Home Region:  Pakistan (South Asia)

Kachi Plain - Chalcolithic

EQ 2020  pk_kachi_ca / PkChalc

The Kachi Plain, in modern-day Pakistan, is hemmed in on two of its three sides by the mountains of Baluchistan, while its southeastern side opens up to the Indus Valley. [1] The earliest evidence for agriculture here was found in Mehrgarh and dates to 7000 BCE. The occupation of the settlement continued throughout the period under consideration here, between the 4th and the 2nd millennia BCE. In the region generally, the number of sites increased, the sites themselves became larger, and they expanded into the Indus Basin; notable sites include Periano Ghundai, Mundigak, Faiz Mohammad, Togau, and Sheri Khan Tarakai. Mehrgarh itself became an important centre for craft production, and excavations suggest increased diversity in burial rites. Agriculture remained the main economic activity in the region and oats, a new variety of barley and two new varieties of bread wheat became new staple cultivars. [2]
Population and political organization
It is not possible to give an accurate estimate of the region’s population at this time, [3] and the size of occupied Mehrgarh is uncertain, as the population shifted over time and part of the site has been cut away by the Bolan River. [4] Similarly, the literature does not provide many clues as to the political organization of Mehrgarh or any other site in the region during this period.

[1]: (Jarrige & Enault 1976, 29) Jarrige, Jean-François, and Jean-François Enault. 1976. “Fouilles de Pirak - Baluchistan.” Arts Asiatiques 32 (1): 29-70. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Q32UJUPX.

[2]: (McIntosh 2008, 57-61) McIntosh, Jane. 2008. The Ancient Indus Valley. Santa Barbara; Denver; Oxford: ABC-CLIO. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/5P92SHE8.

[3]: (Possehl 1999, 472) Possehl, Gregory L. 1999. Indus Age: The Beginnings. New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/IWNUD7IH.

[4]: (Jarrige 2013, 135-154) Jarrige, J.-F. 2013. Mehrgarh Neolithic. Paris: Éditions de Boccard. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4MKZA34B.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
42 R  
Original Name:
Kachi Plain - Chalcolithic  
Capital:
not applicable  
Alternative Name:
Mehrgarh III  
Kili Gul Mohammad Period III  
Kili Gul Mohammad Period IV  
Quetta Valley Period H  
Anjira I  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[4,000 BCE ➜ 3,200 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
Supracultural Entity:
not applicable  
Succeeding Entity:
not applicable  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
not applicable  
Preceding Entity:
not applicable  
Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity  
Language
Linguistic Family:
unknown  
Language:
unknown  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[1,200 to 3,700] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
2  
Religious Level:
1  
Military Level:
[0 to 1]  
Administrative Level:
[1 to 2]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred absent  
Professional Priesthood:
inferred present  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred absent  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent  
Merit Promotion:
absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent  
Examination System:
absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent  
Judge:
absent  
Formal Legal Code:
absent  
Court:
absent  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
inferred present  
Irrigation System:
inferred present  
Food Storage Site:
unknown  
Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
unknown  
Port:
absent  
Canal:
unknown  
Bridge:
unknown  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
inferred present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent  
Script:
absent  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Nonwritten Record:
unknown  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent  
Sacred Text:
absent  
Religious Literature:
absent  
Practical Literature:
absent  
Philosophy:
absent  
Lists Tables and Classification:
absent  
History:
absent  
Fiction:
absent  
Calendar:
absent  
Information / Money
Token:
inferred present  
Precious Metal:
unknown  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
absent  
Foreign Coin:
absent  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
absent  
General Postal Service:
absent  
Courier:
inferred absent  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
absent  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred absent  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
absent  
  Earth Rampart:
absent  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
absent  
  Bronze:
absent  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
absent  
  Self Bow:
absent  
  Javelin:
absent  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
absent  
  Sword:
absent  
  Spear:
absent  
  Polearm:
absent  
  Dagger:
absent  
  Battle Axe:
absent  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
absent  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
absent  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
absent  
  Scaled Armor:
absent  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
absent  
  Leather Cloth:
unknown  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
absent  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
absent  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
absent  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Kachi Plain - Chalcolithic (pk_kachi_ca) was in:
 (4000 BCE 3201 BCE)   Kachi Plain
Home NGA: Kachi Plain

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Kachi Plain - Chalcolithic

Capital:
not applicable

As Mehrgarh I is not a polity, but a quasi-polity, Mehrgarh is not a capital. It is however both the best studied and archaeologically richest site.


Alternative Name:
Mehrgarh III

Mehrgarh III and Kili Gul Mohammad period III and IV ; also known as Period H of the Quetta Valley; Anjira I

Alternative Name:
Kili Gul Mohammad Period III

Mehrgarh III and Kili Gul Mohammad period III and IV ; also known as Period H of the Quetta Valley; Anjira I

Alternative Name:
Kili Gul Mohammad Period IV

Mehrgarh III and Kili Gul Mohammad period III and IV ; also known as Period H of the Quetta Valley; Anjira I

Alternative Name:
Quetta Valley Period H

Mehrgarh III and Kili Gul Mohammad period III and IV ; also known as Period H of the Quetta Valley; Anjira I

Alternative Name:
Anjira I

Mehrgarh III and Kili Gul Mohammad period III and IV ; also known as Period H of the Quetta Valley; Anjira I


Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[4,000 BCE ➜ 3,200 BCE]

4000-3500 BCE: Mehrgar III (Kili Gul Muhammad periods II and III; Togau phase?) Fragments of metal (copper) artefacts; Local copper production, as well as crucible fragments? Beginning of a Chalcolithic period at the site? [1] Earliest occupation at Mehrgarh was identified in the so-called area MR 3 (7 m of stratified deposits). These levels seem to not yield ceramic materials; however, fired ceramic figurines and asphalt-covered baskets are found. [2] Mehrgarh I seems to be contemporaneous with the earliest pre-pottery levels at the site of Kili Gul Muhammad (KGM), Quetta valley, Bolan Pass, Balochistan. The latter site, along with the excavation at Damb Sadaat, currently defines the archaeological sequence of the Quetta Valley. [3] Kili Gul Mohammad III (Site Q24): (1) KGM III was contemporaneous with Anjira II and Mehrgarh Period III (Fairservis 1956: 330-332). [4] . Early village life in the north-western borderlands, in Sheri Khan Tarakai. page 19); (2) Kili Ghul Mohammad IV includes the irregular clay and charcoal layers of Phase 3, pottery of Kechi Beg type, exclusive of the polychrome and red-paint wares. Kili Ghul Mohammad III includes Phases 5-13, Section I, and pottery is Kili Ghul Mohammad Black-on-Red slip, with wheelmade wares predominating. (Fairservis, 1956. Quetta Valley); (3) Kili Ghul Mohammad IV and Damb Sadaat I correlate “on the basis of the presence of the Kechi Beg Wares: Kechi Beg White-on-Dark Slip, Kechi Beg Black-on-Buff slip, SPezand Black-and-Red Rim, Sultan Purple, Khojak Parallel Striated and the plainwares such as Nazim Hard-Clay Temper, Adam Sandy and others. Nevertheless, the absence of Kechi Beg Polychrome and Kechi Beg Red Pain, plus the general configuration of all the wates present in both assemblages, indicates that KIli Ghul Mohammad IV is probabily somewhat earlier than Damb Sadaat I.” (Fairservis, 1956. Quetta Valley). Other relevant Sites (De Cardi 1983, Archaeological Surveys in Baluchistan): Baleli, Pishin. The site known as Tor-Ghundai (Stein A. 1929. An archaeological tour in Waziristan, p.89) had been damaged by army lorries but a small sample of sherds confirmed Stein’s ascription of occupation in both chalcolithic and historical times. A number of chert flakes were noted and other finds included part of a shell bangle and a fragment of copper. In addition to KGM and basket-marked wares the sample included Togau A animal frizzes and one unusual sherd with an almost white surface decorated with reversed hook/horn frieze in brown. A comparable oddity was noted at Saiyed Maurez and Togau hooks occurred on a cream slip at Zari in the Surab valley.

[1]: Jarrige, J.-F. (1991) Mehrgarh: its place in the development of ancient cultures in Pakisan. In, Jansen, M., et al (eds.) Forgotten cities on the Indus: early civilization in Pakistan from the 8th-2nd millennium BC.p. 142

[2]: Jarrige et al. (eds.), Mehrgarh: Field Reports, 57; Jarrige et al., ‘Mehrgarh Neolithic: the updated sequence’, 131, fig. 2; Jarrige et al., Mehrgarh: Neolithic Period; Jarrige, ‘Mehrgarh Neolithic: new excavations’; Jarrige, ‘Human figurines’; also Shaffer, ‘Indus valley’, vol. I, 454; G.L. Possehl, Indus Age: The Beginnings (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999), 464.

[3]: Shaffer, ‘Indus valley’, vol. I, 453; Jarrige et al., ‘Mehrgarh Neolithic: the updated sequence’, 64

[4]: Petrie C., Khan F., Knox R, Thomas K. & Morris J., 2010


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none

With limited archaeological (and no literary) evidence, it is not clear what sort of polity (or polities) were present at this time. [1]

[1]: Rita Wright: The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy and Society; Cambridge: CUP, 2010, pp. 79-105




Relationship to Preceding Entity:
not applicable


Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity

With limited archaeological (and no literary) evidence, it is not clear what sort of polity (or polities) were present at this time. [1]

[1]: Rita Wright: The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy and Society; Cambridge: CUP, 2010, pp. 79-105


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[1,200 to 3,700] people

"The mapping of the site that was conducted by J.-F. Enault and the study of the surface remains show that the typical pottery of Period III extends well beyond the limits of MR.2 to the north and to the south. In fact, this pottery covers about 75 hectares (about 180 acres). Even if we admit the existence of several phases and possible shifts of the settlement, such an area continuously covered by a characterisfic ware decorated with caprids, birds, and geometric motifs indicates that a large number of people occupied the site in the fourth millennium B.C." [1] Assuming 50 inhabitants per hectare, and that between 25 and 75 hectares were occupied at any given time, this site might have been inhabited by about 1,200-3,700 people. A previous, much larger estimate, of 3,000-12,000, and based on 50-200 inhabitants per hectare, and about 60 hectares, was deemed excessive [2] .

[1]: (Jarrige 1995: 366) Catherine Jarrige, Jean-Francois Jarrige, Richard H. Meadow, and Gonzague Quivron. 1995. Mehrgarh. Karachi: Dept. of Culture and Tourism, Govt. of Sindh ; in collaboration with the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

[2]: A. Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Mar 2017


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
2

levels.
1. Mehgarh2. Villages (unexcavated, but probably in the region of 12 hectares) [1]

[1]: A. Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Mar 2017


Religious Level:
1

1. Ritual specialist
Clay figurines have been found but there is no evidence for a professional priesthood at Mehrgarh. [1] In the broader Early Harappan tradition there is evidence that there were priests, and Kenoyer refers to "ritual specialist". Howeverm Possehl says there is no evidence for a state religion. [2] [3]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge

[2]: Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark, ‘The Indus Valley Tradition of Pakistan and Western India’, Journal of World Prehistory, 5 (1991), 370

[3]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 6.


Military Level:
[0 to 1]

levels. Kenoyer writes that there is no evidence of the existence of an army even during the period 2600 BCE - 1900 BCE [1]

[1]: Jonathan Mark Kenoyer. ’Uncovering the keys to the Lost Indus Cities’, Scientific American, vol. 15, no. 1, 2005, p. 29.


Administrative Level:
[1 to 2]

levels.
An urban community of thousands suggests Mehrgarh likely had some degree of hierarchy for dispute resolution, perhaps a chief or collective decision making body. Evidence of dispute exists in the changing use of communal storage. In the previous periods Mehrgarh residents had organized communal food storage facilities. In this period food storage was located in individual houses. [1] Why was this change necessary? The growth in size and population of Mehrgarh does not imply that communal organization decreased - which is what is immediately suggested by loss of communal granaries. Possibly a greater degree of communal organization now existed, that replaced communal granaries, in form of cooperation with a chief or collective decision making body. However we have no evidence of state organisation at Mehrgarh. [2] [3] At this stage such a formal organization, if it existed, might best be classed as emergent.

[1]: Wright, R. P. (2010) The Ancient Indus: urbanism, economy and society. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. p53

[2]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 6

[3]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Professions
Professional Soldier:
absent

Inferred from Jonathan Kenoyer’s claim that there is no evidence of the existence of an army even during the period 2600 BCE - 1900 BCE [1]

[1]: Jonathan Mark Kenoyer. ’Uncovering the keys to the Lost Indus Cities’, Scientific American, vol. 15, no. 1, 2005, p. 29.


Professional Priesthood:
present

Clay figurines have been found at Mehrgarh but there is no evidence for a professional priesthood. [1] However, in the broader Harappan tradition there is evidence for priests, and Kenoyer refers to "ritual specialist". [2]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge

[2]: Avari, Burjor, India: The Ancient Past: A History of the Indian Sub-Continent from C. 7000 BC to AD 1200 (London: Routledge, 2007), p.48; Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark, ‘The Indus Valley Tradition of Pakistan and Western India’, Journal of World Prehistory, 5 (1991), 370


Professional Military Officer:
absent

Inferred from Jonathan Kenoyer’s claim that there is no evidence of the existence of an army even during the period 2600 BCE - 1900 BCE [1]

[1]: Jonathan Mark Kenoyer. ’Uncovering the keys to the Lost Indus Cities’, Scientific American, vol. 15, no. 1, 2005, p. 29.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent

No evidence has been found of state organisation at Mehrgarh. [1] [2]
An urban community of thousands suggests Mehrgarh likely had some degree of hierarchy for dispute resolution, perhaps a chief or collective decision making body. Evidence of dispute exists in the changing use of communal storage. In the previous periods Mehrgarh residents had organized communal food storage facilities. In this period food storage was located in individual houses. [3] Why was this change necessary? The growth in size and population of Mehrgarh does not imply that communal organization decreased - which is what is immediately suggested by loss of communal granaries. Possibly a greater degree of communal organization now existed, that replaced communal granaries, in form of cooperation with a chief or collective decision making body. However we have no evidence of state organisation at Mehrgarh. [1] [2] At this stage such a formal organization, if it existed, might best be classed as emergent and without institutional architecture.

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 6

[2]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge

[3]: Wright, R. P. (2010) The Ancient Indus: urbanism, economy and society. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. p53


Merit Promotion:
absent

No evidence has been found of state organisation at Mehrgarh. [1] [2] An urban community of thousands suggests Mehrgarh likely had some degree of hierarchy for dispute resolution, perhaps a chief or collective decision making body but there is no evidence for any institutions of government.

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 6

[2]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent

No evidence has been found of state organisation at Mehrgarh. [1] [2]
An urban community of thousands suggests Mehrgarh likely had some degree of hierarchy for dispute resolution, perhaps a chief or collective decision making body. Evidence of dispute exists in the changing use of communal storage. In the previous periods Mehrgarh residents had organized communal food storage facilities. In this period food storage was located in individual houses. [3] Why was this change necessary? The growth in size and population of Mehrgarh does not imply that communal organization decreased - which is what is immediately suggested by loss of communal granaries. Possibly a greater degree of communal organization now existed, that replaced communal granaries, in form of cooperation with a chief or collective decision making body. However we have no evidence of state organisation at Mehrgarh. [1] [2] At this stage such a formal organization, if it existed, might best be classed as emergent and without institutional architecture.

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 6

[2]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge

[3]: Wright, R. P. (2010) The Ancient Indus: urbanism, economy and society. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. p53


Examination System:
absent

No evidence has been found of state organisation at Mehrgarh. [1] [2] An urban community of thousands suggests Mehrgarh likely had some degree of hierarchy for dispute resolution, perhaps a chief or collective decision making body but there is no evidence for any institutions of government.

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 6

[2]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent

No evidence has been found of state organisation at Mehrgarh. [1] [2] An urban community of thousands suggests Mehrgarh likely had some degree of hierarchy for dispute resolution, perhaps a chief or collective decision making body but there is no evidence for any formal institutions or significant occupational specialization.

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 6

[2]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


No evidence has been found of state organisation at Mehrgarh. [1] [2] An urban community of thousands suggests Mehrgarh likely had some degree of hierarchy for dispute resolution, perhaps a chief or collective decision making body but there is no evidence for any formal institutions or significant occupational specialization.

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 6

[2]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Formal Legal Code:
absent

No evidence has been found of state organisation at Mehrgarh. [1] [2] Likewise in the context of the broader Harappan tradition there are no deciphered textual records from this period, or the Mature Harappan period, which suggest the presence of a legal code. [3]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 6

[2]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge

[3]: Burjor Avari. India: The Ancient Past. A History of the Indian sub-continent from c.7000 BC to AD 1200. Oxon, 2007, p.51


No evidence has been found of state organisation at Mehrgarh. [1] [2] An urban community of thousands suggests Mehrgarh likely had some degree of hierarchy for dispute resolution, perhaps a chief or collective decision making body but there is no evidence for any formal institutions or significant occupational specialization.

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 6

[2]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Mehrgarh settlement has been hypothesised as a marketplace or craft center "where people from the uplands gathered on a seasonal basis" [1]

[1]: (Ahmed 2014, 323 citing: ?)


Irrigation System:
present

Period II: variety of barley used "could be grown only in the irrigated fields, it implies and improved method of farming in the Kachi plains." [1] In the broader Harappan context, water control technology began during the Amri-Nal period. This included the use of small shallow ditches to guide water onto a flat area, and investment in some kind of bunding - a low earthen wall or a gabarband. [2]

[1]: (Ahmed 2014, 321)

[2]: Gregory L. Possehl. Indus Age: The Beginnings. New Delhi, 1999, p.619




Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

Stone quarries in the hills near the site of Nal (Naal). Period I and II at Damb Sadaat. Period IV at Anjira and Siah Damb. [1] Nal is just outside this NGA region but we can infer that the inhabitants of Mehrgarh also quarried stone e.g. for tools.

[1]: (Singh 2008, 107-108)


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing. [2]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.

[2]: , C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.


Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing. [2]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.

[2]: , C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing. [2]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.

[2]: , C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.


Nonwritten Record:
unknown

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing. [2]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.

[2]: , C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing. [2]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.

[2]: , C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.


Mnemonic Device:
unknown

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing. [2]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.

[2]: , C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing. [2]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.

[2]: , C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.


Sacred Text:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing. [2]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.

[2]: , C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.


Religious Literature:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing. [2]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.

[2]: , C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.


Practical Literature:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing. [2]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.

[2]: , C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.


Philosophy:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing. [2]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.

[2]: , C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.


Lists Tables and Classification:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing. [2]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.

[2]: , C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.


History:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing. [2]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.

[2]: , C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.


Fiction:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing. [2]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.

[2]: , C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.


Calendar:
absent

Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [1] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing. [2]

[1]: Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.

[2]: , C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.


Information / Money
Token:
present

Presumed present for the trade of foreign materials (including lapis lazuli, calcite and steatite for bead production). [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J. F. (2008). Mehrgarh neolithic. Pragdhara, 18, 135-154. p145


Precious Metal:
unknown

Copper was present from Mehrgarh III [1] , but may not have been used as ’money’.

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Paper Currency:
absent

No evidence of paper currency has been found in the archaeological record at Mehrgarh. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J. F. (2008). Mehrgarh neolithic. Pragdhara, 18, 135-154.


Indigenous Coin:
absent

No coins have been found in the archaeological record at Mehrgarh. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J. F. (2008). Mehrgarh neolithic. Pragdhara, 18, 135-154.


Foreign Coin:
absent

No coins have been found in the archaeological record at Mehrgarh. [1]

[1]: Jarrige, J. F. (2008). Mehrgarh neolithic. Pragdhara, 18, 135-154.


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
absent

There are no archaeological remains which can be interpreted as postal stations at Mehrgarh, and are therefore presumed absent. [1] No evidence for social structure that could have organized a postal system nor one what would have required one.

[1]: Jarrige, J. F. (2008). Mehrgarh neolithic. Pragdhara, 18, 135-154.


General Postal Service:
absent

There are no archaeological remains which can be interpreted as postal stations at Mehrgarh, and are therefore presumed absent. [1] No evidence for social structure that could have organized a postal system nor one what would have required one.

[1]: Jarrige, J. F. (2008). Mehrgarh neolithic. Pragdhara, 18, 135-154.


Courier:
absent

Worth noting that materials were transported over long distances to Mehrgarh(including lapis lazuli [1] ), but it is unknown who transported them.

[1]: Jarrige, J. F. (2008). Mehrgarh neolithic. Pragdhara, 18, 135-154.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
absent

Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [1] The data for fortifications is inferred. Possehl states that before the Urban phase (i.e. 2600 BCE) for only 3 sites out of 463 Pre-Urban sites the archaeological evidence could potentially be interpreted as having some sort of substantial circumvallation. [1]

[1]: (Gregory L. Possehl. ’Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization’, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent

Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [1]

[1]: (Gregory L. Possehl. ’Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization’, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)


Stone Walls Mortared:
absent

Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [1]

[1]: (Gregory L. Possehl. ’Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization’, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
absent

Inferred absent from lack of evidence of significant warfare.


Modern Fortification:
absent

Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [1]

[1]: (Gregory L. Possehl. ’Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization’, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)



Fortified Camp:
absent

Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [1]

[1]: (Gregory L. Possehl. ’Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization’, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)


Earth Rampart:
absent

Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [1]

[1]: (Gregory L. Possehl. ’Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization’, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)



Complex Fortification:
absent

Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [1]

[1]: (Gregory L. Possehl. ’Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization’, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)



Military use of Metals

Inferred as occurred later [1] .

[1]: ( Darvill, Timothy. "steel." In The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology. : Oxford University Press, 2008. )


Inferred as occurred later [1] .

[1]: ( Darvill, Timothy. "iron." In The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology. : Oxford University Press, 2008. )


Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1] .

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

Inferred as occurred later [1]

[1]: ( DeVries, Kelly. "siege engines." In The Oxford Companion to Military History. : Oxford University Press, 2001. ).


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

Inferred as occurred later [1]

[1]: ( DeVries, Kelly. "siege engines." In The Oxford Companion to Military History. : Oxford University Press, 2001. ).


Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented". [1] Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [2]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991: 347) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/A7DS8UKX/q/kenoyer.

[2]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Self Bow:
absent

Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented". [1] Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [2]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991: 347) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/A7DS8UKX/q/kenoyer.

[2]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Javelin:
absent

Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented". [1] Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [2]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991: 347) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/A7DS8UKX/q/kenoyer.

[2]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Handheld Firearm:
absent

Inferred as occurred later [1]

[1]: ( DeVries, Kelly. "matchlock." In The Oxford Companion to Military History. : Oxford University Press, 2001. ).


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Inferred as occurred later [1]

[1]: ( DeVries, Kelly. "cannon" In The Oxford Companion to Military History. : Oxford University Press, 2001. ).


Crossbow:
absent

Inferred as occurred later [1]

[1]: ( DeVries, Kelly. "crossbow." In The Oxford Companion to Military History. : Oxford University Press, 2001. ).


Composite Bow:
absent

Inferred as occurred later [1]

[1]: ( DeVries, Kelly. "bow." In The Oxford Companion to Military History. : Oxford University Press, 2001. ).


New World weapon. Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Handheld weapons
War Club:
absent

Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Polearm:
absent

Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Battle Axe:
absent

Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented". [1] Ground stone axe found in burial [2] - was this a battle axe? In one exceptional burial, a polished stone axe and three flint cores were placed in a basket and lay near the skull of the deceased. Sixteen blades from the same core were set in parallel rows along the spinal column [3]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991: 347) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/A7DS8UKX/q/kenoyer.

[2]: (Ahmed 2014, p. 316)

[3]: (Jarrige et al. 1995: 246)


Animals used in warfare

Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [1]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991, p. 347)


Elephant:
absent

Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [1]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991, p. 347)


Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [1]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991, p. 347)


Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [1]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991, p. 347)


Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [1]

[1]: (Kenoyer 1991, p. 347)


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
unknown

Evidence of armor made from organic materials has not been recovered from Mehrgarh.


Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Scaled Armor:
absent

Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Plate Armor:
absent

Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Limb Protection:
absent

Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Leather Cloth:
unknown

Evidence of armor made from organic materials has not been recovered from Mehrgarh.


Laminar Armor:
absent

Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Chainmail:
absent

Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Breastplate:
absent

Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [1]

[1]: Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

Inferred as Mehrgarh is landlocked.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
absent

Inferred as Mehrgarh is landlocked.


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent

Inferred as Mehrgarh is landlocked.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.