Home Region:  Pakistan (South Asia)

Sind - Samma Dynasty

EQ 2020  pk_samma_dyn / PkSind2

The Kachi Plain, in modern-day Pakistan, is hemmed in on two of its three sides by the mountains of Baluchistan, while its southeastern side opens up to the Indus Valley. [1] The region it is part of, Sindh (also known as Sind), was ruled, between the mid-fourteenth century and the 1520s, by the Samma dynasty. In the fourteenth century, the latter faced a precarious geopolitical position, courting friendship with the Mongols as a counterbalance of the more immediate threat presented by the Delhi Sultanate. After that, the Samma were able to rule over Sind somewhat uneventfully, until 1520, when Shah Begh Argun, followed swiftly by Babur, founder of Mughal dynasty, conquered the region. The Arguns continued to govern Sind up until 1591, when it was fully integrated into the Mughal empire. [2] [3]
Population and political organization
Panwhar believes that the population of Sind at this time is unlikely to have exceeded one million [4] , though Lakho provides an estimate of 2,200,000. [5] As for political organization, the polity was ruled by a jam, who delegated power over regions and districts to specially appointed governors, who were closely related to the emir himself. [6]

[1]: (Jarrige & Enault 1976, 29) Jean-Francois Jarrige and Jean-Francois Enault. 1976. Fouilles de Pirak. Arts Asiatiques 32: 29-70.

[2]: (Lakho 2006, 3-5) Ghulam Muhammad Lakho. 2006. The Samma Kingdom of Sindh. Karachi: Institute of Sindhology

[3]: (Asimov and Bosworth 1998, 300-302) M.S. Asimov and C.E. Bosworth. 1998. "History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV, The Age of Achievement, AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century, Part One, The Historical, Social and Economic Setting, Multiple History Series." Paris: UNESCO.

[4]: (Panwhar 1983, 189) M.H. Panwhar. 1983. Chronological Dictionary of Sindh. Karachi: Institute of Sindology.

[5]: (Lakho 2006, 185-186) Ghulam Muhammad Lakho. 2006. The Samma Kingdom of Sindh. Karachi: Institute of Sindhology

[6]: (Panwhar 2003, 134) M.H. Panwhar. 2003. An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh. Karachi: Sangam Publications.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
42 R  
Original Name:
Sind - Samma Dynasty  
Capital:
Thatta  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,486 CE  
Duration:
[1,335 CE ➜ 1,521 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
none  
vassalage to [---]  
Succeeding Entity:
Mughal Empire  
Preceding Entity:
Delhi Sultanate  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Language:
Sindhi  
Punjabi  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Islam  
Religion Family:
Shia  
Religion:
Ismaili  
Alternate Religion Genus:
Islam  
Alternate Religion Family:
Sufi  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
140,914 km2  
Polity Population:
1,000,000 people 1335 CE
2,200,000 people 1520 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3  
Religious Level:
2  
Military Level:
3  
Administrative Level:
3  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
absent  
Professional Military Officer:
absent  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Examination System:
absent  
Law
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
unknown  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Irrigation System:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Port:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
inferred present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
unknown  
Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown  
History:
unknown  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
unknown  
Information / Money
Token:
present  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
present  
Information / Postal System
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown  
  Modern Fortification:
unknown  
  Moat:
inferred present  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
inferred present  
  Ditch:
inferred present  
  Complex Fortification:
inferred present  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
inferred present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
inferred present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
unknown  
  Javelin:
inferred present  
  Handheld Firearm:
inferred absent 1335 CE 1399 CE
unknown 1400 CE 1449 CE
present 1450 CE 1521 CE
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
inferred absent 1335 CE 1399 CE
unknown 1400 CE 1449 CE
present 1450 CE 1521 CE
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
inferred present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
unknown  
  Donkey:
inferred present  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
unknown  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
present  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
inferred present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
inferred absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Sind - Samma Dynasty (pk_samma_dyn) was in:
 (1340 CE 1519 CE)   Kachi Plain
Home NGA: Kachi Plain

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Sind - Samma Dynasty

Capital:
Thatta

Thatta: 1336-1521 CE ... date cannot yet be machine read. The Jams (community chiefs) ruled as Sultans from Thatta. [1]

[1]: Irvine‐Fortescue, James. "Notes on excursion to Thatta and Makli." (1979): pp. 335-336.


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,486 CE

[1]
The reason this was selected for as a peak date is that is coincides with a military campaigns northward. The evidence is very scarce, and seems to rely on hagiography of the king ruling at the time, but the borders of Sind seem to have advanced into Multan in the north and into parts of Baluchistan.

[1]: Lakho, Ghulam Muhammad, The Samma Kingdom of Sindh, (institute of Sindhology, 2006) pp. 109-110


Duration:
[1,335 CE ➜ 1,521 CE]

[1]
1335-6 CE: The Samma rose in revolt and expanded the territory under their control. [1]
1520-1521 CE: Their rule was brought to a halt after the region was conquered by Shah Beg Arghun, and later absorbed into the Mughal empire. [2] [3]

[1]: Lakho, Ghulam Muhammad, The Samma Kingdom of Sindh, (institute of Sindhology, 2006) pp. 1-2

[2]: Lakho, Ghulam Muhammad, The Samma Kingdom of Sindh, (institute of Sindhology, 2006) pp. 3-5

[3]: Asimov, M. S., and C. E. Bosworth. "History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV, The Age of Achievement, AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century, Part One, The Historical, Social and Economic Setting, Multiple History Series." (1998).pp. 300-302


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none

none: 1335-1336 CE; vassalage: 1336-1388 CE; none: 1389-1521 CE dates cannot yet be machine read
[1]
The evidence is very scanty, amounting to a few manuscripts and conflicting inscriptions.

[1]: Lakho, Ghulam Muhammad, The Samma Kingdom of Sindh, (institute of Sindhology, 2006) pp.57-58

Suprapolity Relations:
none

none: 1335-1336 CE; vassalage: 1336-1388 CE; none: 1389-1521 CE dates cannot yet be machine read
[1]
The evidence is very scanty, amounting to a few manuscripts and conflicting inscriptions.

[1]: Lakho, Ghulam Muhammad, The Samma Kingdom of Sindh, (institute of Sindhology, 2006) pp.57-58

Suprapolity Relations:
vassalage to [---]

none: 1335-1336 CE; vassalage: 1336-1388 CE; none: 1389-1521 CE dates cannot yet be machine read
[1]
The evidence is very scanty, amounting to a few manuscripts and conflicting inscriptions.

[1]: Lakho, Ghulam Muhammad, The Samma Kingdom of Sindh, (institute of Sindhology, 2006) pp.57-58





Language
Language:
Sindhi

[Sindhi; Punjabi]: 1335-1520 CE The Saraiki dialect of punjabi may have been spoken given the geographic territory of the Samma Sind kingdom. [1]

[1]: Khalid, Samia, and Aftab Hussain Gilani. "Distinctive Cultural and Geographical Legacy of Bahawalpur." Pakistaniaat: A Journal of Pakistan Studies 2, no. 2 (2009): 1-17.

Language:
Punjabi

[Sindhi; Punjabi]: 1335-1520 CE The Saraiki dialect of punjabi may have been spoken given the geographic territory of the Samma Sind kingdom. [1]

[1]: Khalid, Samia, and Aftab Hussain Gilani. "Distinctive Cultural and Geographical Legacy of Bahawalpur." Pakistaniaat: A Journal of Pakistan Studies 2, no. 2 (2009): 1-17.



Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
140,914 km2

squared kilometers. This based on the modern area of the Pakistan province of Sindh, but given that the Sind also controlled portions of Balochistan and territory to the north this is most likely an underestimate. [1]

[1]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sindh#Soomro_period


Polity Population:
1,000,000 people
1335 CE

persons. 10 Lakh is a South Asian unit of measure for 100,000 and H.M Panhwar thinks that population estimates of more than this are unlikely for the period. [1] I have used this earlier population estimate to factor in population loss from climate change, the outbreak of the black death, and the after effects of the Mongol conquests. An unsupported estimate of a population of 2,200,000 can be found in an article on irrigation in The Samma Kindom of the Sindh and seems to indicate the population in the later period. [2]

[1]: Panhwar, M. H. "Chronological Dictionary of Sind, (Karachi, 1983) pp. 189

[2]: Lakho, Ghulam Muhammad, The Samma Kingdom of Sindh, (institute of Sindhology, 2006) pp.185-186

Polity Population:
2,200,000 people
1520 CE

persons. 10 Lakh is a South Asian unit of measure for 100,000 and H.M Panhwar thinks that population estimates of more than this are unlikely for the period. [1] I have used this earlier population estimate to factor in population loss from climate change, the outbreak of the black death, and the after effects of the Mongol conquests. An unsupported estimate of a population of 2,200,000 can be found in an article on irrigation in The Samma Kindom of the Sindh and seems to indicate the population in the later period. [2]

[1]: Panhwar, M. H. "Chronological Dictionary of Sind, (Karachi, 1983) pp. 189

[2]: Lakho, Ghulam Muhammad, The Samma Kingdom of Sindh, (institute of Sindhology, 2006) pp.185-186


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3

1. City: Thatta [1]
2. Town: large numbers destroyed by the shifting current of the Indus river so very little archaeological evidence remains. A full list of 47 sites can be found in ’An Illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of Sindh’ for precursors. There seems to be evidence that the current of the Indus remained relatively stable and that waterways were maintained. [2]
3. Village [3]

[1]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 93-103

[2]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 94-95

[3]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 101


Religious Level:
2

Many other faiths were practiced, and there were substantial religious communities of Buddhist, Hindu, and other faiths in the region. Sunni Islam was the politically dominant faith. In theory the Caliphate and their appointed governors were the head of the Sunni faith, but in practice local religious scholars (ulama) and aesthetics (Sufis) increasingly attracted the wider populace as definers of doctrine. Unlike the Orthodox or Catholic faith, the structure of the Islamic faiths were not clearly hierarchical and all were equal before Allah. In the Sind, a large percentage had converted by the beginning of the period. minority populations of followers of other faiths were most likely also present. [1]
Sunni/Ismailism:
1. Caliph as head of the Muslim umma.
2. Imams, successors of the prophet and leaders of the Muslim world.
The Samma were recent converts, and Hindu practitioners survived well after the initial period of conversion. [2]

[1]: Lapidus, History of Islamic Society p. 82,p. 215; Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 183

[2]: Wink, André. "Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, vol. 1." Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries (1990)pp.212-213


Military Level:
3

inferred, there is very little evidence to demonstrate command structures.
1. Emir
2. Landed Elite
3. Common Soldiers
The Samma, like the Soomras did not seem to have had access to Elephants, but did have access to Calvary. [1]

[1]: Panhwar, M. H. "Chronological Dictionary of Sind, (Karachi, 1983) pp. 192-3, 196-197


Administrative Level:
3

Governors of districts and divisions were appointed directly by the king, and were often closely related to the King, being close blood relatives such as brothers and close kin. There is no evidence to suggest this system of governance underwent any substantial change [1]
1. Jam (King)
2. Governor of region (Uch,Bakhar,Mansura)
3. Governor of district

[1]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 134


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

[1]

[1]: Maclean, Derryl N. Religion and society in Arab Sind. pp. 37-40


Professional Priesthood:
absent

[1] The Buddhists and Hindu populations maintained separate religious institutions, religious leaders were not professional, but rather members of the wider faith seen as learned.

[1]: Maclean, Derryl N. Religion and society in Arab Sind. pp. 22-77


Professional Military Officer:
absent

[1]

[1]: Maclean, Derryl N. Religion and society in Arab Sind. pp. 37-40


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Examination System:
absent

Inferred as appointments to positions within the state made directly by the king, and were often people closely related to the King. [1]

[1]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 134


Law

reference of the Chief Qazi of Mansura in the writing of the contemporaneous Abdul Hassan, legal precedent from the early peoples endured. [1]

[1]: Panhwar, M. H. "Chronological Dictionary of Sind, (Karachi, 1983) pp. 192


Formal Legal Code:
present

The legal code was a fusion of Muslim law, and existing Hindu law codes regarding caste. The legal code was two tiered, with the non-muslim dhimmis allowed to practice there religion but also to pay a tax for the privilege. Alongside this legal system was a system known as Panchat or Bhayat. [1]

[1]: Maclean, Derryl N. ,Religion and society in Arab Sind. pp. 22-49-50



Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Irrigation System:
present

The river Indus remained stable for the majority of the period. Irrigation was the primary responsibility of the state [1]

[1]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh pp.121-134; Lakho, Ghulam Muhammad, The Samma Kingdom of Sindh, (institute of Sindhology, 2006) pp.183


Transport Infrastructure

e.g. Debal "an early port" [1]

[1]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p.24.


Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

E.g. religious, practical and scientific texts. [1]

[1]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh pp.173




Nonwritten Record:
present

E.g. religious, practical and scientific texts. [1]

[1]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh pp.173



Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Mathematics, natural sciences, social sciences text from Arabic sources abroad.


Sacred Text:
present

The Koran and Buddist scriptures. [1]

[1]: Maclean, Derryl N. Religion and society in Arab Sind.


Religious Literature:
present

Muslim, Buddhist and Hindu religious writings. [1]

[1]: Maclean, Derryl N. Religion and society in Arab Sind.


Practical Literature:
present

Travel accounts and descriptions of the Sind and India. [1]

[1]: Brown, Rebecca M., and Deborah S. Hutton, eds. A companion to Asian art and architecture. Vol. 3. John Wiley & Sons, 2011. p. 368





Fiction:
present

Poetic genres of Doha, Geet, Guinan, Sith and Gabeto. [1]

[1]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 221



Information / Money

Seashells [1]

[1]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 135


Indigenous Coin:
present

The Samma minted copper coinage, though surviving examples are of poor quality and lack the skill of earlier examples. [1]

[1]: Lakho, Ghulam Muhammad, The Samma Kingdom of Sindh, (institute of Sindhology, 2006) pp.59


Foreign Coin:
present

[1]

[1]: Maclean, Derryl N. Religion and society in Arab Sind. Brill, 1989. pp.68-70; Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 135


Information / Postal System
Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications

Stone Walls Mortared:
present

"The decline of the Delhi Sultanate in the 15th century led to a situation where each lord needed to fortify his province with numerous castles." [1]

[1]: Konstantin S Nossov. 2012. Indian Castles 1206-1526: The Rise and Fall of the Delhi Sultanate. Osprey Publishing.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown

"The decline of the Delhi Sultanate in the 15th century led to a situation where each lord needed to fortify his province with numerous castles." [1]

[1]: Konstantin S Nossov. 2012. Indian Castles 1206-1526: The Rise and Fall of the Delhi Sultanate. Osprey Publishing.



"The decline of the Delhi Sultanate in the 15th century led to a situation where each lord needed to fortify his province with numerous castles." [1] Reference for use of the moat as a form of fortification in northern India around 3rd century BCE - 300 CE. [2]

[1]: Konstantin S Nossov. 2012. Indian Castles 1206-1526: The Rise and Fall of the Delhi Sultanate. Osprey Publishing.

[2]: (Singh 2008, 394) Upinder Singh. 2008. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Longman. Delhi.



Earth Rampart:
present

"The decline of the Delhi Sultanate in the 15th century led to a situation where each lord needed to fortify his province with numerous castles." [1] Reference for use of the mud rampart in ancient India. [2]

[1]: Konstantin S Nossov. 2012. Indian Castles 1206-1526: The Rise and Fall of the Delhi Sultanate. Osprey Publishing.

[2]: (Singh 2008, 336) Upinder Singh. 2008. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Longman. Delhi.


Ditch:
present

"The decline of the Delhi Sultanate in the 15th century led to a situation where each lord needed to fortify his province with numerous castles." [1]

[1]: Konstantin S Nossov. 2012. Indian Castles 1206-1526: The Rise and Fall of the Delhi Sultanate. Osprey Publishing.


Complex Fortification:
present

"The decline of the Delhi Sultanate in the 15th century led to a situation where each lord needed to fortify his province with numerous castles." [1]

[1]: Konstantin S Nossov. 2012. Indian Castles 1206-1526: The Rise and Fall of the Delhi Sultanate. Osprey Publishing.



Military use of Metals

[1]

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178


[1]

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178


Copper:
present

Inferred from the presence of higher metals.


Bronze:
present

Inferred from the presence of higher metals.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

Inferred, tension engines being used in this period in the region. [1]

[1]: Kennedy, The Armies of the Caliphs p. 184


Sling Siege Engine:
present

The manjaniq, a swing beam engine similiar to the Western trebuchet. [1]

[1]: Kennedy, The Armies of the Caliphs p. 184




Javelin:
present

War elephant crews sometimes could use bow and arrow, long spear or throw javelins. [1] Did the Samma ever use war elephants? The Samma, like the Soomras did not seem to have had access to Elephants, but did have access to cavalry. [2]

[1]: (Bloom and Blair eds. 2009, 137) Johnathan M Bloom. Sheila S Blair. eds. 2009. Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture: Three-Volume Set. Volume I. Abarquh To Dawlat Qatar. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: Panhwar, M. H. "Chronological Dictionary of Sind, (Karachi, 1983) pp. 192-3, 196-197


Handheld Firearm:
absent
1335 CE 1399 CE

"it was only in the mid-fourteenth century that gunpowder ... was introduced into India, presumably by Mongols or Turks. This was then used in various explosive devices by the army." [1] The Portuguese built a factory on the coastline and had access to gunpowder weaponry. [2] From second half of 15th century. [3] Does the ’From the second half of 15th century’ reference which I found on the Delhi Sultanate sheet refer to both artillery and handguns, or does it contradict the first use of gunpowder? What did the source say, specifically?

[1]: (Eraly 2015) Abraham Eraly. 2015. The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate. Penguin.

[2]: Boyajian, James C. Portuguese trade in Asia under the Habsburgs, 1580-1640. JHU Press, 2007.

[3]: Iqtidar Alam Khan, Early Use of Cannon and Musket in India: A.D. 1442-1526, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 24, No. 2, May, 1981: 146-164.

Handheld Firearm:
unknown
1400 CE 1449 CE

"it was only in the mid-fourteenth century that gunpowder ... was introduced into India, presumably by Mongols or Turks. This was then used in various explosive devices by the army." [1] The Portuguese built a factory on the coastline and had access to gunpowder weaponry. [2] From second half of 15th century. [3] Does the ’From the second half of 15th century’ reference which I found on the Delhi Sultanate sheet refer to both artillery and handguns, or does it contradict the first use of gunpowder? What did the source say, specifically?

[1]: (Eraly 2015) Abraham Eraly. 2015. The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate. Penguin.

[2]: Boyajian, James C. Portuguese trade in Asia under the Habsburgs, 1580-1640. JHU Press, 2007.

[3]: Iqtidar Alam Khan, Early Use of Cannon and Musket in India: A.D. 1442-1526, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 24, No. 2, May, 1981: 146-164.

Handheld Firearm:
present
1450 CE 1521 CE

"it was only in the mid-fourteenth century that gunpowder ... was introduced into India, presumably by Mongols or Turks. This was then used in various explosive devices by the army." [1] The Portuguese built a factory on the coastline and had access to gunpowder weaponry. [2] From second half of 15th century. [3] Does the ’From the second half of 15th century’ reference which I found on the Delhi Sultanate sheet refer to both artillery and handguns, or does it contradict the first use of gunpowder? What did the source say, specifically?

[1]: (Eraly 2015) Abraham Eraly. 2015. The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate. Penguin.

[2]: Boyajian, James C. Portuguese trade in Asia under the Habsburgs, 1580-1640. JHU Press, 2007.

[3]: Iqtidar Alam Khan, Early Use of Cannon and Musket in India: A.D. 1442-1526, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 24, No. 2, May, 1981: 146-164.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent
1335 CE 1399 CE

"it was only in the mid-fourteenth century that gunpowder ... was introduced into India, presumably by Mongols or Turks. This was then used in various explosive devices by the army." [1] From second half of 15th century. [2] Does the ’From the second half of 15th century’ reference which I found on the Delhi Sultanate sheet refer to both artillery and handguns, or does it contradict the first use of gunpowder? What did the source say, specifically?

[1]: (Eraly 2015) Abraham Eraly. 2015. The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate. Penguin.

[2]: Iqtidar Alam Khan, Early Use of Cannon and Musket in India: A.D. 1442-1526, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 24, No. 2, May, 1981: 146-164.

Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
unknown
1400 CE 1449 CE

"it was only in the mid-fourteenth century that gunpowder ... was introduced into India, presumably by Mongols or Turks. This was then used in various explosive devices by the army." [1] From second half of 15th century. [2] Does the ’From the second half of 15th century’ reference which I found on the Delhi Sultanate sheet refer to both artillery and handguns, or does it contradict the first use of gunpowder? What did the source say, specifically?

[1]: (Eraly 2015) Abraham Eraly. 2015. The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate. Penguin.

[2]: Iqtidar Alam Khan, Early Use of Cannon and Musket in India: A.D. 1442-1526, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 24, No. 2, May, 1981: 146-164.

Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present
1450 CE 1521 CE

"it was only in the mid-fourteenth century that gunpowder ... was introduced into India, presumably by Mongols or Turks. This was then used in various explosive devices by the army." [1] From second half of 15th century. [2] Does the ’From the second half of 15th century’ reference which I found on the Delhi Sultanate sheet refer to both artillery and handguns, or does it contradict the first use of gunpowder? What did the source say, specifically?

[1]: (Eraly 2015) Abraham Eraly. 2015. The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate. Penguin.

[2]: Iqtidar Alam Khan, Early Use of Cannon and Musket in India: A.D. 1442-1526, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 24, No. 2, May, 1981: 146-164.


Crossbow:
present

Abbasid refered to the crossbow as the qaws al-rijl, first mentioned in 881 CE. [1]

[1]: Nicolle,David, Medieval Siege Weapons (2): Byzantium, the Islamic World and India AD 476-1526(Osprey Publishing 2003)


Composite Bow:
present

Used by mounted archers?


New World weapon.


Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

According to Hasan Nizami’s Taj-ul-Maathir (13th CE) Muslim cavaliers also "used iron maces, battleaxes, daggers, and javelins" whereas the Hindu Rajputs had only spear or lance. [1]

[1]: (? 2013, 162-163) ?. Sirhindi, Abdullah. Daniel Coetzee. Lee W Eysturlid. eds. 2013. Philosophers of War: The Evolution of History’s Greatest Military Thinkers. The Ancient to Pre-Modern World, 3000 BCE - 1815 CE. Praeger. Santa Barbara.


According to the Ibn Battuta (14th century) "in North India mounted soldiers usually carried two swords: one, called the stirrup-sword, was attached to the saddle, while the other was kept in his quiver." [1]

[1]: (Eraly 2015) Abraham Eraly. 2015. The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate. Penguin.


According to Ibn Battuta in 1333 Delhi forces employed heavy-armoured cavalry. [1]

[1]: (Jackson 2003, 17) Peter Jackson. 2003. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.



Dagger:
present

According to Hasan Nizami’s Taj-ul-Maathir (13th CE) Muslim cavaliers also "used iron maces, battleaxes, daggers, and javelins" whereas the Hindu Rajputs had only spear or lance. [1]

[1]: (? 2013, 162-163) ?. Sirhindi, Abdullah. Daniel Coetzee. Lee W Eysturlid. eds. 2013. Philosophers of War: The Evolution of History’s Greatest Military Thinkers. The Ancient to Pre-Modern World, 3000 BCE - 1815 CE. Praeger. Santa Barbara.


Battle Axe:
present

According to Hasan Nizami’s Taj-ul-Maathir (13th CE) Muslim cavaliers also "used iron maces, battleaxes, daggers, and javelins" whereas the Hindu Rajputs had only spear or lance. [1]

[1]: (? 2013, 162-163) ?. Sirhindi, Abdullah. Daniel Coetzee. Lee W Eysturlid. eds. 2013. Philosophers of War: The Evolution of History’s Greatest Military Thinkers. The Ancient to Pre-Modern World, 3000 BCE - 1815 CE. Praeger. Santa Barbara.


Animals used in warfare

Used for cavalry. [1]

[1]: Digby, Simon. War-horse and Elephant in the Dehli Sultanate: A Study of Military Supplies. Oxford: Orient Monographs, 1971.


Elephant:
unknown

Used as war-elephants. [1] Was this reference for the Delhi Sultanate only? The Samma, like the Soomras did not seem to have had access to Elephants, but did have access to cavalry. [2] "But there can be little doubt that war-elephants were not used in the same numbers under the Islamic dynasties of India as they were in the early medieval period and before. We have seen that the Arabic sources described the most important ninth- and tenth-century Hindu dynasties as equipped with tens of thousands or more elephants of various kinds. Although it is unlikely that these numbers indicated war-elephants in a state of readiness - they probably included the guessed number of untamed and half-tamed ones -, and although some of the figures are contradictory, they are larger than those of later times. Certainly the Arabs of Sind, the Saffarids, and the later Buyids made almost no use of them at all." [3]

[1]: Digby, Simon. War-horse and Elephant in the Dehli Sultanate: A Study of Military Supplies. Oxford: Orient Monographs, 1971.

[2]: Panhwar, M. H. "Chronological Dictionary of Sind, (Karachi, 1983) pp. 192-3, 196-197

[3]: (Wink 1997, 102-103) Andre Wink. 1997. Al-Hind. The Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Volume II. The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest 11th-13th Centuries. BRILL. Leiden.


Donkey:
present

Many passing references to presence of donkeys in medieval India.




Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

e.g. used for shields. [1] Reconstructing the exact military equipment of the Samma dynasty is problematic as there is very little evidence available. The Sind had reliable sources of iron and horses, but seemed to have largely avoided the major conquest affecting their neighbors. The usual equipment of a foot solider may have been as simple as a spear and cloth clothing. As such, the coding below is based on earlier access to equipment and the weapons available to there neighbors. The Gujarat armies are likely to have been the most comparable.

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178


Shield:
present

Inferred, widely available for soldiers in the region. [1]

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178


Scaled Armor:
present

[1]

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178


Plate Armor:
absent

[1]

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178


Limb Protection:
present

Inferred, some evidence of lamellar leggings in the sources. [1]

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178


Leather Cloth:
present

e.g. used for shields. [1]

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178


Laminar Armor:
unknown

[1]

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178


Helmet:
present

Inferred, widely available for soldiers in the region.. [1]

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178


Chainmail:
present

Inferred, coats of mail for elite soldiers in the region. [1]

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178


Breastplate:
present

Inferred, some evidence of breastplates in the sources. [1]

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

"The Delhi Sultanate had no navy and the Mughal Empire made sporadic attempts to construct a navy. The Mughals maintained a riverine fleet for coastal warfare but lacked a Blue Water Navy." [1]

[1]: (Roy 2015, 9) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

There is reference to 400 vessels on the river, although it us unknown if these were ocean going vessels. [1]

[1]: Lakho, Ghulam Muhammad, The Samma Kingdom of Sindh, (institute of Sindhology, 2006)


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown

"The Delhi Sultanate had no navy and the Mughal Empire made sporadic attempts to construct a navy. The Mughals maintained a riverine fleet for coastal warfare but lacked a Blue Water Navy." [1]

[1]: (Roy 2015, 9) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.