Home Region:  Western Europe (Europe)

Proto-French Kingdom

EQ 2020  fr_capetian_k_1 / FrCaptE

The Capetian period in France began with the accession of Hugh Capet to the Frankish throne in 987 CE. In the early period (987-1150 CE), the area under the control of the Capetian monarchs was relatively restricted in comparison to the late period (1150-1328 CE), which saw a massive expansion in territory and increasing urbanization. [1]
Population and political organization
The Capetian monarchs ruled their kingdom via decree. Louis VI (r. 1108-1137 CE) was recognized as the legitimate ruler by his vassals and, after the early 12th century, the great lords of France generally submitted to Capetian authority. [2] However, the dynasty had less power outside the region of Paris and the Counts of Bois and Troyes were arguably more powerful than the king in some respects. The Capetians drew their legitimacy from their stronger links to the Catholic church. [2]
Before Philip II (r. 1180-1223 CE), government was very simple and closely linked to the king’s court, which was still itinerant, moving wherever the king went. [3] At the core of the French king’s government were a few major officials with household titles (chancellor, seneschal, butler, chamberlain and constable). [4] From the 12th century onwards, these positions were the preserve of the aristocracy. [4] [5] The clergy of the Church provided a pool of ’educated, literature and numerate subjects’ and were a vital resource for the government and administration of the Capetian Kingdom. [6]
Innovations in agriculture resulted in population increases during this period, especially in northern and western France, but demographic expansion would not begin in earnest until the later Capetian era. [7] From the 11th to the 14th century CE, the French population almost quadrupled from about 4 to 15 million. [7]

[1]: (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 111) Turchin, Peter, and Sergey Nefedov. 2009. Secular Cycles. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7MDE5MUH.

[2]: (Bouchard 1995, 313-17) Bouchard, Constance B. 1995. “Capetian Dynasty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 312-17. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNRCJVG.

[3]: (Clark and Henneman 1995, 1317) Clark, William W., and John Bell Henneman, Jr. 1995. “Paris.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 1314-30. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/HS8644XK.

[4]: (Bradbury 2013, 249) Bradbury, Jim. 2013. Philip Augustus: King of France 1180-1223. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/XSFRWX7E.

[5]: (Pegues 1995, 1333) Pegues, Franklin J. 1995. “Parlement de Paris.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 1332-33. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/HHFUSQER.

[6]: (Bradbury 2013, 248-49) Bradbury, Jim. 2013. Philip Augustus: King of France 1180-1223. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/XSFRWX7E.

[7]: (Percy, Jr. 1995, 1416) Percy, Jr., William A. 1995. “Population and Demography.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 1415-17. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QI73FMSM.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
31 U  
Original Name:
Proto-French Kingdom  
Capital:
Paris  
Alternative Name:
Capetian dynasty  
House of Capet  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,150 CE  
Duration:
[987 CE ➜ 1,150 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
Supracultural Entity:
Latin Christendom  
Succeeding Entity:
French Kingdom - Late Capetian  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
17,000,000 km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Carolingian Empire II  
Degree of Centralization:
nominal  
loose  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
Occitan  
French  
Langues dOil  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
25,000 people  
Polity Territory:
[12,000 to 18,000] km2  
Polity Population:
[500,000 to 1,000,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4  
Religious Level:
[6 to 7]  
Military Level:
5 987 CE 1090 CE
[5 to 6] 1091 CE 1150 CE
Administrative Level:
4  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown  
Merit Promotion:
inferred absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
inferred absent  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
inferred absent  
Judge:
inferred absent  
Formal Legal Code:
absent  
Court:
inferred absent  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
unknown  
Drinking Water Supply System:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
absent  
Canal:
unknown  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
unknown  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Information / Money
Paper Currency:
unknown  
Indigenous Coin:
inferred present  
Foreign Coin:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
present  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
present  
  Complex Fortification:
inferred present  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
inferred present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
inferred present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
inferred present  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
inferred absent  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
unknown 987 CE 1049 CE
present 1050 CE 1150 CE
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
inferred present  
  Dagger:
unknown  
  Battle Axe:
unknown 987 CE 1049 CE
present 1050 CE 1150 CE
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
unknown  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
inferred absent  
  Limb Protection:
present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
inferred absent  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Proto-French Kingdom (fr_capetian_k_1) was in:
 (987 CE 1149 CE)   Paris Basin
Home NGA: Paris Basin

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Proto-French Kingdom

1130-1150 CE
Louis VI resident in Paris from 1130 CE [1] but court moved with king on his travels.

[1]: (Clark and Henneman 1995, 1317)



Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,150 CE

"The peace and prosperity resulting from the efforts of Louis VI led to an increase inthe number of monks at Saint-Germain-des-Prés." [1] Louis VI (reign 1108-1137 CE)
Louis VI: "vigorous measures made the existing domain far more profitable, as did a favorable economy." [2]
"Urban revival and the growth of a merchant class in the late 10th and 11th centuries" linked by some scholars to better international trade in Europe. [3]

[1]: (Clark and Henneman 1995, 1318)

[2]: (Henneman 1995, 1561-1562)

[3]: (Reyerson 1995, 1156)



Political and Cultural Relations


Succeeding Entity:
French Kingdom - Late Capetian

Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
17,000,000 km2

km squared. Latin Christendom was roughly equivalent to the maximum extent of the former Roman Empire? The rough limits of Christianity in this period: the area that is now northeastern Germany would be converted by force under Charlemagne, while the area south of Rome, in particular Calabria, Puglia, and Basilicata, was as much part of the Eastern Orthodox world as that of Latin Christendom, although these distinctions did not exist then.



Preceding Entity:
Carolingian Empire II

Degree of Centralization:
nominal

nominal: 987-1130 CE; loose: 1130-1150 CE
Capetians had little authority outside the region of Paris. Count of Bois and Count of Troyes arguably had more power, while Capetians more legitimacy with stronger links to Catholic church. [1]
Centralization under Louis VI (reign 1108-1137 CE): "was effective in making the king’s vassals recognize royal suzerainty; the great lords of France presented the Capetians with few problems after the first decades of the 12th century." [1]

[1]: (Bouchard 1995, 313-317)

Degree of Centralization:
loose

nominal: 987-1130 CE; loose: 1130-1150 CE
Capetians had little authority outside the region of Paris. Count of Bois and Count of Troyes arguably had more power, while Capetians more legitimacy with stronger links to Catholic church. [1]
Centralization under Louis VI (reign 1108-1137 CE): "was effective in making the king’s vassals recognize royal suzerainty; the great lords of France presented the Capetians with few problems after the first decades of the 12th century." [1]

[1]: (Bouchard 1995, 313-317)


Language

Language:
Occitan

French; Langues d’Oïl; Occitan: 1000-1200 CE [1] During 11th and 12th centuries the population that lived south of the Loire spoke Occitan. [2]

[1]: (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 112)

[2]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 3)

Language:
French

French; Langues d’Oïl; Occitan: 1000-1200 CE [1] During 11th and 12th centuries the population that lived south of the Loire spoke Occitan. [2]

[1]: (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 112)

[2]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 3)

Language:
Langues dOil

French; Langues d’Oïl; Occitan: 1000-1200 CE [1] During 11th and 12th centuries the population that lived south of the Loire spoke Occitan. [2]

[1]: (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 112)

[2]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 3)


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
25,000 people

Paris
Significant expansion under Louis VI [1] (reign 1108-1137 CE).
Louis VII first king resident in Paris

[1]: (Clark and Henneman 1995, 1317)


Polity Territory:
[12,000 to 18,000] km2

in squared kilometers.
Estimate of known Royal lands.
1137-1152 CE
In 1137 CE Louis VI acquired Aquitaine for Louis VII through an arranged marriage (which became part of the Kingdom on his accession?). Lost after divorce 1152 CE. [1]

[1]: (Bouchard 1995, 316)


Polity Population:
[500,000 to 1,000,000] people



Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4

levels.
1. City
Paris 25,000? 1200 CE [1]
2. Town"no town surpassed 10,000 inhabitants between the 8th century and the year 1000." [2]
Avignon about 1300 CE population 5,000-6,000 [3]
Provins over 10,000 population 1200-1300 CE [4]
3. Small town
4. Hamlet90% population lived in rural settlements [1]

[1]: (Percy Jr 1995)

[2]: (Percy Jr 1995, 1739-1740 CE)

[3]: (Spufford 2006, 169)

[4]: (Kibler and Clark 1995, 1446)


Religious Level:
[6 to 7]

levels.
Note: hierarchy might need fine-tuning to conditions in Carolingian France
1. Pope
Pope is primus inter pares among the five patriarchs. [1]
2. Metropolitans and archbishops"the term ’bishop’ applies to patriarchs, metropolitans, archbishops, and bishops (both suffragan and assistant bishops or chorepiskopoi) throughout the Byzantine period. After the ’ecumenical’ patriarch of Constantinople, who after the seventh century occupied the only remaining patriarchal seat under Byzantine rule, metropolitans held the second highest rank in the Orthodox Church." [2]
"The title ’archbishop’ emerged in special cases, for example in important cities such as Athens which did not possess a metropolitan." [2]
3. Bishops and ChorepiskopoiBishops and Chorepiskopoi form one rank below the metropolitans and archbishops [1]
3. Priest"In the early Church, priests or presbyters served as advisers, teachers, and ministers who assisted the bishops to whom they were assigned." [2]
4. Deacon"Deacons assisted the priest or bishop at the Divine Liturgy, baptisms, and other sacraments. ... Various administrative and pastoral jobs were delegated to deacons from an early period; they helped bishops to dispense charity to the community, manage the diocese’s finances and property, and to deal with other official business (Laodikeia, canons 21, 23, 25). Deacons were subject to the authority of both bishops and priests, but they came to exercise considerable power, especially in the patriarchate of Constantinople." [3]
4. Deaconess (diakonissa)"The deaconess’s chief liturgical role was to assist at the baptisms of women; she also acted as a mediator between women parishioners and their bishops, kept order among female members of the congregation, and ministered especially to women." [3]
5. Subdeacon"The rank of subdeacon provided a stepping-stone to that of deacon; its duties were similar to those of the deacon." [4]
6. Reader (anagnostesj"A reader is a member of the lower clergy with the responsibility of reading, usually from the ambo, passages from the Epistles and the Old Testament prescribed for offices and the Divine Liturgy." [4]
7. Minor orders"Other members of the minor clerical orders included doorkeepers, exorcists, cantors, and widows. All of these officials helped in either liturgical, administrative, or pastoral functions. Most would have received payment from their dioceses, or, in the case of private foundations, from their donors, but it is likely that most would have been engaged in secular professions in order to supplement their incomes." [4]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)

[2]: (Cunningham 2008, 529) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Cunningham 2008, 531) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[4]: (Cunningham 2008, 532) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Military Level:
5
987 CE 1090 CE

levels.
1. King

2. SeneschalSenechal was the senior royal official, and senior military commander [1]
Only until 1091 CE [2] - job taken over by Constable
3. Constableoriginated 9th-10th centuries as "count of the stable". [2]
during the reign of Philip I (1060-1108), the constable was one of the four "great officers" of the crown [2]
11th and 12th centuries drawn from the nobility of the Île de-France [2]
4. Knighthad a squire
5. Sergeant"In the military context, sergeants were lightly armed fighting men who served and supported knights." [3] Also had civilian "enforcer" role.
Mid-12th century professional sergeants equipped by nobles [4]
6.Was Sergeant the lowest level?
Militia leader (this level also called constable?) - from mid-12th century?
Lead a milita, paid slightly less than a sergeant [5]

Captains [6] - from mid-12th century?
Each city parish had its own captain

[1]: (Henneman 1995, 1645)

[2]: (Henneman 1995, 486-487)

[3]: (Henneman 1995, 1658)

[4]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 6)

[5]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 10)

[6]: (Nicolle and McBridge 2000, 4)

Military Level:
[5 to 6]
1091 CE 1150 CE

levels.
1. King

2. SeneschalSenechal was the senior royal official, and senior military commander [1]
Only until 1091 CE [2] - job taken over by Constable
3. Constableoriginated 9th-10th centuries as "count of the stable". [2]
during the reign of Philip I (1060-1108), the constable was one of the four "great officers" of the crown [2]
11th and 12th centuries drawn from the nobility of the Île de-France [2]
4. Knighthad a squire
5. Sergeant"In the military context, sergeants were lightly armed fighting men who served and supported knights." [3] Also had civilian "enforcer" role.
Mid-12th century professional sergeants equipped by nobles [4]
6.Was Sergeant the lowest level?
Militia leader (this level also called constable?) - from mid-12th century?
Lead a milita, paid slightly less than a sergeant [5]

Captains [6] - from mid-12th century?
Each city parish had its own captain

[1]: (Henneman 1995, 1645)

[2]: (Henneman 1995, 486-487)

[3]: (Henneman 1995, 1658)

[4]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 6)

[5]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 10)

[6]: (Nicolle and McBridge 2000, 4)


Administrative Level:
4

levels.
Philip II (1180-1223 CE) had "a small group of close counsellers who held offices with particular, if not always specialized, functions. Philip also employed royal agents in the demesne, and outside, to carry on the routine work of government and to enforce the changes which he introduced./ We speak of departments, and we know of the existence of a chancery and a chamber, but we should be mistaken to see these as entirely separated organizations. Household departments do not emerge until the reign of St Louis, but they were in the process of formation in Philip’s time. The close counsellors and the clerks could still move from one area of the administration to another, and often did.../ Central government was organized under a few major officials: the chancellor, the seneschal, the butler, the chamberlain and the constable. These originated as household officials with specific functions. By the beginning of the twelfth century these offices had been taken over by leading magnates. Under Philip, one or two magnates held such titles ... But the trend was to pass office, and sometimes title, to more humble men and their professional staff, for example marshals assisting the constables." [1]
1. King
Robert II (reign 996-1031) stopped partitioning the realm, crowned his eldest son during his lifetime. this was done by all Capetian monarchs until Philip II [2]
ruled by decree
_Court institution_
2. senechal was the senior royal official, and senior military commanderwhilst the king’s household dominated government in the 11th and 12th centuries the senechal was the senior royal official, and senior military commander [3]
3. Treasury. From Louis VII until the end of the 13th century, the royal treasury was housed in the Knights Templar Temple’s keep [4]
3. Other high officials. Under Philip I (reign 1060-1108 CE) "obscure household officials emerged as important figures in the making and executing of royal policies ... the seneschal, butler, chamberlain, and constable — to whom we should add the chancellor, who supervised those who wrote and authenticated royal documents. [5]
3. Chancellor4. Scribes. "those who wrote and authenticated royal documents." [5]
_Regional government_
2. Rulers of ApanagesApanage: "province or jurisdiction, or later for an office or annuity, granted (with the reservation that in the absence of direct heirs the land escheated to the crown)" [2]
Example: Acquitaine?
2. Feudal lords (dukes, barons and counts)Former territories of the Carolingian state "became counties, duchies and other feudal lordships, each with its own court." [6]
3. senechal. The senechal was also the senior official of households of dukes, barons and counts [3] 4.Pagus?
2. Prevotsprevots reported to the senechal. used to administer "scattered parts of the royal domain" [7] ET - whose senechal did the prevots report to, the king’s senechal or the senechal of the local lord? Coded on the assumption they report to the king’s senechal
At a local level, they were responsible for justice, military defense, and collection of the king’s seigneurial revenues [8]
3. Castellans of the Île-de-France [5] "With the growth of the feudal system, however, the title gained in France a special significance which it never acquired in England, as implying the jurisdiction of which the castle became the centre" - wikipedia

[1]: (Bradbury 2013, 249) Jim Bradbury. 2015. Philip Augustus: King of France 1180-1223. Routledge.

[2]: (Suarez 1995, 97-98)

[3]: (Henneman 1995, 1645)

[4]: (Clark and Henneman 1995, 1317)

[5]: (Henneman 1995, 1558-1560)

[6]: (Pegues 1995, 1005-1010)

[7]: (Henneman 1995, 1427, 1645)

[8]: (Henneman 1995, 1427)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

"In the military context, sergeants were lightly armed fighting men who served and supported knights." [1] Also had civilian "enforcer" role.

[1]: (Henneman 1995, 1658)


Professional Priesthood:
present

Christianity


Professional Military Officer:
present

during the reign of Philip I (1060-1108), the constable was one of the four "great officers" of the crown [1]

[1]: (Henneman 1995, 486-487)


Bureaucracy Characteristics

Merit Promotion:
absent

permanent officials within the king’s household, probably sourced from the aristocracy.


Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent

inferred from apparent change in 1250: Professional administration in Paris from 1250 CE. [1]
Before this time there were permanent officials within the king’s household, probably sourced from the aristocracy.

[1]: (Pegues 1995, 1333)



Law


Formal Legal Code:
absent

Carolingian legal system of of 10th century had mostly "vanished" and no legislation survives from early Capetian kings. [1]
King ruled by decree. In 1144 CE Louis VII issued an ordinance to "banished the relapsed Jews from the kingdom" and in 1155 CE "established the Peace of God for ten years."
French customary law not written down until 13th century. "Roman and canon law provided the inspiration for this activity. Customary law varied from one region of France to another, and the writing of such law took place within regional or provincial boundaries." [1]

[1]: (Pegues 1995, 1005-1010)



Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Greve market transferred to Les Champeaux (near Les Halles), and "the concession of the Grèveport to the newly established “Marchands de l’Eau” in 1141". [1] "By 1070 Italian merchants were frequenting the Saint-Denis fairs." [2] "French kings conceded fairs as privileges to some locales by regalian right, uncontested except in the case of the most rebellious of lords, such as the duke of Burgundy under Louis XI. [2]

[1]: (Clark and Henneman 1995, 1324)

[2]: (Reyerson 1995, 640)


Irrigation System:
present

Irrigation canals. [1]

[1]: (Glick, Steven Livesey and Wallis 2014, 115)



Drinking Water Supply System:
present

Cisterns. By 1000 CE most communities obtained water from rivers, wells and cisterns and this was still the case at the end of the Middle Ages. However, in the 11th and 12th centuries new water supply systems were developed which became installed in towns. [1] (within this time period?) "Pilgrims, crusaders, university students, and merchants would have encountered conduits and fountains in the course of their travels." [1] By end of Middle Ages [1] : piped water to public fountains; artificial lifting devices and water towers

[1]: (Glick, Steven Livesey and Wallis 2014, 505-506)


Transport Infrastructure

Paved roads e.g. in Paris only later, from Philip II (?) [1] Dense network of mud roads linked towns. Old Roman road system "still partially functional, which favored straight, paved thoroughfares between major urban sites." [2]

[1]: (Clark and Henneman 1995, 1324)

[2]: (Reyerson 1995, 1740-1741)


Polity was landlocked.



Bridge:
present

Beginning in the 11th century. [1] Polity funded/owned?

[1]: (Boyer 1995, 1748-1751)


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

"France possesses no precious metal resources and little copper. Iron ores are abundant, and there are regional deposits of lead, zinc, and coal. All of these were exploited during the Middle Ages. Evidence for ironworking exists from Merovingian France onward." [1]

[1]: (Hall in Kibler et al 1995, 1177)


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Anything written by the era’s literati.


Script:
present

French language.


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

French language.


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

French language.


Information / Kinds of Written Documents


Practical Literature:
present

"The earliest western European guidebook for pilgrims was written by a Frenchman (ca. 1135-39) for those going from France to Compostela. The author gives four routes through France toward Spain, mostly following old Roman roads. [1]

[1]: (Pegues 1995, 1399)


Philosophy:
present

Schools of Paris early 1140s CE: Abélard, Albéric de Monte, Robert of Melun, Peter Helias, Adam du Petit-Pont, Gilbert of Poitiers, Thierry of Chartres, and Peter Lombard. [1]

[1]: (Radding 1995, 1775-1779)


History:
present

Biographer of Louis VI, Suger, abbot of Saint-Denis. [1]

[1]: (Bouchard 1995, 316)


Fiction:
present

"Secular Latin plays were produced in the 12th century alongside religious and liturgical drama." [1] "Medieval theater originated in the 10th century in the Latin liturgical drama that was associated with the Easter rites of the church." [2]

[1]: (Bates 1995, 1716 CE)

[2]: (Knight 1995, 1714 CE)


Information / Money

Indigenous Coin:
present

"During the late 8th century under Charlemagne, the livre esterlin was fixed at 5,760 grains (367.1 grams) and consisted of 20 sous, 12 onces, 240 deniers, 480 oboles. This livre was the first national standard; it was retained until the middle of the 14th century, when the government of King John II the Good authorized the employment of a new, heavier, livre called the livre poids de marc." [1]

[1]: (Zupko in Kibler et al 2005, 1842)


Foreign Coin:
present

Local mint in Provins operated since the 10th century. By 1170s CE provided the dominant currency in Eastern France and widely used as far as central Italy. [1] Minted silver deniers, called provinois [2] These were the coins of the Champagne Fairs [2]

[1]: (Spufford 2006, 146)

[2]: (Spufford 2006, 149)


Information / Postal System


Courier:
present

Foot messengers and couriers. [1]

[1]: (Boyer 1995, 1748-1751)


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

A Bailey consists of a ditch with a wooden rampart. "In the 11th century, local rulers led in the construction of fortifications, at first small earth and wood motte-and-bailey castles, but soon larger and stronger structures of masonry." [1] Motte and bailey castles proliferated. [2]

[1]: (DeVries in Kibler et al 1995, 1838)

[2]: (Hallam and Everard 2014) Elizabeth M Hallam. Judith Everard. 2014. Capetian France 987-1328. Second Edition. Routledge. London.



Stone Walls Mortared:
present

From the 11th century, local rulers constructed earth and wood "motte-and-bailey castles" and later built with stone. [1] A donjon was a stone tower. [2]

[1]: (De Vries 1995, 1837-1839)

[2]: (Hallam and Everard 2014) Elizabeth M Hallam. Judith Everard. 2014. Capetian France 987-1328. Second Edition. Routledge. London.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

Motte and bailey castles proliferated. [1]

[1]: (Hallam and Everard 2014) Elizabeth M Hallam. Judith Everard. 2014. Capetian France 987-1328. Second Edition. Routledge. London.



Loches Keep: "The 11th-century tower, a rectangle 82 feet long by 43 feet wide with walls 9 feet thick, is one of the earliest and finest examples of a stone keep; it was here that the chronicler Philippe de Commynes, among many others, was incarcerated. Of the original double curtain walls and broad moat (35-40 feet), only one wall still stands." [1]

[1]: (Kibler in Kibler et al 1995, 1058)



Earth Rampart:
present

Motte and bailey castles proliferated. [1]

[1]: (Hallam and Everard 2014) Elizabeth M Hallam. Judith Everard. 2014. Capetian France 987-1328. Second Edition. Routledge. London.


A Bailey consists of a ditch with a wooden rampart. "In the 11th century, local rulers led in the construction of fortifications, at first small earth and wood motte-and-bailey castles, but soon larger and stronger structures of masonry." [1] Motte and bailey castles proliferated. [2]

[1]: (DeVries in Kibler et al 1995, 1838)

[2]: (Hallam and Everard 2014) Elizabeth M Hallam. Judith Everard. 2014. Capetian France 987-1328. Second Edition. Routledge. London.


Complex Fortification:
present

From the 11th century, local rulers constructed earth and wood "motte-and-bailey castles" and later built with stone. [1] "At the height of the Middle Ages, great castles were built with deep, defensive ditches or moats and several concentric rings of stone walls reinforced with towers that required attackers to fight their way through several layers of defense to achieve victory." [2] Was any of this Early Capetian period ’the height of the Middle Ages’? Inferred yes.

[1]: (De Vries 1995, 1837-1839)

[2]: (Newman 2001, 75) Paul B Newman. 2001. Daily Life in the Middle Ages. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Jefferson.



Military use of Metals

Writing in the 14th century, Ibn Hudhayl "described Frankish swords as mudakkar with ’steel edges on an iron body, unlike those of India.’" [1] "The carbon content of Western blades is much lower, but their hardness can be increased by quenching (an easier process when only thin bands of steel along the edges are involved). Despite the evident superiority of crucible steels, Western blades offered a useful combination of properties, at presumably a much lower price, than Oriental ones, and there are references to their being exported to Muslim lands, for examples, Saracen pirates demanded 150 Carolingian swords as part of the ransom for Archbishop Rotland of Arles in 869." [2]

[1]: (Williams 2012, 35) Alan Williams. 2012. The Sword and the Crucible: A History of the Metallurgy of European Swords Up to the 16th Century. BRILL. Leiden.

[2]: (Williams 2012, 36) Alan Williams. 2012. The Sword and the Crucible: A History of the Metallurgy of European Swords Up to the 16th Century. BRILL. Leiden.


c1250-1330 CE: "development of weapons capable of piercing mail: the gradual introduction of pieces of plate (at first of whalebone, horn, and boiled leather, as well as of the iron and steel that ultimately prevailed) to cover an ever larger part of the mail). By 1330, every part of the body of a knight was normally protected by one or several plates... By 1410, the various pieces of plate, including a breastplate and backplate instead of the earlier coat of plates, were all connected by straps and rivets in an articulated suit, or ’harness,’ of polished steel." [1]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Copper:
present

Bronze possibly used in the construction of wooden shields. [1]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Bronze:
present

Bronze possibly used in the construction of wooden shields. [1]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

Motte and Bailey castles proliferated [1] so siege warfare no doubt increased in this period.

[1]: (Hallam and Everard 2014) Elizabeth M Hallam. Judith Everard. 2014. Capetian France 987-1328. Second Edition. Routledge. London.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon. [1]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.


Sling:
present

Carolingian period: "Carolingian military organization was based primarily on that of their Merovingian predecessors, who had built on later Roman institutions ... Archers and slingers fighting on foot supported the battle line." [1]

[1]: (Bachrach 2001, x) Barnard S Bachrach. 2001. Early Carolingian Warfare: Prelude to Empire. University of Pennsylvania Press. Philadelphia.


Self Bow:
present

Simple bow was little used. [1] Was it used a little? - Yes. With the influx of crossbows, the use of short bows died out in French armies, and by the 13th century they were not considered a weapon of war. [2]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.

[2]: (De Vries in Kibler et al 1995, 114)


Javelin:
absent

No mention of javelin in this review of medieval weapons in France. [1]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

First handguns after c1350 CE. [1]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.



Crossbow:
present

Crossbow/arbaleste reintroduced c950 CE. [1]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Composite Bow:
present

Composite bows. [1] Designated unit in army from 11th century [1]

[1]: (De Vries 1995, 114)


New World weapon.


Handheld weapons
War Club:
unknown
987 CE 1049 CE

"Lesser weapons were also employed by knights after 1050. Special forms of ax, hammer (bec), mace, club, and flail were introduced in the 12th and 13th centuries to supplement the sword, but it was only after 1300 that these were both fully developed and commonly used." [1]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.

War Club:
present
1050 CE 1150 CE

"Lesser weapons were also employed by knights after 1050. Special forms of ax, hammer (bec), mace, club, and flail were introduced in the 12th and 13th centuries to supplement the sword, but it was only after 1300 that these were both fully developed and commonly used." [1]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Long, straight, double-edged, sword. [1]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Lance/spear. [1]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Polearm:
present

New forms of polearm introduced in the 14th and 15th centuries [1] - implies there were old forms of polearm, or spears used as a polearm.

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Dagger:
unknown

Most knights and squires used a dagger after 1350 CE [1] but maybe in use more rarely before this time as well?

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Battle Axe:
unknown
987 CE 1049 CE

"Lesser weapons were also employed by knights after 1050. Special forms of ax, hammer (bec), mace, club, and flail were introduced in the 12th and 13th centuries to supplement the sword, but it was only after 1300 that these were both fully developed and commonly used." [1]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.

Battle Axe:
present
1050 CE 1150 CE

"Lesser weapons were also employed by knights after 1050. Special forms of ax, hammer (bec), mace, club, and flail were introduced in the 12th and 13th centuries to supplement the sword, but it was only after 1300 that these were both fully developed and commonly used." [1]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Animals used in warfare

Aristocrats "usually dismounted and fought on foot throughout the Merovingian, Carolingian, and post-Carolingian periods." [1] 12th century saddle innovations made the horseback charge with a lance possible. [2]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.

[2]: (Fanning 1995, 346)






Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

Medieval armour was much like that worn by Germanic warriors in 100 CE still consisting of a shield, helmet and coat. [1]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Shield:
present

Medieval armour was much like that worn by Germanic warriors in 100 CE still consisting of a shield, helmet and coat. [1]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Scaled Armor:
unknown

The miles (mounted knight) was the core fighting unit and in this period he became a landed aristocrat. [1] Called a "heavy cavalryman" [1] which implies at least the wealthiest nobles had access to the full panoply of armour.

[1]: (Hallam and Everard 2014) Elizabeth M Hallam. Judith Everard. 2014. Capetian France 987-1328. Second Edition. Routledge. London.


Plate Armor:
absent

The miles (mounted knight) was the core fighting unit and in this period he became a landed aristocrat. [1] Called a "heavy cavalryman". [1] c1250-1330 CE: "development of weapons capable of piercing mail: the gradual introduction of pieces of plate (at first of whalebone, horn, and boiled leather, as well as of the iron and steel that ultimately prevailed) to cover an ever larger part of the mail). By 1330, every part of the body of a knight was nomally protected by one or several plates... By 1410, the various pieces of plate, including a breastplate and backplate instead of the earlier coat of plates, were all connected by straps and rivets in an articulated suit, or ’harness,’ of polished steel." [2]

[1]: (Hallam and Everard 2014) Elizabeth M Hallam. Judith Everard. 2014. Capetian France 987-1328. Second Edition. Routledge. London.

[2]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Limb Protection:
present

9th CE neck guard (halsbergen). Late 12th CE elbow and wrist protection, then mittens, and mail leggings (chausses) now became very widely used. [1]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Leather Cloth:
present

Medieval armour was much like that worn by Germanic warriors in 100 CE still consisting of a shield, helmet and coat (usually mail). [1] From 1150 CE a surcoat "generally sleeveless cloth coat probably borrowed from the Muslims - over the coat of mail." [1]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Laminar Armor:
unknown

The miles (mounted knight) was the core fighting unit and in this period he became a landed aristocrat. [1] Called a "heavy cavalryman" [1] which implies at least the wealthiest nobles had access to the full panoply of armour.

[1]: (Hallam and Everard 2014) Elizabeth M Hallam. Judith Everard. 2014. Capetian France 987-1328. Second Edition. Routledge. London.


Helmet:
present

Medieval armour was much like that worn by Germanic warriors in 100 CE still consisting of a shield, helmet and coat. [1]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Chainmail:
present

Medieval armour was much like that worn by Germanic warriors in 100 CE still consisting of a shield, helmet and coat (usually mail). [1]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Breastplate:
absent

Breastplate late 13th century. [1] c1250-1330 CE: "development of weapons capable of piercing mail: the gradual introduction of pieces of plate (at first of whalebone, horn, and boiled leather, as well as of the iron and steel that ultimately prevailed) to cover an ever larger part of the mail). By 1330, every part of the body of a knight was nomally protected by one or several plates... By 1410, the various pieces of plate, including a breastplate and backplate instead of the earlier coat of plates, were all connected by straps and rivets in an articulated suit, or ’harness,’ of polished steel." [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 2000, 19)

[2]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown

"The English possessions in France led to Anglo-French warfare in the 13th and 14th centuries. The French pieced together a navy for use in the Atlantic and the Channel, often hiring Genose galleys to fight the English, especially in the Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE). France also built a naval base and shipyard, the Clos des Galées, at Rouen." [1]

[1]: (Runyan 1995, 1246-1247) Timothy J Runyan. 1995. Naval Power. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Garland Publishing, Inc. New York.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

"Roman vessels utilized the rivers and coastal waters to transport merchandise and military personnel. The early Franks developed fleets for use in trade and war. Their vessels were propelled by oars and probably a single square sail." [1]

[1]: (Runyan 1995, 1246-1247) Timothy J Runyan. 1995. Naval Power. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Garland Publishing, Inc. New York.


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown

"French fleets consisted mainly of merchant vessels recruited for royal service." [1] Does this reference apply to this period? - Perhaps not. "The English possessions in France led to Anglo-French warfare in the 13th and 14th centuries. The French pieced together a navy for use in the Atlantic and the Channel, often hiring Genose galleys to fight the English, especially in the Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE). France also built a naval base and shipyard, the Clos des Galées, at Rouen." [2]

[1]: (Runyan 1995, 1246-1247)

[2]: (Runyan 1995, 1246-1247) Timothy J Runyan. 1995. Naval Power. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Garland Publishing, Inc. New York.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.