Home Region:  Pakistan (South Asia)

Kachi Plain - Pre-Urban Period

D G SC WF HS EQ 2020  pk_kachi_pre_urban / PkPreUr

Preceding:
4000 BCE 3200 BCE Kachi Plain - Chalcolithic (pk_kachi_ca)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
2500 BCE 2100 BCE Kachi Plain - Urban Period I (pk_kachi_urban_1)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

The Pre-Urban period in the Indus Valley, also known as the Early Harappan or Early Indus, started around 3200 and ended around 2600 BCE. Here we extend it to include the transitional century or so between the Early and the Mature Harappan. This period was characterized by the spread of farming communities across the Indus Basin, reaching as far as the Upper Ganga-Yamuna Doab in modern-day North India. Overall, this was not a period of great innovation, but precursors of writing appear to have emerged at this time, and, together with the appearance of seals and weights, these point to a shift in organizational complexity. [1]
Population and political organization
No population estimates could be found in the literature. There is also no clear picture of political organization at this time - seals have been found in relevant archaeological contexts, but the existence of a bureaucratic apparatus remains unlikely. [2]

[1]: (McIntosh 2008, 67-72) McIntosh, Jane. 2008. The Ancient Indus Valley. Santa Barbara; Denver; Oxford: ABC-CLIO. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/5P92SHE8.

[2]: A. Ceccarelli, personal communication to E. Cioni, February 2017.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
42 R  
Original Name:
Kachi Plain - Pre-Urban Period  
Capital:
unknown  
Alternative Name:
Early Harappan  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[3,200 BCE ➜ 2,500 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
unknown [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
Indus Civilisation  
Succeeding Entity:
Kachi Plain - Urban Period I  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Succeeding: Kachi Plain - Urban Period I (pk_kachi_urban_1)    [continuity]  
Preceding:   Kachi Plain - Chalcolithic (pk_kachi_ca)    [continuity]  
Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity  
Language
Linguistic Family:
unknown  
Language:
unknown  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[1,100 to 4,600] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[2 to 3]  
Religious Level:
1  
Military Level:
[0 to 1]  
Administrative Level:
[1 to 2]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred absent  
Professional Priesthood:
inferred present  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred absent  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent  
Merit Promotion:
absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent  
Examination System:
absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent  
Judge:
absent  
Formal Legal Code:
inferred absent  
Court:
absent  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
inferred present  
Irrigation System:
inferred present  
Food Storage Site:
inferred present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
unknown  
Port:
absent  
Canal:
unknown  
Bridge:
unknown  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
unknown  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent  
Script:
absent  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Nonwritten Record:
unknown  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent  
Sacred Text:
absent  
Religious Literature:
absent  
Practical Literature:
absent  
Philosophy:
absent  
Lists Tables and Classification:
absent  
History:
absent  
Fiction:
absent  
Calendar:
absent  
Information / Money
Token:
inferred present  
Precious Metal:
unknown  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
absent  
Foreign Coin:
absent  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
absent  
General Postal Service:
absent  
Courier:
inferred absent  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
absent  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred absent  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
absent  
  Earth Rampart:
absent  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
absent  
  Bronze:
absent  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
absent  
  Self Bow:
absent  
  Javelin:
absent  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
absent  
  Sword:
absent  
  Spear:
absent  
  Polearm:
absent  
  Dagger:
absent  
  Battle Axe:
absent  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
absent  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
absent  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
absent  
  Scaled Armor:
absent  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
absent  
  Leather Cloth:
unknown  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
absent  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
absent  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
absent  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Kachi Plain - Pre-Urban Period (pk_kachi_pre_urban) was in:
 (3200 BCE 2501 BCE)   Kachi Plain
Home NGA: Kachi Plain

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Kachi Plain - Pre-Urban Period

Capital:
unknown

Of the very large Mature Harappan (urban) sites, only Harappa has a documented pre-urban population. [1] However, there is no evidence for the existence or whereabouts of a capital.

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 19, (1990), p.270


Alternative Name:
Early Harappan

The Early Harappan phase can be divided geographically into four regions with roughly equivalent chronologies
Amri-Nal
Kot Diji
Damb Sadaat
Sothi-Siswal [1] The Early Harappan sites of the Amri-Nal tradition are found in southern Baluchistan; but despite the presence of Nal pottery at Merhgarh (doubtless because it is associated with seasonal herdsmen) the Kachi Plain is not included in the distribution or in any other Early Harappan culture. [2]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 40

[2]: Possehl 2002, p. 41


Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[3,200 BCE ➜ 2,500 BCE]

Including a transitional phase between the Early and the Mature Harappan [1]

[1]: McIntosh, J. The Ancient Indus Valley pp. 392-393. Santa-Barbara: ABC-Clio.


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
unknown [---]

The settlements and artefacts from this period suggest increasing complexity, although it is not clear what sort of polity (or polities) were present. It is likely that there was a form of centralised authority, based on the complexity of urban planning, but whether this was a chiefdom or incipient state is debated. [1]

[1]: Rita Wright: The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy and Society; Cambridge: CUP, 2010, pp. 79-105


Supracultural Entity:
Indus Civilisation

Succeeding Entity:
Kachi Plain - Urban Period I

Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

Preceding Entity:
Kachi Plain - Pre-Urban Period [pk_kachi_pre_urban] ---> Kachi Plain - Urban Period I [pk_kachi_urban_1]
Preceding Entity:
Kachi Plain - Chalcolithic [pk_kachi_ca] ---> Kachi Plain - Pre-Urban Period [pk_kachi_pre_urban]

Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity

The settlements and artefacts from this period suggest increasing complexity, although it is not clear what sort of polity (or polities) were present. It is likely that there was a form of centralised authority, based on the complexity of urban planning, but whether this was a chiefdom or incipient state is debated. [1]

[1]: Rita Wright: The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy and Society; Cambridge: CUP, 2010, pp. 79-105


Language

Language:
unknown

Language is unknown, and there would certainly have been regional/chronological variations. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. Indus Age: The Beginnings. New Delhi, 1999, p.721


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[1,100 to 4,600] people

Assuming 50-200 inhabitants per hectare. Quetta Miri was about 23 ha [1] [2] .

[1]: (Possehl 2002, 44) Gregory Possehl. 2002. The Indus Civilization. Delhi: Published on behalf of Indian Archaeological Society [by] B.R. Pub. Corp.

[2]: New Delhi: distributed by D.K. Publishers’ Distributors, 1980.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[2 to 3]

levels. [1] [2]
1. Large settlementFor example, Quetta Miri (23 ha) and Mundigak (9 ha).
2. Possible medium-sized ’producer’ settlements
3. Small settlements
Worth noting: "Some settlements show signs of specialization in particular crafts or other industrial activities, such as the procurement of raw materials. For example, huge quantities of figurines were produced at Mehrgarh in this period, suggesting mass production. Lewan, a village in the Bannu Basin in northern Baluchistan, specialized in the production of stone tools, including querns, axes, and hammers, which were traded over a wide area. A degree of specialization had begun earlier, for example at Mehrgarh, but it was becoming more pronounced in this period." [3]

[1]: (Possehl 2002, 44) Gregory Possehl. 2002. The Indus Civilization. Delhi: Published on behalf of Indian Archaeological Society [by] B.R. Pub. Corp.

[2]: New Delhi: distributed by D.K. Publishers’ Distributors, 1980.

[3]: (McIntosh 2008, 69)


Religious Level:
1

1. Ritual specialist
In the broader Early Harappan tradition there is evidence that there were priests, and Kenoyer refers to "ritual specialist". However, Possehl says there is no evidence for a state religion. [1] [2]

[1]: Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark, ‘The Indus Valley Tradition of Pakistan and Western India’, Journal of World Prehistory, 5 (1991), 370

[2]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 6.


Military Level:
[0 to 1]

levels. Kenoyer writes that there is no evidence of the existence of an army even during the period 2600 BCE - 1900 BCE [1]

[1]: Jonathan Mark Kenoyer. ’Uncovering the keys to the Lost Indus Cities’, Scientific American, vol. 15, no. 1, 2005, p. 29.


Administrative Level:
[1 to 2]

levels.


Professions
Professional Soldier:
absent

Inferred from Jonathan Kenoyer’s claim that there is no evidence of the existence of an army even during the period 2600 BCE - 1900 BCE [1]

[1]: Jonathan Mark Kenoyer. ’Uncovering the keys to the Lost Indus Cities’, Scientific American, vol. 15, no. 1, 2005, p. 29.


Professional Priesthood:
present

In the broader Harappan tradition there is evidence for priests, and Kenoyer refers to "ritual specialist". [1]

[1]: Avari, Burjor, India: The Ancient Past: A History of the Indian Sub-Continent from C. 7000 BC to AD 1200 (London: Routledge, 2007), p.48; Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark, ‘The Indus Valley Tradition of Pakistan and Western India’, Journal of World Prehistory, 5 (1991), 370


Professional Military Officer:
absent

Inferred from Jonathan Kenoyer’s claim that there is no evidence of the existence of an army even during the period 2600 BCE - 1900 BCE [1]

[1]: Jonathan Mark Kenoyer. ’Uncovering the keys to the Lost Indus Cities’, Scientific American, vol. 15, no. 1, 2005, p. 29.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent


Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent


Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent

In the context of the broader Harappan tradition there are no deciphered textual records suggesting the presence of a legal code. [1]

[1]: Burjor Avari. India: The Ancient Past. A History of the Indian sub-continent from c.7000 BC to AD 1200. Oxon, 2007, p.51


In the context of the broader Harappan tradition there are no deciphered textual records suggesting the presence of a legal code. [1]

[1]: Burjor Avari. India: The Ancient Past. A History of the Indian sub-continent from c.7000 BC to AD 1200. Oxon, 2007, p.51


Formal Legal Code:
absent

In the context of the broader Harappan tradition there are no deciphered textual records suggesting the presence of a legal code. [1]

[1]: Burjor Avari. India: The Ancient Past. A History of the Indian sub-continent from c.7000 BC to AD 1200. Oxon, 2007, p.51


In the context of the broader Harappan tradition there are no deciphered textual records suggesting the presence of a legal code. [1]

[1]: Burjor Avari. India: The Ancient Past. A History of the Indian sub-continent from c.7000 BC to AD 1200. Oxon, 2007, p.51


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

"There is plentiful evidence of internal trade within and between the regions of the Early Indus period" [1] .

[1]: (McIntosh 2008, 77)


Irrigation System:
present

Period II: variety of barley used "could be grown only in the irrigated fields, it implies and improved method of farming in the Kachi plains." [1] In the broader Harappan context, water control technology began during the Amri-Nal period. This included the use of small shallow ditches to guide water onto a flat area, and investment in some kind of bunding - a low earthen wall or a gabarband. [2]

[1]: (Ahmed 2014, 321)

[2]: Gregory L. Possehl. Indus Age: The Beginnings. New Delhi, 1999, p.619


Food Storage Site:
present

“By Periods VI and VII, Mehrgarh had clearly entered a new phase in its development. In Periods VI and VII, Mehgarh took on the configuration of a large village or town with streets and lanes and clustered residential areas. The communal storage in compartmented buildings of former periods was replaced by storage rooms, now securely located within individual houses." [1]

[1]: Wright, R. P. (2010) The Ancient Indus: urbanism, economy and society. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. p53


Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown

Transport Infrastructure

Inland site would not have had a port.




Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Nonwritten Record:
unknown

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Mnemonic Device:
unknown

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Sacred Text:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Religious Literature:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Practical Literature:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Philosophy:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Lists Tables and Classification:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


History:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Fiction:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Calendar:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.


Information / Money
Token:
present

Presumed present for the trade of foreign materials (including lapis lazuli, calcite and steatite for bead production). [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J. F. (2008). Mehrgarh neolithic. Pragdhara, 18, 135-154. p145


Precious Metal:
unknown

Copper was present from Mehrgarh III [1] , but may not have been used as ’money’.

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge





Information / Postal System

General Postal Service:
absent


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
absent

Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [1] The data for fortifications is inferred. Possehl states that before the Urban phase (i.e. 2600 BCE) for only 3 sites out of 463 Pre-Urban sites the archaeological evidence could potentially be interpreted as having some sort of substantial circumvallation. [1]

[1]: (Gregory L. Possehl. ’Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization’, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent

Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [1]

[1]: (Gregory L. Possehl. ’Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization’, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)


Stone Walls Mortared:
absent

Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [1]

[1]: (Gregory L. Possehl. ’Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization’, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
absent

Inferred absent from lack of evidence of significant warfare.


Modern Fortification:
absent

Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [1]

[1]: (Gregory L. Possehl. ’Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization’, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)



Fortified Camp:
absent

Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [1]

[1]: (Gregory L. Possehl. ’Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization’, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)


Earth Rampart:
absent

Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [1]

[1]: (Gregory L. Possehl. ’Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization’, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)



Complex Fortification:
absent

Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [1]

[1]: (Gregory L. Possehl. ’Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization’, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)



Military use of Metals

Inferred as occurred later [1] .

[1]: ( Darvill, Timothy. "steel." In The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology. : Oxford University Press, 2008. )


Inferred as occurred later [1] .

[1]: ( Darvill, Timothy. "iron." In The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology. : Oxford University Press, 2008. )



Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

Inferred as occurred later [1]

[1]: ( DeVries, Kelly. "siege engines." In The Oxford Companion to Military History. : Oxford University Press, 2001. ).


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

Inferred as occurred later [1]

[1]: ( DeVries, Kelly. "siege engines." In The Oxford Companion to Military History. : Oxford University Press, 2001. ).


Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented" before the Indus period. [1]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991: 347) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/A7DS8UKX.


Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented" before the Indus period. [1]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991: 347) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/A7DS8UKX.


Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented" before the Indus period. [1]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991: 347) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/A7DS8UKX.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

Inferred as occurred later [1]

[1]: ( DeVries, Kelly. "matchlock." In The Oxford Companion to Military History. : Oxford University Press, 2001. ).


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Inferred as occurred later [1]

[1]: ( DeVries, Kelly. "cannon" In The Oxford Companion to Military History. : Oxford University Press, 2001. ).


Inferred as occurred later [1]

[1]: ( DeVries, Kelly. "crossbow." In The Oxford Companion to Military History. : Oxford University Press, 2001. ).


Composite Bow:
absent

Inferred as occurred later [1]

[1]: ( DeVries, Kelly. "bow." In The Oxford Companion to Military History. : Oxford University Press, 2001. ).


New world weapon.


Handheld weapons

Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented" before the Indus period. [1]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991: 347) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/A7DS8UKX.


Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented" before the Indus period. [1]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991: 347) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/A7DS8UKX.


Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented" before the Indus period. [1]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991: 347) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/A7DS8UKX.


Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented" before the Indus period. [1]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991: 347) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/A7DS8UKX.


Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented" before the Indus period. [1]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991: 347) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/A7DS8UKX.


Battle Axe:
absent

Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented" before the Indus period. [1] ground stone axe found in burial (Ahmed 2014, p. 316). - was this a battle axe? In one exceptional burial, a polished stone axe and three flint cores were placed in a basket and lay near the skull of the deceased. Sixteen blades from the same core were set in parallel rows along the spinal column [2]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991: 347) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/A7DS8UKX.

[2]: (Jarrige et al. 1995: 246)


Animals used in warfare

Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [1]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991, p. 347)


Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [1]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991, p. 347)


Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [1] (From the ’Historical Dictionary of Ancient India’) Amri, mid-4th millennium BCE onward: "There is evidence for the domestication of cattle, sheep, goat, and donkey." [2]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991, p. 347)

[2]: (Roy ed. 2009, 17) Kumkum Roy. ed. 2009. Historical Dictionary of Ancient India. The Scarecrow Press, Inc. Lanham.


Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [1]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991, p. 347)


Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [1]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991, p. 347)


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
unknown

Evidence of armor made from organic materials has not been recovered from Mehrgarh.






Leather Cloth:
unknown

Evidence of armor made from organic materials has not been recovered from Mehrgarh.






Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
absent

Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent


Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions
- Nothing coded yet.