Home Region:  Pakistan (South Asia)

Sind - Abbasid-Fatimid Period

EQ 2020  pk_sind_abbasid_fatimid / PkSind1

The Kachi Plain, in modern-day Pakistan, is hemmed in on two of its three sides by the mountains of Baluchistan, while its southeastern side opens up to the Indus Valley. [1] The region it is part of, Sindh (also known as Sind), was a vital tribute paying territory of the Arab empire, first under the Ummayad and then the Abbasid Caliphates. However, in 836 CE, the Abbasid Caliphate lost control of its western territories, and Sind plunged into a civil war. [2] Here we consider the period going from the middle of the ninth century, when the Habari lineage became rulers of an independent Sind, to the middle of the thirteenth, when the Samma dynasty seized power. Throughout these centuries, Sind experienced a peaceful power transition from the Habari to the Soomra, in 1010, annexation to the Delhi Sultanate, and a long civil war caused by political instability resulting from Mongol invasions. [3]
Population and political organization
Panwhar believes that the population of Sind at this time is unlikely to have exceeded one million. [4] As for political organization, the polity was ruled by an emir, who delegated power over regions and districts to specially appointed governors, who were closely related to the emir himself. [5]

[1]: (Jarrige & Enault 1976, 29) Jean-Francois Jarrige and Jean-Francois Enault. 1976. Fouilles de Pirak. Arts Asiatiques 32: 29-70.

[2]: (Panwhar 1983, 178-179) M.H. Panwhar. 1983. Chronological Dictionary of Sindh. Karachi: Institute of Sindology.

[3]: (Panwhar 1983, 19-33, 188, 293-294) M.H. Panwhar. 1983. Chronological Dictionary of Sindh. Karachi: Institute of Sindology.

[4]: (Panwhar 1983, 189) M.H. Panwhar. 1983. Chronological Dictionary of Sindh. Karachi: Institute of Sindology.

[5]: (Panwhar 2003, 134) M.H. Panwhar. 2003. An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh. Karachi: Sangam Publications.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
42 R  
Original Name:
Sind - Abbasid-Fatimid Period  
Capital:
Bania  
Mansura  
Thatta  
Muhammed Tur  
Thatta  
Alternative Name:
Habari Amirate of Mansura  
Habari Arab Kingdom  
Soomras of Sindh  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
985 CE  
Duration:
[854 CE ➜ 1,193 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
nominal allegiance to [---]  
none  
vassalage to [---]  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
loose  
nominal  
Language
Language:
Sindhi  
Arabic  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Islam  
Religion Family:
Sunni  
Shia  
Religion:
Sunni  
Shia  
Alternate Religion Genus:
Buddhism  
Hinduism  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
140,914 km2  
Polity Population:
1,000,000 people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3  
Religious Level:
2  
Military Level:
3  
Administrative Level:
3  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
absent  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Examination System:
absent  
Law
Judge:
present 915 CE
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Irrigation System:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Port:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
unknown  
Philosophy:
unknown  
Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown  
History:
unknown  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Token:
present  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
present  
Information / Postal System
Courier:
inferred present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
inferred present  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
unknown  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
inferred present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
inferred absent  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
inferred absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
inferred present  
  Donkey:
inferred present  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
inferred present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
present  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
inferred absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Sind - Abbasid-Fatimid Period (pk_sind_abbasid_fatimid) was in:
 (862 CE 1192 CE)   Kachi Plain
Home NGA: Kachi Plain

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Sind - Abbasid-Fatimid Period

Bania: 811-892 CE; Mansura: 892-1026 CE; Thatta: 1026-1241 CE, Muhammed Tur: 1241-1317 CE; Thatta: 1317-1351 CE [1]
The original capital of Mansura was sacked in 1026 CE, when the Soomra dynasty moved the capital to Thatta. Shifts in river courses resulted in a transfer of the capital to Muhammed Tur during the years 1241 CE-1317 CE. After declaring independence from Delhi a period of instability took place, with some semblance of authority claimed from the former capital of Thatta. [2]

[1]: Panhwar, M. H. "Chronological Dictionary of Sind, (Karachi, 1983) pp. 188;Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 93

[2]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 93

Capital:
Mansura

Bania: 811-892 CE; Mansura: 892-1026 CE; Thatta: 1026-1241 CE, Muhammed Tur: 1241-1317 CE; Thatta: 1317-1351 CE [1]
The original capital of Mansura was sacked in 1026 CE, when the Soomra dynasty moved the capital to Thatta. Shifts in river courses resulted in a transfer of the capital to Muhammed Tur during the years 1241 CE-1317 CE. After declaring independence from Delhi a period of instability took place, with some semblance of authority claimed from the former capital of Thatta. [2]

[1]: Panhwar, M. H. "Chronological Dictionary of Sind, (Karachi, 1983) pp. 188;Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 93

[2]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 93

Capital:
Thatta

Bania: 811-892 CE; Mansura: 892-1026 CE; Thatta: 1026-1241 CE, Muhammed Tur: 1241-1317 CE; Thatta: 1317-1351 CE [1]
The original capital of Mansura was sacked in 1026 CE, when the Soomra dynasty moved the capital to Thatta. Shifts in river courses resulted in a transfer of the capital to Muhammed Tur during the years 1241 CE-1317 CE. After declaring independence from Delhi a period of instability took place, with some semblance of authority claimed from the former capital of Thatta. [2]

[1]: Panhwar, M. H. "Chronological Dictionary of Sind, (Karachi, 1983) pp. 188;Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 93

[2]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 93

Capital:
Muhammed Tur

Bania: 811-892 CE; Mansura: 892-1026 CE; Thatta: 1026-1241 CE, Muhammed Tur: 1241-1317 CE; Thatta: 1317-1351 CE [1]
The original capital of Mansura was sacked in 1026 CE, when the Soomra dynasty moved the capital to Thatta. Shifts in river courses resulted in a transfer of the capital to Muhammed Tur during the years 1241 CE-1317 CE. After declaring independence from Delhi a period of instability took place, with some semblance of authority claimed from the former capital of Thatta. [2]

[1]: Panhwar, M. H. "Chronological Dictionary of Sind, (Karachi, 1983) pp. 188;Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 93

[2]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 93

Capital:
Thatta

Bania: 811-892 CE; Mansura: 892-1026 CE; Thatta: 1026-1241 CE, Muhammed Tur: 1241-1317 CE; Thatta: 1317-1351 CE [1]
The original capital of Mansura was sacked in 1026 CE, when the Soomra dynasty moved the capital to Thatta. Shifts in river courses resulted in a transfer of the capital to Muhammed Tur during the years 1241 CE-1317 CE. After declaring independence from Delhi a period of instability took place, with some semblance of authority claimed from the former capital of Thatta. [2]

[1]: Panhwar, M. H. "Chronological Dictionary of Sind, (Karachi, 1983) pp. 188;Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 93

[2]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 93


Alternative Name:
Habari Amirate of Mansura
Alternative Name:
Habari Arab Kingdom
Alternative Name:
Soomras of Sindh

Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
985 CE

Height of Fatimid influence. [1]

[1]: Panhwar, M. H. "Chronological Dictionary of Sind, (Karachi, 1983) pp. 200


Duration:
[854 CE ➜ 1,193 CE]

854-1352 CE [1] [2]

[1]: Panhwar, M. H. "Chronological Dictionary of Sindh, (Karachi, 1983) pp. 184-206

[2]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh, Karachi, 2003, pp.19-71


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
nominal allegiance to [---]

nominal allegiance: 854-1010 CE; none: 1010-1025 CE; nominal allegiance: 1025-1030 CE; none: 1030-1218 CE; vassalage: 1218-1237 CE; none: 1237-1243 CE; vassal: 1297-1317 CE; none: 1317-1352 CE
Until 985 CE the Sind were nominally under the control of the Abbasid Caliphate, from 985 - 1010 CE there were increasing ties to the Fatimid dynasty in Egypt. After the replacement of the Habarri by the Soomras the Sind was largely independent, although they saw the Fatimids as the ultimate religious authority. An exception to this is the period of five years during which the Sind paid tribute to Mahmud of Ghazni. After a long period of independence until 1228 CE portions of the territory were annexed by the Delhi sultanate, leading to the Sind being made a vassal of Delhi from 1297 CE to 1317 CE. A chaotic period of civil war and three claims to kingship occurred from 1317 - 1352 CE. This period coincided with the rise of the Samma Jams. [1] [2]

[1]: Panhwar, M. H. "Chronological Dictionary of Sindh, (Karachi, 1983) pp. 184-206

[2]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh, Karachi, 2003, pp.19-71

Suprapolity Relations:
none

nominal allegiance: 854-1010 CE; none: 1010-1025 CE; nominal allegiance: 1025-1030 CE; none: 1030-1218 CE; vassalage: 1218-1237 CE; none: 1237-1243 CE; vassal: 1297-1317 CE; none: 1317-1352 CE
Until 985 CE the Sind were nominally under the control of the Abbasid Caliphate, from 985 - 1010 CE there were increasing ties to the Fatimid dynasty in Egypt. After the replacement of the Habarri by the Soomras the Sind was largely independent, although they saw the Fatimids as the ultimate religious authority. An exception to this is the period of five years during which the Sind paid tribute to Mahmud of Ghazni. After a long period of independence until 1228 CE portions of the territory were annexed by the Delhi sultanate, leading to the Sind being made a vassal of Delhi from 1297 CE to 1317 CE. A chaotic period of civil war and three claims to kingship occurred from 1317 - 1352 CE. This period coincided with the rise of the Samma Jams. [1] [2]

[1]: Panhwar, M. H. "Chronological Dictionary of Sindh, (Karachi, 1983) pp. 184-206

[2]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh, Karachi, 2003, pp.19-71

Suprapolity Relations:
vassalage to [---]

nominal allegiance: 854-1010 CE; none: 1010-1025 CE; nominal allegiance: 1025-1030 CE; none: 1030-1218 CE; vassalage: 1218-1237 CE; none: 1237-1243 CE; vassal: 1297-1317 CE; none: 1317-1352 CE
Until 985 CE the Sind were nominally under the control of the Abbasid Caliphate, from 985 - 1010 CE there were increasing ties to the Fatimid dynasty in Egypt. After the replacement of the Habarri by the Soomras the Sind was largely independent, although they saw the Fatimids as the ultimate religious authority. An exception to this is the period of five years during which the Sind paid tribute to Mahmud of Ghazni. After a long period of independence until 1228 CE portions of the territory were annexed by the Delhi sultanate, leading to the Sind being made a vassal of Delhi from 1297 CE to 1317 CE. A chaotic period of civil war and three claims to kingship occurred from 1317 - 1352 CE. This period coincided with the rise of the Samma Jams. [1] [2]

[1]: Panhwar, M. H. "Chronological Dictionary of Sindh, (Karachi, 1983) pp. 184-206

[2]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh, Karachi, 2003, pp.19-71


Degree of Centralization:
unitary state

unitary state: 854-1218 CE; loose: 1297-1317 CE; nominal: 1318-1352 CE Independence and cohesion in the polity from 854-1218 CE. After this annexation by the Delhi sultanate and then civil war saw a loss of cohesion within the polity. The rise of the Samma Jams saw a degree unity return. [1] [2]

[1]: Panhwar, M. H. "Chronological Dictionary of Sindh, (Karachi, 1983) pp. 184-206

[2]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh, Karachi, 2003, pp.19-71

Degree of Centralization:
loose

unitary state: 854-1218 CE; loose: 1297-1317 CE; nominal: 1318-1352 CE Independence and cohesion in the polity from 854-1218 CE. After this annexation by the Delhi sultanate and then civil war saw a loss of cohesion within the polity. The rise of the Samma Jams saw a degree unity return. [1] [2]

[1]: Panhwar, M. H. "Chronological Dictionary of Sindh, (Karachi, 1983) pp. 184-206

[2]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh, Karachi, 2003, pp.19-71

Degree of Centralization:
nominal

unitary state: 854-1218 CE; loose: 1297-1317 CE; nominal: 1318-1352 CE Independence and cohesion in the polity from 854-1218 CE. After this annexation by the Delhi sultanate and then civil war saw a loss of cohesion within the polity. The rise of the Samma Jams saw a degree unity return. [1] [2]

[1]: Panhwar, M. H. "Chronological Dictionary of Sindh, (Karachi, 1983) pp. 184-206

[2]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh, Karachi, 2003, pp.19-71


Language
Language:
Sindhi

Arabic; Sindhi: 950 CE [1] Another language known as Varchada Upbharish was also present.

[1]: Panhwar, M. H. "Chronological Dictionary of Sind, (Karachi, 1983) pp. 198

Language:
Arabic

Arabic; Sindhi: 950 CE [1] Another language known as Varchada Upbharish was also present.

[1]: Panhwar, M. H. "Chronological Dictionary of Sind, (Karachi, 1983) pp. 198



Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
140,914 km2

squared kilometers. This based on the modern area of the Pakistan province of Sindh, but given that the Sind also control the Kachi plain this is most likely an underestimate. [1]

[1]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sindh#Soomro_period


Polity Population:
1,000,000 people

persons, equivalent to 10 Lakh, a South Asian unit of measure for 100,000. H.M Panhwar thinks estimates of more than this are unlikely. [1]

[1]: Panhwar, M. H. "Chronological Dictionary of Sind, (Karachi, 1983) pp. 189


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3

1. City: Mansura, (sacked in 1026 CE),Thatta, Thatti [1]
2. Town: large numbers destroyed by the shifting current of the Indus river, very little archeological evidence remaining. a full list of 47 sites can be found in An Illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of Sindh. [2]
3. Village: Bhiro Bham [3]

[1]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 93-103

[2]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 94-95

[3]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 101


Religious Level:
2

Many other faiths were practiced, and there were substantial religious communities of Buddhist, Hindi, and other faiths in the region. Sunni Islam was the politically dominant faith. In theory the Caliphate and their appointed governors were the head of the Sunni faith, but in practice local religious scholars (ulama) and aesthetics (Sufis) increasingly attracted the wider populace as definers of doctrine. Unlike the Orthodox or Catholic faith, the structure of the Islamic faiths was not clearly hierarchical and all were considered equal before Allah. In the Sind, a large percentage of the population were non-Muslim until 1250 CE. Shiaism was present in the Sind from an early period, but was not the dominant faith, which remained Sunni. In the early tenth century, Ishmailis practitioners became dominant, and the Fatimah Caliphs became the nominal head of the Islamic faith as practiced in the Sind. There is evidence of the repair and upkeep of Buddhist and Hindi places of religious worship. [1]
Sunni/Ismailism:
1. Caliph as head of the Muslim umma
2. Imams, successors of the prophet and leaders of the Muslim world
By the late 985 CE the Habari’s religious view as Sunni’s was increasingly challenged by the population of the Sind shifting its religious adherence from the Sunni Caliph to Fatimid anti-caliphs in Cairo, with the result that a portion of the population of Sind embraced the Isha’ilis Shi’ite faith. [2]

[1]: Lapidus, History of Islamic Society p. 82,p. 215; Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 183

[2]: Wink, André. "Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, vol. 1." Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries (1990)pp.212-213


Military Level:
3

Inferred.
1. Emir
2. Landed elite
3. Common soldiers
The ruling Arab elite had access to both a transplanted Arab military hierarchy and local structures for military ranking. However, in terms of actual structures the evidence is very slim. It can be tentatively posited that the ruling power in Masura had a degree of permanent command as the state was involved in endemic military conflicts with bordering non-Muslim peoples as well as the Muslim Jat and non Muslim Med tribes in the Indus delta. There is also evidence of the presence the state possessing 80 elephants and around 40,000 soldiers during the Habari period. The Soomras did not seem to have had access to elephants, but did have access to large numbers of cavalry. [1]

[1]: Panhwar, M. H. "Chronological Dictionary of Sind, (Karachi, 1983) pp. 192-3, 196-197


Administrative Level:
3

Governors of districts and divisions were appointed directly by the king, and were often closely related to the king, being close blood relatives such as brothers and close kin. < [1]
1. Emir (King)
2. Governor of region (Uch, Bakhar, Mansura)
3. Governor of district

[1]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 134


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

Cavalry troops [1]

[1]: Maclean, Derryl N. Religion and society in Arab Sind. pp. 37-40


Professional Priesthood:
present

[1] Muslim, Buddhist and Hindi religious leaders were not professional, but rather members of the wider faith seen as learned. However, Buddhist monks, at least, dedicated themselves full-time to religious activities.

[1]: Maclean, Derryl N. Religion and society in Arab Sind. pp. 22-77



Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Thatta has the ruins of an administrative building of unknown function [1]

[1]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 132


Examination System:
absent

Inferred as appointments to positions within the state made directly by the king, and were often people closely related to the King. [1]

[1]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 134


Law
Judge:
present
915 CE

reference of the Chief Qazi of Mansura in the writing of the contemporaneous Abdul Hassan. [1]

[1]: Panhwar, M. H. "Chronological Dictionary of Sind, (Karachi, 1983) pp. 192


Formal Legal Code:
present

The legal code was a fusion of Muslim law, and existing Hindi law codes regarding caste. The legal code was two tiered, with the non-muslim dhimmis allowed to practice there religion but also to pay a tax for the privilege. Alongside this legal system was a system known as Panchat or Bhayat. [1]

[1]: Maclean, Derryl N. ,Religion and society in Arab Sind. pp. 22-49-50


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Irrigation System:
present

The river Indus shifted its course three times during the period, substantially altering the areas irrigated for cultivation. This is detailed in a ground water map. Irrigation was the primary responsibility of the state [1]

[1]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh pp.121-134


Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Examples of Arabic, Ard Nagri, Malwari, Sandhavav script found. [1]

[1]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh pp.173


Script:
present

Examples of Arabic, Ard Nagri, Malwari, Sandhavav script found. [1]

[1]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh pp.173


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

Examples of Arabic, Ard Nagri, Malwari, Sandhavav script found. [1]

[1]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh pp.173


Nonwritten Record:
present

Examples of Arabic, Ard Nagri, Malwari, Sandhavav script found. [1]

[1]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh pp.173


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

Examples of Arabic, Ard Nagri, Malwari, Sandhavav script found. [1]

[1]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh pp.173


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Mathematics, natural sciences, social sciences text from Arabic sources abroad.


Sacred Text:
present

The Koran and Buddist scriptures [1]

[1]: Maclean, Derryl N. Religion and society in Arab Sind.







Fiction:
present

Poetic genres of Doha, Geet, Guinan, Sith and Gabeto. [1]

[1]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 221



Information / Money

Seashells [1]

[1]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 135


Indigenous Coin:
present

The Harari minted coins during their reign. [1] The Habari minted their own coins in gold and silver. Copper coins have been found as well. The Soomra emirs also seemed to have made some small copper coins. The gold Dinar was a standard unit of exchange in the entire Arabian sea. [2]

[1]: Maclean, Derryl N. Religion and society in Arab Sind, pp. 68-70

[2]: Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p.135


Foreign Coin:
present

The gold dinar was circulating as was the silver coin called a Tanka. Coins of the Delhi Sultans and early Ghaznavids were also being used locally after 1200 CE. [1]

[1]: Maclean, Derryl N. Religion and society in Arab Sind. Brill, 1989. pp.68-70; Panhwar, M.H, An illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of the Sindh p. 135


Information / Postal System
Courier:
present

Probably used by the elites.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

e.g. use of spiked wooden barriers. [1]

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 189.






Reference for use of the moat as a form of fortification in northern India around 3rd century BCE - 300 CE. [1]

[1]: (Singh 2008, 394) Upinder Singh. 2008. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Longman. Delhi.


Earth Rampart:
present

Reference for use of the mud rampart in ancient India. [1]

[1]: (Singh 2008, 336) Upinder Singh. 2008. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Longman. Delhi.




Military use of Metals

[1]

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178


[1]

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178


Copper:
present

Inferred from the presence of higher metals.


Bronze:
present

Inferred from the presence of higher metals.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

Inferred, tension engines being used in this period in the region. [1] "The use of the catapult after the Arab conquest of Sindh became very popular." [2]

[1]: Kennedy, The Armies of the Caliphs p. 184

[2]: (1975, 23) 1975. Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan, Volume 12. Research Society of Pakistan.


Sling Siege Engine:
present

The manjaniq, a swing beam engine similar to the Western Trebuchet. [1]

[1]: Kennedy, The Armies of the Caliphs p. 184



Self Bow:
absent

’Arab’ and Persian’ bows mentioned in sources, both composite bows. [1]

[1]: (Kennedy 2001, 177-178)


Javelin:
present

According to the Cach-nama "the common weapons of the Indian soldiers in early medieval India were ’swords, shields, javelins, spears, and daggers.’ Other sources indicate that they also carried lances, maces and lassos." [1]

[1]: (Eraly 2015) Abraham Eraly. 2015. The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate. Penguin.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

Not in use until the 15th century. [1] "But it was only in the mid-fourteenth century that gunpowder ... was introduced into India, presumably by Mongols or Turks. This was then used in various explosive devices by the army." [2]

[1]: Wood, Stephen. "matchlock." In The Oxford Companion to Military History. : Oxford University Press, 2001.

[2]: (Eraly 2015) Abraham Eraly. 2015. The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate. Penguin.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

"But it was only in the mid-fourteenth century that gunpowder ... was introduced into India, presumably by Mongols or Turks. This was then used in various explosive devices by the army." [1]

[1]: (Eraly 2015) Abraham Eraly. 2015. The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate. Penguin.


Crossbow:
present

Abbasid referred to the crossbow as the qaws al-rijl, first mentioned in 881 CE. [1]

[1]: Nicolle,David, Medieval Siege Weapons (2): Byzantium, the Islamic World and India AD 476-1526(Osprey Publishing 2003)


Composite Bow:
present

Inferred, compound bows being used in this period in the region. [1] [1]

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 178


Atlatl:
absent

new world weapon


Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

According to the Cach-nama "the common weapons of the Indian soldiers in early medieval India were ’swords, shields, javelins, spears, and daggers.’ Other sources indicate that they also carried lances, maces and lassos." [1]

[1]: (Eraly 2015) Abraham Eraly. 2015. The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate. Penguin.


According to the Cach-nama "the common weapons of the Indian soldiers in early medieval India were ’swords, shields, javelins, spears, and daggers.’ Other sources indicate that they also carried lances, maces and lassos." [1]

[1]: (Eraly 2015) Abraham Eraly. 2015. The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate. Penguin.


According to the Cach-nama "the common weapons of the Indian soldiers in early medieval India were ’swords, shields, javelins, spears, and daggers.’ Other sources indicate that they also carried lances, maces and lassos." [1]

[1]: (Eraly 2015) Abraham Eraly. 2015. The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate. Penguin.


Dagger:
present

According to the Cach-nama "the common weapons of the Indian soldiers in early medieval India were ’swords, shields, javelins, spears, and daggers.’ Other sources indicate that they also carried lances, maces and lassos." [1]

[1]: (Eraly 2015) Abraham Eraly. 2015. The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate. Penguin.


Animals used in warfare

Used for cavalry. [1]

[1]: Kennedy, The Armies of the Caliphs


Elephant:
present

Ghaznavids, another Turkish-Islamic dynasty in Central Asia 977-1186 CE, used elephants and camels. [1] Used on Kachi plain. [2] "But there can be little doubt that war-elephants were not used in the same numbers under the Islamic dynasties of India as they were in the early medieval period and before. We have seen that the Arabic sources described the most important ninth- and tenth-century Hindu dynasties as equipped with tens of thousands or more elephants of various kinds. Although it is unlikely that these numbers indicated war-elephants in a state of readiness - they probably included the guessed number of untamed and half-tamed ones -, and although some of the figures are contradictory, they are larger than those of later times. Certainly the Arabs of Sind, the Saffarids, and the later Buyids made almost no use of them at all." [3]

[1]: (Bloom and Blair eds. 2009, 108) Johnathan M Bloom. Sheila S Blair. eds. 2009. Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture: Three-Volume Set. Volume I. Abarquh To Dawlat Qatar. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs

[3]: (Wink 1997, 102-103) Andre Wink. 1997. Al-Hind. The Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Volume II. The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest 11th-13th Centuries. BRILL. Leiden.




Camel:
present

Ghaznavids, another Turkish-Islamic dynasty in Central Asia 977-1186 CE, used elephants and camels. [1] Used extensively in caliphate armies. [2]

[1]: (Bloom and Blair eds. 2009, 108) Johnathan M Bloom. Sheila S Blair. eds. 2009. Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture: Three-Volume Set. Volume I. Abarquh To Dawlat Qatar. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

Used for shields. [1] Reconstructing the exact military equipment of Muslim armies during the period is problematic due to lack of artefactual evidence. As such, sources are scarce. In Muslim armies, a full equipage was rare, and body Armour even more so. Coats of mail was available to the Caliphate armies, but only to a small number of elite military members. Besides mail there is some evidence of lamellar leggings and breastplates. Helmets and shields were more widely available. Shields were smaller than their European counterparts and made of leather and wood. After the Sind gained independence, local resources resulted in less protective clothing. The usual equipment of a foot solider may have been as simple as a spear and cloth clothing.

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178


Shield:
present

Widely available for soldiers. [1] According to the Cach-nama "the common weapons of the Indian soldiers in early medieval India were ’swords, shields, javelins, spears, and daggers.’ Other sources indicate that they also carried lances, maces and lassos." [2]

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178

[2]: (Eraly 2015) Abraham Eraly. 2015. The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate. Penguin.


Scaled Armor:
present

[1]

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178



Limb Protection:
present

Some evidence of lamellar leggings in the sources. [1]

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178


Leather Cloth:
present

Used for shields. [1]

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178


Laminar Armor:
unknown

[1]

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178


Helmet:
present

Widely available for soldiers. [1]

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178


Chainmail:
present

Coats of mail for elite soldiers. [1]

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178


Breastplate:
present

Some evidence of breastplates in the sources. [1]

[1]: Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

"The Delhi Sultanate had no navy and the Mughal Empire made sporadic attempts to construct a navy. The Mughals maintained a riverine fleet for coastal warfare but lacked a Blue Water Navy." [1]

[1]: (Roy 2015, 9) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.



Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown

"The Delhi Sultanate had no navy and the Mughal Empire made sporadic attempts to construct a navy. The Mughals maintained a riverine fleet for coastal warfare but lacked a Blue Water Navy." [1]

[1]: (Roy 2015, 9) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.