P. Mielke (ed.) Insights Into Hittite History And Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven, Paris, Walpole MA: PEETERS, pp. 153-194


Irrigation System:
present

Irrigation canals [1]

[1]: (Bryce 2002, 16)


Food Storage Site:
present

e. g. Kusaklı-Sarissa [1]

[1]: Müller-Karpe A. (2002) ‘Kusaklı-Sarissa. Kultort im Oberen Land’,pp. 182[In:] Die Hethiter und ihr Reich. Das Volk der 1000 Götter, Katalog der Ausstellung, Bonn 18. Januar-28. April 2002, Bonn, pp.176-189.


Drinking Water Supply System:
present

e. g. Hattusa [1]

[1]: Wittenberg H. and A. Schachner (2012) The Ponds of Hattuša - Early Groundwater Management in the Hittite Kingdom [In:] IWA Specialized Conference on Water&Wastewater Technologies in Ancient Civilizations 22-24 March 2012 Instabul, pp. 313-319.


Transport Infrastructure

[1]

[1]: Bryce T. (2002) Life and Society in the Hittite World, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 16


The Hittites did not have its own ports, nor a fleet. They used the services of vassal states, such as Ugarit.


Irrigation canals, but these are not transport infrastructure.


Bridge:
present

The Citadel Büyükkale at Hattusa was connected to a system of stone viaducts and bridge with the Büyükkaya [1]

[1]: Makowski M. (2009) Świat późnej epoki brązu. pp.157 [In:] A. Smogorzewska (ed.) Archeologia starożytnego Bliskiego Wschodu, Warszawa: Instytut Archeologii UW, pp. 151-187)


Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Remains of the Hittite language were found in excavations of Hattusa. Hittite cuneiform archives have been discovered at Ortaköy (ancient Sapinuwa), Kuşakli (ancient Sarissa) and Maşat (ancient Tapikka).


Script:
present

Cuneiform system. [1]

[1]: Gamkrelidze T. (2008) The Problem of the Origin of the Hittite Cuneiform, Bulletin Of The Georgian National Academy Of Sciences, vol. 2, no. 3,pp. 169-174


Nonwritten Record:
present

(1) The relief carvings: the Hittites also expressed some messages through relief carvings that were characteristic during the New Kingdom. Usually represent a single character (king or deity) or cult scene involving a ruler. Among some of the reliefs, especially those located at the communication routes, symbols of royal power were represented - e. g. Yazılıkaya, Sirkeli, Firaktin [1] . (2) Hittite royal seals - seals of punching are a distinctive type for Hittites. After period of medium bronze, cylinder seals were used sporadically. Royal seals can be clearly distinguished, showing the image of the monarch. In the Suppiluliumma, a distinctive cartouche appears, which also has the name of the ruler and his titulary. Sometimes the ruler is shown in the arms of one of the most important deities in the country or its tutelary deity. There are also royal seals with representations of the king dressed as a priest or a warrior, or together with the queen [2] . (3) Sculpture and bas-relief - Stone sculptures date primarily from the New Kingdom, and are represented by statues of lions and sphinxes made ​​in sculpture semi-double, and partly in relief. They were part of the city gates (Gates of Lions at Hattusa, Gates of Sphinxes at Alaca Höyük) and temples’ entrances. Submit lions served as apotropaic and sphinxes emphasized a symbolic move from a profane zone to a sacred zone. [2] Eflatun Pınar Orthostates, quadrilateral stone slabs set vertically along the wall monumental buildings, usually decorated with reliefs. Orthostates are characteristic of Hittite art and decorated with temples, palaces, gates(Hattusa and Alaca Höyük).(4) Vessels relief - Vase from the vicinity of Inandik depicting a festival celebration.

[1]: Makowski M. (2009) Świat późnej epoki brązu. pp.162 [In:] A. Smogorzewska (ed.) Archeologia starożytnego Bliskiego Wschodu, Warszawa: Instytut Archeologii UW, pp. 151-187

[2]: Makowski M. (2009) Świat późnej epoki brązu. pp.164 [In:] A. Smogorzewska (ed.) Archeologia starożytnego Bliskiego Wschodu, Warszawa: Instytut Archeologii UW, pp. 151-187



Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
unknown


Religious Literature:
present

For the most part, “Hittite” mythological narratives belong to either the Hattian or Hurrian traditions, but some compositions of Hittite origin are also identifiable. [1] There were also prayers. [2]

[1]: Collins B.J.(2007) The Hittites and Their World, (Society of Biblical literature archaeology and Biblical studies; no. 7), Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, pp. 147

[2]: Collins B.J.(2007) The Hittites and Their World, (Society of Biblical literature archaeology and Biblical studies; no. 7), Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, pp. 153


Practical Literature:
unknown


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Hittite king’s list sacrificial. [1]

[1]: Beckam G. (2000) Hittite Chronology, “Akkadica” 119-120, pp. 19-32


History:
present

Hittite historiographic texts include primarily royal annals and edicts. [1]

[1]: Collins B.J.(2007) The Hittites and Their World, (Society of Biblical literature archaeology and Biblical studies; no. 7), Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, pp. 143



Calendar:
present

The cultic calendar. [1]

[1]: Collins B.J.(2007) The Hittites and Their World, (Society of Biblical literature archaeology and Biblical studies; no. 7), Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, pp. 162


Information / Money

Precious Metal:
present

Silver in bars or in rings, metered by weight. The units of weight were the shekel and mina [1]

[1]: Gurney, O. R. (1952) The Hittites, Penguin. p. 65-71



Indigenous Coin:
absent

Money was not used as means of exchange in the Hittite period yet. Silver and iron were alike used as a medium of exchange. Articles used in local trade.




Information / Postal System

General Postal Service:
unknown

Courier:
present

Hittite rulers had correspondence with rulers of the neighbouring countries. They needed an efficient system of couriers. [1] letters "dispatched by the king to his local officials" [2]

[1]: Hoffner H. A. (2009) Letters from the Hittite Kingdom, Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature

[2]: (Bryce 2002, 17)


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

(e.g. Hattusa) The fortification walls were built in a casemate system with a width of up to 8 m. Two parallel walls were connected by diagonal walls, and the compartments thus constructed were filled with rubble. Towers protruded at regular intervals from the outer face of the walls. The walls are always situated on earthen ramparts, which provided protection against battering rams. As usual in Hittite architecture, the foundations and the lower parts of the walls were made of stone, whereas the upper parts consisted of a timber-framed structure of mud-brick. The superstructure of the walls can be reconstructed with a high degree of certainty thanks to the discovery of vessels showing fortification walls with battlements and towers. The gates were always flanked by towers. The Lion’s Gate in Hattusa was approached via a ramp, which ran parallel to the wall to the right, thus exposing the unshielded side of potential attackers to fire from the wall. Every gate could be closed on the outer and inner side by heavy wooden doors, which could be bolted with copper bars. A peculiarity of Hittite fortifications is the so-called postern, a narrow tunnel of up to 50 m in length and 3-4 m in width and height that led through the earthen ramparts on which the fortification stood. According to one theory, these posterns may have served as sally ports, enabling the defenders to make quick sorties. The length and the narrowness of the posterns made them easily defendable against intruders who, on the other hand, were exposed to fire from the fortification walls during their approach. [1]

[1]: Lorenz J. and I. Schrakamp (2011) Hittite Military and Warfare, pp. 141 [In:] H. Genz and D. P. Mielke (ed.) Insights Into Hittite History And Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven, Paris, Walpole MA: PEETERS, pp. 125-151


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent

same as the previous polity: ’this fortification system arrangement remained unchanged throughout the imperial Hittite and Neo-Hittite periods’ [1]

[1]: Marcella Frangipane, ‘Arslantepe-Malatya: A Prehistoric and Early Historic Center in Eastern Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 985


Stone Walls Mortared:
absent

stone only being used as a wall foundation (e.g. Hattusa) The fortification walls were built in a casemate system with a width of up to 8 m. Two parallel walls were connected by diagonal walls, and the compartments thus constructed were filled with rubble. Towers protruded at regular intervals from the outer face of the walls. The walls are always situated on earthen ramparts, which provided protection against battering rams. As usual in Hittite architecture, the foundations and the lower parts of the walls were made of stone, whereas the upper parts consisted of a timber-framed structure of mud-brick. The superstructure of the walls can be reconstructed with a high degree of certainty thanks to the discovery of vessels showing fortification walls with battlements and towers. The gates were always flanked by towers. The Lion’s Gate in Hattusa was approached via a ramp, which ran parallel to the wall to the right, thus exposing the unshielded side of potential attackers to fire from the wall. Every gate could be closed on the outer and inner side by heavy wooden doors, which could be bolted with copper bars. A peculiarity of Hittite fortifications is the so-called postern, a narrow tunnel of up to 50 m in length and 3-4 m in width and height that led through the earthen ramparts on which the fortification stood. According to one theory, these posterns may have served as sally ports, enabling the defenders to make quick sorties. The length and the narrowness of the posterns made them easily defendable against intruders who, on the other hand, were exposed to fire from the fortification walls during their approach. [1]

[1]: Lorenz J. and I. Schrakamp (2011) Hittite Military and Warfare, pp. 141 [In:] H. Genz and D. P. Mielke (ed.) Insights Into Hittite History And Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven, Paris, Walpole MA: PEETERS, pp. 125-151


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

‘judging from the fact that in the Late Bronze I (Period V B, 1750-1600 b.c.e.), a town gate was built in the Arslantepe earthen wall defense system, flanked by two bipartite quadrangular towers, which was highly reminiscent of similar central Anatolian gates, such as those at AliŞar or Boğazköy (Palmieri 1978). ... this fortification system arrangement remained unchanged throughout the imperial Hittite and Neo-Hittite periods’ [1]

[1]: Marcella Frangipane, ‘Arslantepe-Malatya: A Prehistoric and Early Historic Center in Eastern Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 985


Modern Fortification:
absent

Technology not yet available


same as the previous polity: ’this fortification system arrangement remained unchanged throughout the imperial Hittite and Neo-Hittite periods’ [1]

[1]: Marcella Frangipane, ‘Arslantepe-Malatya: A Prehistoric and Early Historic Center in Eastern Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 985


Fortified Camp:
absent

Technology not yet available


Earth Rampart:
present

(e.g. Hattusa) The fortification walls were built in a casemate system with a width of up to 8 m. Two parallel walls were connected by diagonal walls, and the compartments thus constructed were filled with rubble. Towers protruded at regular intervals from the outer face of the walls. The walls are always situated on earthen ramparts, which provided protection against battering rams. As usual in Hittite architecture, the foundations and the lower parts of the walls were made of stone, whereas the upper parts consisted of a timber-framed structure of mud-brick. The superstructure of the walls can be reconstructed with a high degree of certainty thanks to the discovery of vessels showing fortification walls with battlements and towers. The gates were always flanked by towers. The Lion’s Gate in Hattusa was approached via a ramp, which ran parallel to the wall to the right, thus exposing the unshielded side of potential attackers to fire from the wall. Every gate could be closed on the outer and inner side by heavy wooden doors, which could be bolted with copper bars. A peculiarity of Hittite fortifications is the so-called postern, a narrow tunnel of up to 50 m in length and 3-4 m in width and height that led through the earthen ramparts on which the fortification stood. According to one theory, these posterns may have served as sally ports, enabling the defenders to make quick sorties. The length and the narrowness of the posterns made them easily defendable against intruders who, on the other hand, were exposed to fire from the fortification walls during their approach. [1]

[1]: Lorenz J. and I. Schrakamp (2011) Hittite Military and Warfare, pp. 141 [In:] H. Genz and D. P. Mielke (ed.) Insights Into Hittite History And Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven, Paris, Walpole MA: PEETERS, pp. 125-151


same as the previous polity: ’this fortification system arrangement remained unchanged throughout the imperial Hittite and Neo-Hittite periods’ [1]

[1]: Marcella Frangipane, ‘Arslantepe-Malatya: A Prehistoric and Early Historic Center in Eastern Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 985


Complex Fortification:
present

same as the previous polity: ’this fortification system arrangement remained unchanged throughout the imperial Hittite and Neo-Hittite periods’ [1]

[1]: Marcella Frangipane, ‘Arslantepe-Malatya: A Prehistoric and Early Historic Center in Eastern Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 985



Military use of Metals

Not known to have been in use here yet


At the earliest times bronze was preferred and iron had mainly ornamental uses. [1] In Eastern Anatolia "the shift from bronze to iron was more gradual than abrupt" and in some areas bronze was used into the 750-400 BCE period. [2] Iron was used for weapons and tools, and by non-elites, from the Urartian period after about 850 BCE. [3] In nearby Georgia, a regional center for iron smelting, massive finds of iron tools and weapons appear from about 700 BCE. [4]

[1]: Angela Ryczkowski. April 25 2017. Weapons Used by Hittites. Sciencing.

[2]: Lori Khatchadourian. The Iron Age in Eastern Anatolia. Sharon R Steadman. Gregory McMahon. eds. 2011. The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE). Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Cifci 2017, 139) Ali Cifci. 2017. The Socio-Economic Organisation of the Urartian Kingdom. BRILL. Leiden.

[4]: (Gamkrelidze 2013) Gamkrelidze, Gela. Researches in Iberia-Colchology (History and archaeology of ancient Georgia). Braund, David. ed. 2012. Georgia National Museum.


copper is required for bronze


[1]

[1]: Siegelova I. and H. Tsumoto (2011) Metals and Metallurgy in Hittite Anatolia, pp. 292-294[In:] H. Genz and D. P. Mielke (ed.) Insights Into Hittite History And Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven, Paris, Walpole MA: PEETERS, pp. 275-300


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
unknown

Siege warfare is attested in Old Hittite written records. [1] . In Anatolia siege warfare was mentioned in Old Hittite records. [2] Presumably at this time the catapult was not used? In India, according to Jain texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone". [3] Marsden (1969) said archaeological records exist before the 4th century BCE. [4] The Achaemenids (c400 BCE?) are assumed to have had the catapult because the Macedonians did. [5] Pollard and Berry (2012) say torsion catapults first came into widespread use in the Hellenistic period 4th - 1st centuries BCE. [6] The Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE which encouraged the development of large tension-powered weapons. [7] There is no direct evidence for catapults for this time/location. The aforementioned evidence we currently have covering the wider ancient world suggests they were probably not used at this time, perhaps because effective machines had not been invented yet.

[1]: Lorenz J. and I. Schrakamp (2011) Hittite Military and Warfare, pp. 144 [In:] H. Genz and D. P. Mielke (ed.) Insights Into Hittite History And Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven, Paris, Walpole MA: PEETERS, pp. 125-138

[2]: Siegelova I. and H. Tsumoto (2011) Metals and Metallurgy in Hittite Anatolia, pp. 278 [In:] H. Genz and D. P. Mielke (ed.) Insights Into Hittite History And Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven, Paris, Walpole MA: PEETERS, pp. 275-300

[3]: (Singh 2008, 272) Upinder Singh. 2008. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Longman. Delhi.

[4]: (Marsden 1969, 5, 16, 66.) Marsden, E. W. 1969. Greek and Roman Artillery: The Historical Development. Toronto: Oxford University Press.

[5]: (Dandamaev 1989, 314) Dandamaev, M A. 1989. A Political History of the Achaemenid Empire. Brill.

[6]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 45) Pollard, N, Berry, J (2012) The Complete Roman Legions, Thames and Hudson, London Rives, J (2006) Religion in the Roman Empire, Wiley

[7]: (Keyser and Irby-Massie 2006, 260) Paul T Keyser. Georgia Irby-Massie. Science, Medicine, And Technology. Glenn R Bugh. ed. 2006. The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

The counter-weight trebuchet was first used by the Byzantines in 1165 CE.


The written sources do not allow us to draw any conclusions concerning the use of the sling in the Hittite army, whereas it seems likely that the enemies of the Hittites made use of this weapon [1] .

[1]: Lorenz J. and I. Schrakamp (2011) Hittite Military and Warfare, pp. 138 [In:] H. Genz and D. P. Mielke (ed.) Insights Into Hittite History And Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven, Paris, Walpole MA: PEETERS, pp. 125-138


[1] . The bow is regularly depicted as the weapon of the king. "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders." [2]

[1]: Lorenz J. and I. Schrakamp (2011) Hittite Military and Warfare, pp. 131 [In:] H. Genz and D. P. Mielke (ed.) Insights Into Hittite History And Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven, Paris, Walpole MA: PEETERS, pp. 125-138

[2]: Sergey A Nefedov, RAN Institute of History and Archaeology, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. January 2018.


Gaebel (referring to New Kingdom) thinks it is "probable that the Hittite chariots carried javelin throwers and archers." [1]

[1]: (Gaebel 2002, 37) Robert E Gaebel. 2002. Cavalry Operations in the Ancient Greek World. University of Oklahoma Press. Norman.

Gaebel (referring to New Kingdom) thinks it is "probable that the Hittite chariots carried javelin throwers and archers." [1]

[1]: (Gaebel 2002, 37) Robert E Gaebel. 2002. Cavalry Operations in the Ancient Greek World. University of Oklahoma Press. Norman.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

Not invented yet.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Not invented yet.


Not invented yet.


Composite Bow:
present

The principal weapon of the Hittite chariot contingent was the bow and arrow. The bow was made of a composite of wood and horn glued together, which gave it a lot of strength and flexibility. [1] "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders." [2] "The composite bows spread into Palestine around 1800 BCE and were introduced into Egypt by the Hyksos in 1700 BCE." [3]

[1]: Bryce T. (2007) Hittite Warrior, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, pp. 20

[2]: Sergey A Nefedov, RAN Institute of History and Archaeology, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. January 2018.

[3]: (Roy 2015, 20) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.


weapon of the Americas


Handheld weapons

Examples of swords used by the Hittites: Tell Atchana, Ugarit, Tell es-Sa’idiye, Sarkoy, Warrior God from the King’s Gate in Bogazkoy (with a helmet, sword and axe) [1] . According to a military historian (requires check by polity expert): "All armies after the seventeenth century B.C.E. carried the sword, but in none was it a major weapon of close combat; rather, it was used when the soldier’s primary weapons, the spear and axe, were lost or broken." [2]

[1]: Lorenz J. and I. Schrakamp (2011) Hittite Military and Warfare, pp. 128 [In:] H. Genz and D. P. Mielke (ed.) Insights Into Hittite History And Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven, Paris, Walpole MA: PEETERS, pp. 125-138

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 26-27) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


[1] According to a military historian (requires check by polity expert): Spear-using phalanx first used in Sumer 2500 BCE. The phalanx was in use until the 1st century BCE. [2]

[1]: Collins B.J.(2007) The Hittites and Their World, (Society of Biblical literature archaeology and Biblical studies; no. 7), Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, pp. 107

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 25) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


no record of such weapons


[1]

[1]: Siegelova I. and H. Tsumoto (2011) Metals and Metallurgy in Hittite Anatolia, pp. 278 [In:] H. Genz and D. P. Mielke (ed.) Insights Into Hittite History And Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven, Paris, Walpole MA: PEETERS, pp. 275-300


Battle Axe:
present

Examples from Kiiltepe, Sivas and Bogazkoy


Animals used in warfare

[1] . "The horse and light chariot were introduced into the Hittite world, as elsewhere in the Near East, probably around 1600..." [2]

[1]: Lorenz J. and I. Schrakamp (2011) Hittite Military and Warfare, pp. 139 [In:] H. Genz and D. P. Mielke (ed.) Insights Into Hittite History And Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven, Paris, Walpole MA: PEETERS, pp. 125-151

[2]: (Bryce 2002, 111)


Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later


used as Pack Animals appears by around 7000 BC onward [1]

[1]: (Leverani 2014, 41) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.



Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later


Armor

The shields are either rectangular or of the figure-of-eight type [1] .

[1]: Lorenz J. and I. Schrakamp (2011) Hittite Military and Warfare, pp. 139 [In:] H. Genz and D. P. Mielke (ed.) Insights Into Hittite History And Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven, Paris, Walpole MA: PEETERS, pp. 125-151



Plate Armor:
absent

Technology not yet available


Limb Protection:
present

Greaves: present. [1] According to a military historian (requires check by polity expert): Greece c1600 BCE: "Early Mycenaean and Minoan charioteers wore an arrangement of bronze armor that almost fully enclosed the soldier, the famous Dendra panoply." [2]

[1]: Bryce T. (2007) Hittite Warrior, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, pp. 15

[2]: (Gabriel 2007, 78) Richard A Gabriel. 2007. Soldiers’ Lives Through History: The Ancient World. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Leather Cloth:
present

Helmets made of leather, textiles and bronze [1] . Armour-scales.

[1]: Lorenz J. and I. Schrakamp (2011) Hittite Military and Warfare, pp. 141 [In:] H. Genz and D. P. Mielke (ed.) Insights Into Hittite History And Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven, Paris, Walpole MA: PEETERS, pp. 125-151


Laminar Armor:
absent

Technology not yet available


Present. [1]

[1]: Bryce T. (2007) Hittite Warrior, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, pp. 15-16


According to a military historian (requires check by polity expert): Iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples. [1]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Breastplate:
absent

Technology not yet available


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

There was no Hittite fleet, and we do not know what ships were used for intercourse with the island of Cyprus, which the Hittites appear to have controlled. They used the services of the countries covered, especially Ugarit. However, the last king of Hatti, Suppiluliuma II actually boasts of victory in two sea battles (but does not describe them). [1]

[1]: Gurney, O. R. (1952) The Hittites, Penguin. pp. 103


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

"There was no Hittite fleet, and we do not know what ships were used for intercourse with the island of Cyprus, which the Hittites appear to have controlled. They used the services of the countries covered, especially Ugarit. However, the last king of Hatti, Suppiluliuma II actually boasts of victory in two sea battles (but does not describe them)." [1]

[1]: Gurney, O. R. (1952) The Hittites, Penguin. pp. 103


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown

"There was no Hittite fleet, and we do not know what ships were used for intercourse with the island of Cyprus, which the Hittites appear to have controlled. They used the services of the countries covered, especially Ugarit. However, the last king of Hatti, Suppiluliuma II actually boasts of victory in two sea battles (but does not describe them)." [1]

[1]: Gurney, O. R. (1952) The Hittites, Penguin. pp. 103



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions
- Nothing coded yet.