Home Region:  Western Europe (Europe)

Carolingian Empire II

D G SC WF HS CC PT EQ 2020  fr_carolingian_emp_2 / FrCarlL

Preceding:
752 CE 840 CE Carolingian Empire I (fr_carolingian_emp_1)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
987 CE 1150 CE Proto-French Kingdom (fr_capetian_k_1)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

Members of the Carolingian Dynasty had served as mayors of the palace under the Merovingian kings from the late 7th century CE onwards, wielding substantial power behind the throne. In 752 CE, however, Childeric III (last of the Merovingian rulers) was deposed and they seized outright control of the Frankish realm. [1] [2] With the new dynasty the capital moved east: Aachen, or Aix-la-Chapelle, became the main royal residence of the Carolingian monarchs until the empire began to disintegrate in the 9th century. [3]
Charlemagne was the most powerful Carolingian king, but after his death in 811 CE, the empire stopped expanding. The year 811 also marked the beginning of a rise in sociopolitical instability that resulted ultimately in a complete split of the kingdom. After the 843 CE Treaty of Verdun, the Carolingian lands were partitioned among Louis the Pious’ sons: Charles took the west, Louis the German the east, and Lothair took the Frankish territory between these two regions. [4] The Treaty of Meerssen (870 CE) resulted in the absorption of the central Frankish realm into West and East Francia, forming a boundary that even now endures as the border between France and Germany. [5] The empire was briefly reunited from 884 to 887 under Charles the Fat, [6] but as a rule the Frankish lands remained politically fragmented from the mid-9th century to 987 CE, when power passed to the Capetian Dynasty. [7]
This polity represents the late period of Carolingian rule, from 840 to 987 CE.
Population and political organization
In the Carolingian era, the lands under Frankish control grew considerably and an administrative system was developed in order to govern this large territory. [8] One official position that first appeared in this period was the missus dominicus (king’s representative), who could be sent out from the court to inspect the counties and pass on the king’s decrees. [9] Decrees were sometimes set down in documents called capitularies. [9] However, capitularies post-dating 843 CE are only found in West Francia, and they stopped being produced there too after the death of Charles the Bald in 877. [9] [10] This might suggest that the office of missus dominicus did not exist beyond that date and did not survive the rise in instability.
The Carolingian kings ruled in an essentially decentralized fashion like the Merovingians before them. Control over the regions was delegated to fief holders, often hereditary vassals of the king. [11] The king ruled by decree [9] and under Charlemagne (r. 800-814 CE) counties were established as the basic unit of governance. [9] Counts were responsible for enforcing local laws, dispensing justice and setting taxes. [9] By 850 CE, almost every county in West Francia also had a viscount, who assisted the count in his duties. [12]
During Charlemagne’s reign, the population of Gaul probably reached 5 million [13] but levels of urbanization were low in these supposed ’dark ages’ of medieval France: no town reached over 10,000 inhabitants between the 8th century and 1000 CE. [14]

[1]: (Wood 1994, 292) Wood, Ian. 1994. The Merovingian Kingdoms 450-751. London: Longman. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/ARUIRN35.

[2]: (Morby and Rozier 2014) Morby, John E., and Charlie Rozier. 2014. Dynasties of the World. 2nd ed., online edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/acref/9780191780073.001.0001. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/3C5IVS6E.

[3]: (Chazelle 1995, 31) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Aix-La-Chapelle.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 31-32. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/J93C7T3S.

[4]: (Chazelle 1995, 332) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Carolingian Dynasty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 328-34. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F3ZBDZSD.

[5]: (Chazelle 1995, 332-33) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Carolingian Dynasty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 328-34. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F3ZBDZSD.

[6]: (Chazelle 1995, 333) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Carolingian Dynasty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 328-34. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F3ZBDZSD.

[7]: (Bouchard 1995, 312) Bouchard, Constance B. 1995. “Capetian Dynasty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 312-17. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNRCJVG.

[8]: (Chazelle 1995, 329-30) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Carolingian Dynasty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 328-34. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F3ZBDZSD.

[9]: (Chazelle 1995, 330) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Carolingian Dynasty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 328-34. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F3ZBDZSD.

[10]: (Chazelle 1995, 318) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Capitulary.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 318-19. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/K3U2V585.

[11]: (Nicolle 1995, 18) Nicolle, David. 2005. Carolingian Cavalryman AD 768-987. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QHXZFXS3.

[12]: (Boulton 1995, 1822) Boulton, D’A. Jonathan D. 1995. “Viscount/Viscounty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 1822-23. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/IZK522AK.

[13]: (Percy, Jr. 1995, 1415) Percy, Jr., William A. 1995. “Population and Demography.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 1415-17. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QI73FMSM.

[14]: (Percy, Jr. 1995, 1739) Percy, Jr., William A. 1995. “Towns.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 1739-40. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Z3F9HKUJ.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
31 U  
Original Name:
Carolingian Empire II  
Capital:
Aix La Chapelle  
Alternative Name:
Francia  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
840 CE  
Duration:
[840 CE ➜ 987 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
de_east_francia nominal allegiance to fr_carolingian_emp_2  
none  
Supracultural Entity:
Latin Christendom  
Succeeding Entity:
Proto-French Kingdom  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
17,000,000 km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Succeeding: Proto-French Kingdom (fr_capetian_k_1)    [continuity]  
Preceding:   Carolingian Empire I (fr_carolingian_emp_1)    [continuity]  
Degree of Centralization:
nominal  
loose  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
Latin  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Christianity  
Religion Family:
Catholic  
Religion:
Roman Catholic  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
10,000 people  
Polity Territory:
1,200,000 km2 850 CE
800,000 km2 900 CE
675,000 km2 950 CE
Polity Population:
[7,000,000 to 9,000,000] people 840 CE 856 CE
[5,000,000 to 7,000,000] people 857 CE 899 CE
[4,000,000 to 5,000,000] people 900 CE 987 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3  
Religious Level:
[6 to 7]  
Military Level:
[4 to 5]  
Administrative Level:
4  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
inferred present  
Examination System:
inferred absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent  
Judge:
inferred absent  
Formal Legal Code:
absent  
Court:
unknown  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
unknown  
Drinking Water Supply System:
inferred present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
unknown  
Canal:
inferred unknown  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
unknown  
Practical Literature:
unknown  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
unknown  
Information / Money
Precious Metal:
inferred present  
Paper Currency:
inferred absent  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
inferred present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
absent  
General Postal Service:
absent  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
present  
  Fortified Camp:
present  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
inferred present  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
present  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
inferred absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred absent  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
unknown  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
present  
  Dog:
present  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
inferred present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
present  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
unknown  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
present  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Carolingian Empire II (fr_carolingian_emp_2) was in:
 (840 CE 986 CE)   Paris Basin
Home NGA: Paris Basin

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Carolingian Empire II

Capital:
Aix La Chapelle

Location of the Carolingian palace. "Aix-la-Chapelle remained a principal royal and imperial residence until the later 9th century, when its importance declined with the breakup of the empire." [1]

[1]: (Chazelle 1995, 31)



Temporal Bounds

Duration:
[840 CE ➜ 987 CE]

Political and Cultural Relations

Supracultural Entity:
Latin Christendom

Succeeding Entity:
Proto-French Kingdom

Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
17,000,000 km2

km squared. Latin Christendom was roughly equivalent to the maximum extent of the former Roman Empire? The rough limits of Christianity in this period: the area that is now northeastern Germany would be converted by force under Charlemagne, while the area south of Rome, in particular Calabria, Puglia, and Basilicata, was as much part of the Eastern Orthodox world as that of Latin Christendom, although these distinctions did not exist then.


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

Preceding Entity:
Carolingian Empire II [fr_carolingian_emp_2] ---> Proto-French Kingdom [fr_capetian_k_1]
Preceding Entity:
Carolingian Empire I [fr_carolingian_emp_1] ---> Carolingian Empire II [fr_carolingian_emp_2]

Degree of Centralization:
nominal

loose: 840-843 CE; nominal: 844-883 CE; loose: 884-887 CE; nominal: 888-987 CE
Partitioned after the Treaty of Verdun 843 CE, reunited briefly 884-887 CE. [1]
Rest of the time nominal, although there was no nominal ruler, only the "idea" of the Empire.
Treaty of Mersen 870 CE: kingdom divided into three. [2]

[1]: (Chazelle 1995, 333)

[2]: (Nicolle 2005, 7)

Degree of Centralization:
loose

loose: 840-843 CE; nominal: 844-883 CE; loose: 884-887 CE; nominal: 888-987 CE
Partitioned after the Treaty of Verdun 843 CE, reunited briefly 884-887 CE. [1]
Rest of the time nominal, although there was no nominal ruler, only the "idea" of the Empire.
Treaty of Mersen 870 CE: kingdom divided into three. [2]

[1]: (Chazelle 1995, 333)

[2]: (Nicolle 2005, 7)


Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European

Language:
Latin

“in the Carolingian Empire (largely patterned after Byzantium), a dying Latin was revived for the administration of Church and State” [1]

[1]: (Kahane 1986, 495-496) Kahane, H. 1986. A Typology of the Prestige Language. Language 62(3): 495-508. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/39X3SZZP/library


Religion



Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI


Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
10,000 people

In Medieval France "no town surpassed 10,000 inhabitants between the 8th century and the year 1000." [1]

[1]: (Percy Jr 1995, 1739-1740 CE)


Polity Territory:
1,200,000 km2
850 CE

in squared kilometers.
950 CE: 675,000 KM2 (Kingdom in the region of Gaul)
900 CE: 800,000 (Kingdom in the region of Gaul)
850 CE: 1,200,000 (West, East Francia and Lotharingia)
These numbers are based on the maps at Geacon EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://geacron.com/home-en/?&sid=GeaCron10372 worked out from number of pixels (which you can find from image editor if you take a screen cap of the maps at the same scale) Scale: 200 km. 1 pixel = 20 km2. 1.1 million km2 at maximum extent

Polity Territory:
800,000 km2
900 CE

in squared kilometers.
950 CE: 675,000 KM2 (Kingdom in the region of Gaul)
900 CE: 800,000 (Kingdom in the region of Gaul)
850 CE: 1,200,000 (West, East Francia and Lotharingia)
These numbers are based on the maps at Geacon EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://geacron.com/home-en/?&sid=GeaCron10372 worked out from number of pixels (which you can find from image editor if you take a screen cap of the maps at the same scale) Scale: 200 km. 1 pixel = 20 km2. 1.1 million km2 at maximum extent

Polity Territory:
675,000 km2
950 CE

in squared kilometers.
950 CE: 675,000 KM2 (Kingdom in the region of Gaul)
900 CE: 800,000 (Kingdom in the region of Gaul)
850 CE: 1,200,000 (West, East Francia and Lotharingia)
These numbers are based on the maps at Geacon EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://geacron.com/home-en/?&sid=GeaCron10372 worked out from number of pixels (which you can find from image editor if you take a screen cap of the maps at the same scale) Scale: 200 km. 1 pixel = 20 km2. 1.1 million km2 at maximum extent


Polity Population:
[7,000,000 to 9,000,000] people
840 CE 856 CE

5 million in Gaul during reign of Charlemagne. [1]
Territory also included Rhineland in modern Germany, which became East Francia from 844 CE, in northern Italy (until 856 CE) and the low countries. Estimates for these regions based on McEvedy and Jones (1978). Germany about 1 million, low countries about 1 million, Italy 2 million. [2] Period from 900 CE loses territory in modern Germany and low countries.

[1]: (Percy Jr 1995, 1415-1417)

[2]: (McEverdy and Jones 1978, 67)

Polity Population:
[5,000,000 to 7,000,000] people
857 CE 899 CE

5 million in Gaul during reign of Charlemagne. [1]
Territory also included Rhineland in modern Germany, which became East Francia from 844 CE, in northern Italy (until 856 CE) and the low countries. Estimates for these regions based on McEvedy and Jones (1978). Germany about 1 million, low countries about 1 million, Italy 2 million. [2] Period from 900 CE loses territory in modern Germany and low countries.

[1]: (Percy Jr 1995, 1415-1417)

[2]: (McEverdy and Jones 1978, 67)

Polity Population:
[4,000,000 to 5,000,000] people
900 CE 987 CE

5 million in Gaul during reign of Charlemagne. [1]
Territory also included Rhineland in modern Germany, which became East Francia from 844 CE, in northern Italy (until 856 CE) and the low countries. Estimates for these regions based on McEvedy and Jones (1978). Germany about 1 million, low countries about 1 million, Italy 2 million. [2] Period from 900 CE loses territory in modern Germany and low countries.

[1]: (Percy Jr 1995, 1415-1417)

[2]: (McEverdy and Jones 1978, 67)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3

levels.
1. Large town
"no town surpassed 10,000 inhabitants between the 8th century and the year 1000." [1]
2. Small town
3. Hamlet90% population lived in rural settlements [2]

[1]: (Percy Jr 1995, 1739-1740 CE)

[2]: (Percy Jr 1995)


Religious Level:
[6 to 7]

levels.
Note: hierarchy might need fine-tuning to conditions in Carolingian France
1. Pope
Pope is primus inter pares among the five patriarchs. [1]
2. Metropolitans and archbishops"the term ’bishop’ applies to patriarchs, metropolitans, archbishops, and bishops (both suffragan and assistant bishops or chorepiskopoi) throughout the Byzantine period. After the ’ecumenical’ patriarch of Constantinople, who after the seventh century occupied the only remaining patriarchal seat under Byzantine rule, metropolitans held the second highest rank in the Orthodox Church." [2]
"The title ’archbishop’ emerged in special cases, for example in important cities such as Athens which did not possess a metropolitan." [2]
3. Bishops and ChorepiskopoiBishops and Chorepiskopoi form one rank below the metropolitans and archbishops [1]
3. Priest"In the early Church, priests or presbyters served as advisers, teachers, and ministers who assisted the bishops to whom they were assigned." [2]
4. Deacon"Deacons assisted the priest or bishop at the Divine Liturgy, baptisms, and other sacraments. ... Various administrative and pastoral jobs were delegated to deacons from an early period; they helped bishops to dispense charity to the community, manage the diocese’s finances and property, and to deal with other official business (Laodikeia, canons 21, 23, 25). Deacons were subject to the authority of both bishops and priests, but they came to exercise considerable power, especially in the patriarchate of Constantinople." [3]
4. Deaconess (diakonissa)"The deaconess’s chief liturgical role was to assist at the baptisms of women; she also acted as a mediator between women parishioners and their bishops, kept order among female members of the congregation, and ministered especially to women." [3]
5. Subdeacon"The rank of subdeacon provided a stepping-stone to that of deacon; its duties were similar to those of the deacon." [4]
6. Reader (anagnostesj"A reader is a member of the lower clergy with the responsibility of reading, usually from the ambo, passages from the Epistles and the Old Testament prescribed for offices and the Divine Liturgy." [4]
7. Minor orders"Other members of the minor clerical orders included doorkeepers, exorcists, cantors, and widows. All of these officials helped in either liturgical, administrative, or pastoral functions. Most would have received payment from their dioceses, or, in the case of private foundations, from their donors, but it is likely that most would have been engaged in secular professions in order to supplement their incomes." [4]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)

[2]: (Cunningham 2008, 529) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Cunningham 2008, 531) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[4]: (Cunningham 2008, 532) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Military Level:
[4 to 5]

levels.
Early Carolingian
Here too the two structures of the kingdom result in a different military hierarchy.
For the area under direct rule, the structure is: King, vassals (dukes, marquises, lords, barons), sub-vassals (notables/nobles, lords, knights), infantrymen/cavalry
For the area under indirect rule, the structure is: King, Counts/sub-kings, vassals, sub-vassals, infantrymen/cavalry
Marches
established by Charlemagne [1]
organised along military lines [1]
commanded by "count of the march" who was also head of the March government [1]
garrisoned [1]

[1]: (Chazelle 1995, 1107)


Administrative Level:
4

levels.
1. Kings who ruled Kingdoms
King ruled by decree [1]
After the 843 CE Treaty of Verdun lands partitioned among Louis the Pious’s sons: "to Charles went the western regions, to Louis the German the eastern territories, and to Lothair the middle section." [2]
Treaty of Meerssen (870 CE) divided the lands of the middle territory between East and West [2]
Reunited into one kingdom briefly 884-887 CE [3]
887-898 CE Western territory ruled by a non-Carolingian [3]

_Court institution_
"Central government was organized under a few major officials: the chancellor, the seneschal, the butler, the chamberlain and the constable. These originated as household officials with specific functions. By the beginning of the twelfth century these offices had been taken over by leading magnates." [4]
2.3.4.

_ Regional government_

2. Fief holdersVassals with their own fiefs, often hereditary. [5]
2. Missi dominici (to 877 CE)
Kings representative appointed to inspect counties (noble laymen, bishops or sometimes abbots) [1]
Passed on king’s law, often recorded in written documents called capitularies [6]
after 843 CE capitularies were only found in West Francia and then not beyond 877 CE. [7] This might suggest the institution of Missi dominici did not exist beyond that date.
Could get involved in local judicial work [1]
2. Counties ruled by a count3. Viscount was an appointed officer (from 1000 CE hereditary everywhere except Normandy) who was the deputy of a count. about 850 CE "850, virtually every county in the new West Frankish kingdom seems to have been provided with a viscount" [8] 4.Under Charlemagne (reign 800-814 CE), counties were basic unit of governance [1]
Count enforced laws and responsible for justice and set taxes [1]
original duties lost with end of Carolingian administration [8]
Marches were a form of county, established by Charlemagne [9] , organised along military lines [9] , commanded by "count of the march" who was also head of the March government [9]
4. PagiIn 10th century "increasingly powerful" pagi, who were a provincial aristocracy. "In late 10th-century Anjou, for example, a loyal cavalryman might hope to be given authority over part of Count Foulque’s widespread territory." [5]

[1]: (Chazelle 1995, 330)

[2]: (Chazelle 1995, 332)

[3]: (Chazelle 1995, 333)

[4]: (Bradbury 2013, 249) Jim Bradbury. 2015. Philip Augustus: King of France 1180-1223. Routledge.

[5]: (Nicolle 1995, 18)

[6]: (Chazelle 1995, 3308)

[7]: (Chazelle 1995, 330, 318)

[8]: (Boulton 1995, 1823)

[9]: (Chazelle 1995, 1107)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

absent but with the exception of bodyguards


Professional Priesthood:
present

Professional Military Officer:
present

professional hierarchy within bodyguard units?


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

For example, buildings were the coins were minted and buildings for document storage. However, the distinction between many other specialized government buildings and church buildings could be blurred.


Merit Promotion:
present

Code for Early Carolingian
but informal, i.e. if the rules believed a bureaucrat was competent the bureaucrat was promoted.


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

Code for Early Carolingian
The number of full time bureaucrats was however very small (maximum a 1000) and most of them were based at Aachen and a smaller number at the other levels of government.


Examination System:
absent

In other words, being literate was sufficient.


Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent

"During the Lombard and Carolingian periods, only the profession of notary survived in Italy, in the courts of bishops or counts. Along with the rediscovery of Roman law and the rise of canon law, the figure of the lawyer reappeared during the 12th-13th centuries, when, too, the profession of notary spread from Italy as it obtained from the pope, emperor or princes the privilege of certifying writs as authentic." [1]

[1]: Jean-Louis Halpérin. Panorama historique des métiers du droit en France et à l’étranger. Annales des Mines - Enjeux Numériques, 2018, Les métiers du droit au défi du numérique, 3. halshs-03282138. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VMZMGQK2/library


non-specialists.
Officials of secular and ecclesiastical lords administered the law. [1]

[1]: (Pegues 1995, 1005-1010)


Formal Legal Code:
absent

King ruled by decree. His laws were often recorded in documents called capitularies but after division of Empire in 843 CE they were only found in West Francia and then not beyond 877 CE. [1]

[1]: (Chazelle 1995, 330, 318)


Code for Early Carolingian
There were definitely court buildings, but these were probably used for other purposes.


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

"The Carolingian period witnessed many markets, often of agricultural dimension, scheduled to coincide with local feast days and sometimes favored by royal privileges." [1]

[1]: (Reyerson 1995, 640)


Irrigation System:
present

Irrigation canals [1] (from 10th century?)

[1]: (Glick, Steven Livesey and Wallis 2014, 115)



Drinking Water Supply System:
present

Cisterns. Majority of population did not have access to complex water supply systems: Carolingian palaces at Aachen and Ingelheim had complex waterworks. [1] ; By 1000 CE most communities obtained water from rivers, wells and cisterns. [1]

[1]: (Glick, Steven Livesey and Wallis 2014, 505-506)


Transport Infrastructure

Mud roads linked towns.



Canal:
unknown

The following quotes suggest that there is not much evidence for the use and construction of canals in this polity at this time, with the partial exception of Charlemagne’s failed Fossa Carolina project. However, the fact that Charlemagne could conceive of such a project and attempt suggests that perhaps smaller canals existed.

“Even more grandiose—if failed—the Fossa Carolina project, a canal connecting the Danube and Rhine rivers, underscores Charles’ vision of the eastwar extension of his empire (Figures 13.1 and 13.2). […] With or without canals and major bridges, the rivers of northern Europe offered comfortable travel for people and cheaper transport for bulk goods. Charlemagne and his family sailed down the Rhine, Frisian merchants were towed up it, and countless lesser streams bore boats. Such traffic stmulated the growth of small riverbank settlements, the portus.” [1]

“During the Early to High Medieval period (cf. Table S1) the entire region between Denmark and Italy was controlled by powerful elites which were extraordinarily mobile, building up itinerant kingships and huge economic networks controlled by religious institutions [5]–[8]. Freund [9] highlights the important role of Central European river valleys for the communication networks of these groups. The basic work of Eckholdt [10] features methodological problems. Here, the role of the small rivers seems to be underrepresented [11]. until now there is poor knowledge about the location of inland ports, the explicit medieval navigability of the rivers and the bridging of watersheds between these rivers and their catchment areas [12]. So far there is mainly evidence for small and simple constructed medieval inland ports and hythes [13], [14].” [2]

“At the time when the Grand Canal of China was completed, water-transport in Europe was still in a primitive state. Few canals had been constructed, and rivers were chiefly used as a source of power for water-mills. On many rivers each mill had its weir, to provide an adequate head of water for the mill-wheel, and these weirs were a serious obstacle to navigation. In the later Middle Ages, however, important developments took place in the Netherlands, as we shall see, while throughout the more commercially active countries of Europe improvements were made in the rivers by building stanches in the weirs and also at intervals along the river, between the mills, to reduce the gradient and increase the depth of water in the shallow places [3]. […] The early history of stanches is obscure, but it is practically certain that they were in existence on a number of rivers in Flanders,1 Germany, England, France, and Italy before the end of the thirteenth century. A reference to the winch for a stanch on the Thames at Marlow occurs in 1306.” [3]

[1]: (McCormick 2001: 399-400) McCormick, M. 2001. Origins of the European economy: communications and commerce, A.D. 300-900. Cambridge University Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/search/MCCORMICK/titleCreatorYear/items/NMB5X3WI/item-list

[2]: (Zielhofer et al. 2014: 1) Zielhofer, C. et al. 2014. Charlemagne’s Summit Canal: An Early Medieval Hydro-Engineering Project for Passing the Central European Watershed. PLOS ONE 9(9): 1-20Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/W2ES4DCA/library

[3]: (Skempton 2017, 4-5) Skempton, A.W. 2017. Canals and river navigations before 1750. In M. Chrimes (ed) Canals and river navigations before 1750 pp. 2-34. Routledge. Seshat URLhttps://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/369SZUSX/library


Bridge:
present

Bridge building beginning in the 11th century. [1] There were existing bridges that could be maintained, e.g. in Paris.

[1]: (Boyer 1995, 1748-1751)


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

"France possesses no precious metal resources and little copper. Iron ores are abundant, and there are regional deposits of lead, zinc, and coal. All of these were exploited during the Middle Ages. Evidence for ironworking exists from Merovingian France onward." [1]

[1]: (Hall in Kibler et al 1995, 1177)


Information / Writing System


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Sacred Text:
present

Bible.


Religious Literature:
unknown

Practical Literature:
unknown

Philosophy:
present

"Charles the Bald (r. 840-77) can be seen as France’s first great patron of philosophy, for in 860 it was he who asked Johannes Scottus Eriugena (d. 877) to translate this collection of Neoplatonic works into Latin. Perhaps most noteworthy in Pseudo-Dionysius’s work is the idea that evil qua evil is nonexistent; evil must be regarded merely as a lack of goodness, and it can therefore be described only in negative terms. On the other hand, God as Essence par excellence can never be adequately described in nonessential language. In this way, the foundation was laid down for the reception of ideas of learned ignorance that played an important role especially in medieval philosophical and theological mysticism, such as that of the Victorines in the 12th century and the Parisian Lullists of the late 14th." [1]

[1]: (Vanderjagt in Kibler et al 1995, 1385)


Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown

History:
present

"Martel’s descendants learned the lesson that whoever sponsored history controlled its contents. The Annales regni Francorum (covering 741-829) were probably kept at Charlemagne’s court, while his descendants maintained the three continuations. The first part (for 741-835) of the West Frankish continuation, the Annales Bertiniani, was not official, but the second (for 835-61), written by Bishop Prudentius of Troyes, and the third (for 862-82), by Archbishop Hincmar of Reims, were, as were the Annales Xantenses (covering 790-873), which were partly composed at Aix-la-Chapelle by Gerward, the palace librarian." [1]

[1]: (Shopkow in Kibler et al 1995, 862)


Fiction:
present

Waltharius, poem, late 9th/early 10th century. [1] "Medieval theater originated in the 10th century in the Latin liturgical drama that was associated with the Easter rites of the church." [2] Intellectuals at Aix-La-Chapelle [3] : Alcuin (early phase); Theodulf of Orleans (early phase); Einhart (early phase); Paul the Deacon (early phase); Paulinus of Aquileia (early phase)

[1]: (Nicolle 1995, 29)

[2]: (Knight 1995, 1714 CE)

[3]: (Chazelle 1995, 31)



Information / Money


Indigenous Coin:
present

The majority of the coins were made of silver. There were also some gold coins. "240 silver pence equalled one pound of silver." [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller, Johannes. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. April 2020. Email.)


Foreign Coin:
present

At least in the Early Carolingian period the most common foreign coins in use were Byzantine and Arab coins.


Article:
present

Taxes were paid in kind and most people also traded in kind.


Information / Postal System

General Postal Service:
absent

Courier:
present

but only for the wealthy.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

General reference for Western Europe 11th and 12th centuries CE: fortifications typically consisted of earth ramparts and timber palisades which were generally surrounded by dry ditches (rather than water-filled for a moat). In the early 12th century CE stone began to replace earth-and-timber defences for walls and for castles (previously often wooden). [1] Since palisades are a very ancient form of fortification we could code inferred present for the period earlier than the 12th century (when it is known they were still used). David Baker says present. [2]

[1]: (Jones 1999, 171-172) Richard L C Jones. Fortifications and Sieges in Western Europe, c.800-1450. Maurice Keen. ed. 1999. Medieval Warfare: A History. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown

Stone Walls Mortared:
present

David Baker says present. [1] Carolingian castles "used the standard building techniques employed by all since the Romans ... built in stone with crenellation ... round and square tower construction, and interior battlements, often built of wood." [2]

[1]: David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.

[2]: (Butt 2002, 38) John J Butt. 2002. Daily Life in the Age of Charlemagne. Greenwood Publishing Group. Westport.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

David Baker says present. [1] "Forts and Castles Castles were not terribly common in the Carolingian age. The great age of castle construction was the eleventh and twelfth centuries during the social, economic, and political revolution that strengthened the aristocracy and handed control of the lands to its members. Castles became essential to maintain this inequitable structure, but in the Carolingian age there were some castles and heavily defended towns that required siege methods to overcome." [2]

[1]: David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.

[2]: (Butt 2002, 38) John J Butt. 2002. Daily Life in the Age of Charlemagne. Greenwood Publishing Group. Westport.


Modern Fortification:
absent

David Baker says absent. [1]

[1]: David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.


A monastery in a region of recently pacified Saxons had "an encircling moat and a strong wall, which extended to the River Weser. Towers fortified the four corners and gate towers secured the entrance into the monastery precinct. The site was originally the location of a Roman castelllum." [1]

[1]: (Schutz 2004, 354) Herbert Schutz. 2004. The Carolingians in Central Europe, Their History, Arts, and Architecture: A Cultural History of Central Europe, 750-900. BRILL. Leiden.


Fortified Camp:
present

David Baker says present. [1]

[1]: David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.


Earth Rampart:
present

General reference for Western Europe 11th and 12th centuries CE: fortifications typically consisted of earth ramparts and timber palisades which were generally surrounded by dry ditches (rather than water-filled for a moat). In the early 12th century CE stone began to replace earth-and-timber defences for walls and for castles (previously often wooden). [1] Since earth ramparts are a very ancient form of fortification we could code inferred present for the period earlier than the 12th century (when it is known they were still used). David Baker says present. [2]

[1]: (Jones 1999, 171-172) Richard L C Jones. Fortifications and Sieges in Western Europe, c.800-1450. Maurice Keen. ed. 1999. Medieval Warfare: A History. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.


General reference for Western Europe 11th and 12th centuries CE: fortifications typically consisted of earth ramparts and timber palisades which were generally surrounded by dry ditches (rather than water-filled for a moat). In the early 12th century CE stone began to replace earth-and-timber defences for walls and for castles (previously often wooden). [1] Since ditches are a very ancient form of fortification we could code inferred present for the period earlier than the 12th century (when it is known they were still used).

[1]: (Jones 1999, 171-172) Richard L C Jones. Fortifications and Sieges in Western Europe, c.800-1450. Maurice Keen. ed. 1999. Medieval Warfare: A History. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Complex Fortification:
absent

David Baker says absent. [1] "Forts and Castles Castles were not terribly common in the Carolingian age. The great age of castle construction was the eleventh and twelfth centuries during the social, economic, and political revolution that strengthened the aristocracy and handed control of the lands to its members. Castles became essential to maintain this inequitable structure, but in the Carolingian age there were some castles and heavily defended towns that required siege methods to overcome." [2] Carolingians built both Roman and Saxon style fortresses. [2]

[1]: David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.

[2]: (Butt 2002, 38) John J Butt. 2002. Daily Life in the Age of Charlemagne. Greenwood Publishing Group. Westport.



Military use of Metals

Writing in the 14th century, Ibn Hudhayl "described Frankish swords as mudakkar with ’steel edges on an iron body, unlike those of India.’" [1] "The carbon content of Western blades is much lower, but their hardness can be increased by quenching (an easier process when only thin bands of steel along the edges are involved). Despite the evident superiority of crucible steels, Western blades offered a useful combination of properties, at presumably a much lower price, than Oriental ones, and there are references to their being exported to Muslim lands, for examples, Saracen pirates demanded 150 Carolingian swords as part of the ransom for Archbishop Rotland of Arles in 869." [2]

[1]: (Williams 2012, 35) Alan Williams. 2012. The Sword and the Crucible: A History of the Metallurgy of European Swords Up to the 16th Century. BRILL. Leiden.

[2]: (Williams 2012, 36) Alan Williams. 2012. The Sword and the Crucible: A History of the Metallurgy of European Swords Up to the 16th Century. BRILL. Leiden.


Bronze, leather and iron were used to make helmets. [1]

[1]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Bronze, leather and iron were used to make helmets. [1]

[1]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Bronze, leather and iron were used to make helmets. [1]

[1]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

David Baker says present. [1] Torsion catapults. [2]

[1]: David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.

[2]: (Butt 2002, 38-39) John J Butt. 2002. Daily Life in the Age of Charlemagne. Greenwood Publishing Group. Westport.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon. [1]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.


David Baker says present. [1] Carolingian period: "Carolingian military organization was based primarily on that of their Merovingian predecessors, who had built on later Roman institutions ... Archers and slingers fighting on foot supported the battle line." [2]

[1]: David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.

[2]: (Bachrach 2001, x) Barnard S Bachrach. 2001. Early Carolingian Warfare: Prelude to Empire. University of Pennsylvania Press. Philadelphia.


"The bow was first used by the Franks in the 4th century but did not become a required arm of the Frankish infantry until the time of Charlemagne." [1] Cart-drivers given bow and arrow. [2] Wooden staffs were banned and bows were encouraged instead. [3] "The early Frankish bow was a very long (five- to six-foot) yew bow. By the ninth century, a shorter bow was more typical. Unlike the late Roman double-convex bow, which was very much like modern bows, the Frankish bow was straight and flat..." [4]

[1]: (De Vries in Kibler et al 1995, 114)

[2]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 13) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[3]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 14) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[4]: (Butt 2002, 43) John J Butt. 2002. Daily Life in the Age of Charlemagne. Greenwood Publishing Group. Westport.


David Baker says present. [1]

[1]: David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.



Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

David Baker says present. [1]

[1]: David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.


Composite Bow:
absent

"The bow was first used by the Franks in the 4th century but did not become a required arm of the Frankish infantry until the time of Charlemagne. These early archers generally were equipped with a short bow of simple wood construction. But in the following centuries bows were improved by the addition of horn, sinew, and glue in a composite construction complete with angled ears to give more pull to the bowstring." [1]

[1]: (De Vries in Kibler et al 1995, 114)


New World weapon.


Handheld weapons

Wooden staffs were banned and bows were encouraged instead. [1]

[1]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 14) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Used by cavalry. [1] Short sword [2] used by infantry. Aristocrats "usually dismounted and fought on foot throughout the Merovingian, Carolingian, and post-Carolingian periods." [3]

[1]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 13) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Butt 2002, 40) John J Butt. 2002. Daily Life in the Age of Charlemagne. Greenwood Publishing Group. Westport.

[3]: (Fanning 1995, 346)


Used by cavalry, though initially not with a charge. [1] Poor men used as infantry carried shield and spear. [1]

[1]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 13) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Not common as not usually listed as a weapon.


Not common as not usually listed as a weapon.


Battle Axe:
present

Axes were an infantry weapon. [1] "The seax was a cross between an ax and a short sword. It was single edged, made of iron, and was used for hacking rather than piercing." [2]

[1]: (Butt 2002, 42) John J Butt. 2002. Daily Life in the Age of Charlemagne. Greenwood Publishing Group. Westport.

[2]: (Butt 2002, 43) John J Butt. 2002. Daily Life in the Age of Charlemagne. Greenwood Publishing Group. Westport.


Animals used in warfare

Cavalry. Artists included the stirrup in their drawings of Carolingian cavalry from the late ninth century CE. [1]

[1]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


David Baker says absent. [1]

[1]: David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.


David Baker says present. [1]

[1]: David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.


David Baker says present. [1]

[1]: David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.


David Baker says absent. [1]

[1]: David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

Poor men used as infantry carried shield and spear. [1] ET: Presumably this shield would have to have been made out of wood?

[1]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 13) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Is a large round shield being carried by cavalry in the period art on this page (the authors used it to demonstrate the presence of the stirrup)? [1] Poor men used as infantry carried shield and spear. [2]

[1]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 13) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Scaled Armor:
present

The few who could afford it used body armour. [1] The military retinue of kings and magnates (including clergy) "had the most complete equipment and were virtually professional warriors." [2] David Baker says present. [3]

[1]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 14) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[3]: David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.


Plate Armor:
absent

The few who could afford it used body armour. [1] The military retinue of kings and magnates (including clergy) "had the most complete equipment and were virtually professional warriors." [2] David Baker says absent. [3] c1250-1330 CE: "development of weapons capable of piercing mail: the gradual introduction of pieces of plate (at first of whalebone, horn, and boiled leather, as well as of the iron and steel that ultimately prevailed) to cover an ever larger part of the mail). By 1330, every part of the body of a knight was normally protected by one or several plates... By 1410, the various pieces of plate, including a breastplate and backplate instead of the earlier coat of plates, were all connected by straps and rivets in an articulated suit, or ’harness,’ of polished steel." [4]

[1]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 14) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[3]: David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.

[4]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Limb Protection:
unknown

The few who could afford it used body armour. [1] The military retinue of kings and magnates (including clergy) "had the most complete equipment and were virtually professional warriors." [2] David Baker says present. [3]

[1]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 14) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[3]: David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.


Leather Cloth:
present

Bronze, leather and iron. [1]

[1]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Laminar Armor:
absent

The few who could afford it used body armour. [1] The military retinue of kings and magnates (including clergy) "had the most complete equipment and were virtually professional warriors." [2] David Baker says absent. [3]

[1]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 14) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[3]: David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.


Bronze, leather and iron were used to make helmets but only the wealthy had them. [1]

[1]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Chainmail:
present

The few who could afford it used body armour. [1] The military retinue of kings and magnates (including clergy) "had the most complete equipment and were virtually professional warriors." [2] Wealthy expected to use mail armour. [3] David Baker says present. [4]

[1]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 14) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[3]: (Butt 2002, 40) John J Butt. 2002. Daily Life in the Age of Charlemagne. Greenwood Publishing Group. Westport.

[4]: David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.


Breastplate:
present

The few who could afford it used body armour. [1] The military retinue of kings and magnates (including clergy) "had the most complete equipment and were virtually professional warriors." [2] c1250-1330 CE: "development of weapons capable of piercing mail: the gradual introduction of pieces of plate (at first of whalebone, horn, and boiled leather, as well as of the iron and steel that ultimately prevailed) to cover an ever larger part of the mail). By 1330, every part of the body of a knight was normally protected by one or several plates... By 1410, the various pieces of plate, including a breastplate and backplate instead of the earlier coat of plates, were all connected by straps and rivets in an articulated suit, or ’harness,’ of polished steel." [3] David Baker says present. [4]

[1]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 14) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[3]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.

[4]: David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

For example galleys. The navy was very small. The Mediterranean Sea was dominated by the Arabs and the Byzantines. [1]

[1]: David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

David Baker says present. [1]

[1]: David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
present

David Baker says present. [1]

[1]: David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions