Home Region:  Mongolia (Central and Northern Eurasia)

Second Turk Khaganate

D G SC WF HS CC EQ 2020  mn_turk_khaganate_2 / MnTurk2

Preceding:
[cultural assimilation; Tang Dynasty] [cultural assimilation]   Update here
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
745 CE 840 CE Uigur Khaganate (mn_uygur_khaganate)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

The Orkhon Valley lies either side of the Orkhon River, in north-central Mongolia. For just under a century, between about 550 and 630 CE, it had been under the control of a Turkic khaganate, [1] which had soon succumbed o a combination of internal rebellions and an invasion from Tang China, around 630 CE. [2] In the 680s, the Turks managed to establish a new khaganate, and for decades they were able to extract tribute from China; by 744, however, this new khaganate also collapsed, following a decade of in-fighting resulting from the assassination of the khagan Bilgee. [2] At its height, the khaganate
Like many of their predecessors in the region, the Turks were nomads. Moreover, like the previous Turkic khaganate, this second one was characterised by a four-tiered administrative hierarchy. At the top of this hierarchy there were the khagan and his kinsmen, followed by the khagan’s counsellors, who were responsible for military, administrative, diplomatic, and legal operations. Finally, like preceding nomadic empires in the region going as far back as the Xiongnu, this khaganate was divided into a western and an eastern portion, to facilitate both administrative and military organization. [3]
No population estimates specific to this polity could be found in the literature, though, according to McEvedy and Jones, at that time Mongolia and Siberia together likely had a population of no more than 500,000. [4]

[1]: (Hosszú 2012, 285)

[2]: (Rogers 2012, 226)

[3]: (Klyashtorny 1996, 332)

[4]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978) McEvedy, Colin. Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd. London.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
47 T  
48 T  
Original Name:
Second Turk Khaganate  
Capital:
none  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[691 CE ➜ 716 CE]  
Duration:
[682 CE ➜ 744 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]  
Succeeding Entity:
Uighur Khaganate  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
cultural assimilation  
Preceding Entity:
Succeeding: Uigur Khaganate (mn_uygur_khaganate)    [continuity]  
UNCLEAR:    [cultural assimilation]  
Degree of Centralization:
loose  
confederated state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Oghuz  
Language:
Old Turkic  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[3,000,000 to 4,000,000] km2  
Polity Population:
[400,000 to 500,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
2  
Religious Level:
2  
Military Level:
[3 to 4]  
Administrative Level:
4  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred absent  
Professional Priesthood:
inferred present  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred absent  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
inferred present  
Merit Promotion:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
inferred present  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown  
Judge:
unknown  
Formal Legal Code:
unknown  
Court:
unknown  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
unknown  
Irrigation System:
inferred absent  
Food Storage Site:
unknown  
Drinking Water Supply System:
inferred absent  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
unknown  
Port:
absent  
Canal:
unknown  
Bridge:
unknown  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
unknown  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
unknown  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
unknown  
Sacred Text:
unknown  
Religious Literature:
unknown  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
unknown  
Lists Tables and Classification:
inferred present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
unknown  
Calendar:
inferred present  
Information / Money
Token:
absent  
Precious Metal:
absent  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
absent  
Foreign Coin:
present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
absent  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
absent  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
absent  
  Fortified Camp:
absent  
  Earth Rampart:
absent  
  Ditch:
absent  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
inferred present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
inferred present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
unknown  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
unknown  
  Javelin:
unknown  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
unknown  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
unknown  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
unknown  
  Sword:
unknown  
  Spear:
unknown  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
unknown  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
unknown  
  Donkey:
unknown  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
unknown  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
inferred present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
unknown  
  Limb Protection:
unknown  
  Leather Cloth:
inferred present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
inferred present  
  Chainmail:
unknown  
  Breastplate:
unknown  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
absent  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Second Turk Khaganate (mn_turk_khaganate_2) was in:
 (684 CE 744 CE)   Orkhon Valley
Home NGA: Orkhon Valley

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Second Turk Khaganate

"There were no major urban centers; in fact, the Turkic general and counselor, Tonyukhukh, is credited with the quote, ‘‘If we build castles and give up our old customs, we shall be vanquished’’ (Tkachev 1987, p. 114). The Turkic leaders took this advice, although there is a report of a settlement built at a place called Dalee (Perlee 1961, p. 47; Rogers et al. 2005, pp. 812-813)." [1] "The centre of the Second Türk Empire shifted to the Ötükän mountains (now called the Khangai mountains), on the rivers Orkhon, Selenga and Tola." [2]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 226)

[2]: (Klyashtorny 1996, 331)


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[691 CE ➜ 716 CE]

"In 691 Ilterish kaghan died and was succeeded by his younger brother, who assumed the title Kapagan kaghan (‘Conquering kaghan’; Mo-ch’o in Chinese sources). His reign (691-716) marked the apogee of the military and political might of the Second Türk Empire - and the beginning of its decline." [1]

[1]: (Klyashtorny 1996, 333)


Duration:
[682 CE ➜ 744 CE]

"Beginning in the 680s a new series of Turk successes resulted in the formation and rapid expansion of the second expansive polity. For decades the second Turkic polity raided Tang China to exact tribute. In 734 the famous khaghan Bilgee was assassinated and a variety of infighting among factions continued for a decade. By 744 an internal coalition emerged and defeated the last imperial elite and their troops." [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 226)


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]

"At other times the Turkic polities were closely allied with either the Sui (A.D. 581-618) or the Tang (A.D. 618-907) dynasty (Sinor 1990)." [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 226)


Succeeding Entity:
Uighur Khaganate

"After the Türk Empire collapsed, various successor states appeared, as did a proliferation of Turkic tribes, which began to shift westward after 840. In the east, the major successor state and the only one to claim the title kaghan was that of the Uyghurs (744-840)." [1]

[1]: (Findley 2005, 48)


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
cultural assimilation

"The Türk uprising in 679-681 was at first unsuccessful, although it led, in 682, to the withdrawal of Kutlug-chor, one of the Türk leaders of the kaghan tribe of the A-shih-na, into the Gobi desert. Once they had established themselves in the Yin Shan mountains (Cˇug ̆ay quzï in ancient Turkic), Kutlugchor and his closest comrade-in-arms, Tonyuquq, succeeded in winning the support of most of the Türks and conducted successful military operations against the imperial forces in Shansi between 682 and 687. Kutlug-chor proclaimed himself Ilterish kaghan, and in so doing ushered in the resurgent Türk Empire. In 687 Ilterish kaghan left the Yin Shan mountains and turned his united and battle- hardened army to the conquest of the Türk heartlands in central and northern Mongolia. Between 687 and 691 the Tokuz-Oghuz tribes and the Uighurs, who had occupied these territories, were routed and subjugated; their chief, Abuz kaghan, fell in battle." [1]

[1]: (Klyashtorny 1996, 331)


Preceding Entity:
Second Turk Khaganate [mn_turk_khaganate_2] ---> Uigur Khaganate [mn_uygur_khaganate]

"The Uighur polity began from an initial coalition of nine smaller groups. Together this coalition was responsible for the fall of the second Turkic empire." [1] "The Toquz Oghuz formed an important but turbulent subject population for the two TÜRK EMPIRES (552-630, 682-742). In 742, in cooperation with the Basmil near the Tianshan Mountains, and the QARLUQS in Zungharia, the Uighurs overthrew the second Türk Empire. Three years later the Uighurs drove out the Basmil and elevated Qulligh Boyla as the Qutlugh Bilge Kül Qaghan (744-47), establishing their capital, ORDU-BALIGH, in the ORKHON- RIVER-TAMIR region that had been the Türk Empire’s sacred center." [2] "The first Uighur rulers considered themselves continuers of the Türk tradition, and claimed legitimacy by linking themselves with Bumin Kaghan, the founder of the First Türk empire. The difference separating Türks from Uighurs must have been purely political. As is clearly shown by the inscriptions commemorating the deeds of their great men, Türks and Uighurs spoke the same language, used the same runic-type script and lived within the same geographic boundaries. Were it not for their name, the Uighurs would be indistinguishable from the Türks." [3]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 226)

[2]: (Atwood 2004, 560)

[3]: (Sinor 1998, 197)

Preceding Entity:
Tang Dynasty

"The Türk uprising in 679-681 was at first unsuccessful, although it led, in 682, to the withdrawal of Kutlug-chor, one of the Türk leaders of the kaghan tribe of the A-shih-na, into the Gobi desert. Once they had established themselves in the Yin Shan mountains (Cˇug ̆ay quzï in ancient Turkic), Kutlugchor and his closest comrade-in-arms, Tonyuquq, succeeded in winning the support of most of the Türks and conducted successful military operations against the imperial forces in Shansi between 682 and 687. Kutlug-chor proclaimed himself Ilterish kaghan, and in so doing ushered in the resurgent Türk Empire. In 687 Ilterish kaghan left the Yin Shan mountains and turned his united and battle- hardened army to the conquest of the Türk heartlands in central and northern Mongolia. Between 687 and 691 the Tokuz-Oghuz tribes and the Uighurs, who had occupied these territories, were routed and subjugated; their chief, Abuz kaghan, fell in battle." [1]

[1]: (Klyashtorny 1996, 331)


Degree of Centralization:
loose

"It had a core of “inner tribes” (the ruling clan and its allies, including “in-law” tribes), a second tier of tribes that joined freely (retaining their ruling houses), a third tier of tribes that joined under constraint (and whose ruling houses were usually replaced by state officials), and finally tribute-paying sedentary populations. Subject populations retaining their own kings included the Sogdians, with their major centers at Bukhara and Samarkand and farflung merchant colonies, willing collaborators with a nomadic state that possessed the military power to force open the Chinese markets.76" [1]

[1]: (Findley 2005, 43)

Degree of Centralization:
confederated state

"It had a core of “inner tribes” (the ruling clan and its allies, including “in-law” tribes), a second tier of tribes that joined freely (retaining their ruling houses), a third tier of tribes that joined under constraint (and whose ruling houses were usually replaced by state officials), and finally tribute-paying sedentary populations. Subject populations retaining their own kings included the Sogdians, with their major centers at Bukhara and Samarkand and farflung merchant colonies, willing collaborators with a nomadic state that possessed the military power to force open the Chinese markets.76" [1]

[1]: (Findley 2005, 43)


Language

Language:
Old Turkic

"The Türks spoke a dialect of Old Turkish belonging to the Oghuz family, close to modern Uighur, Uzbek, Türkmen, and Turkish, somewhat more distant from the Qipchaq family of Kazakh and Tatar, and quite far from the Oghur family of Chuvash and Old Bulghar. Although many other tribes also spoke close or identical dialects, the Türks’ imperial prestige gave a single name to the whole family of dialects." [1]

[1]: (Atwood 2004, 554)


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[3,000,000 to 4,000,000] km2

in squared kilometers. "In 712 the Eastern Turks, under Köl Tigin (Kül Tigin), son of Elteriš, defeated the Türgiš kaghan, *Saqal. They reestablished the long-lost Eastern Türk dominion over the Western Turks, becoming by extension the overlords of Ferghana, Tashkent, and probably most of Sogdiana, in place of the Türgiš." [1]

[1]: (Beckwith 2009, 131)


Polity Population:
[400,000 to 500,000] people

People.
According to McEvedy and Jones the areas of Mongolia and Siberia would not have had a population over 500,000. [1]

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978) McEvedy, Colin. Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd. London.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
2

levels.
1. Town
2. Camp
The second Khaganate had towns: "In contrast to the Mongols, however, the Turks encouraged the voluntary creation on their territory of large Sogdian colonies which engaged in agriculture, handicrafts and trade, and even founded towns (Pulleyblank, 1952; Kliashtorny, 1964:114-22)." [1]

[1]: (Khazanov 1984, 256)


Religious Level:
2

levels.
1. Khagan as high priest
2. Ordinary shaman
"At the top, the kaghan ruled by heavenly mandate (kut), embodying and demonstrating heaven’s favor through successful performance of his functions as ruler.77 Prominent among these were ritual functions with shamanic overtones. The kaghan had to maintain control of Mount Ötüken and perform ancestral rites at the sacred sites there." [1] « Türk religious life, not extensively documented, was based on an ancient complex of beliefs widespread in Inner Asia.84 The term “shamanism,” although conventional, is a misleading name for this belief system. Shamans, male and female, served as religious specialists, who could communicate with the spirit world. They were called on, however, only for exceptional reli- gious or medical needs, not for routine religious practice. Their ability, real or reputed, to divine the future or conjure up storms on the battlefield made their services especially significant for rulers. However, the heroic, ecstatic quest that transformed an individual from sickness and alienation through initiation into a shaman capable of performing such wonders little resembled his or her neighbors’ usual religious observance. » [2] "If there was a difference in spiritual emphases between dynast and ordinary nomad, it took the form of the greater devotion to Tengri, the supreme deity, in the politicized state cult, with the kaghan as high priest.87" [3]

[1]: (Findley 2005, 43)

[2]: (Findley 2005, 45-47)

[3]: (Findley 2005, 48)


Military Level:
[3 to 4]

levels.
"Every male was an er, “man” and implicitly “warrior”; every young man had to earn his “warrior name” (er ati) through prowess in battle or the hunt; and an elite male, too, was an er bashi, or commander of so many men.82" [1]
1. Khagan
2. Er Bashi. Commander3. officer?4. Er. Individual warrior

[1]: (Findley 2005, 45)


Administrative Level:
4

levels. " Although the two Turk empires are distinct, they are combined here because of similar organization and their spatial and temporal proximity. For both, there were at least four recognized levels in the administrative hierarchy, almost all of whose members came from the ruling Ashina clan." [1]
"The administrative structure of the empire, which incorporated the tribal leaders, was more complex. At the head of the administration stood the kaghan and his closest kinsmen, who held the titles of shad and yabghu. The kaghan was surrounded by his counsellors (buyur), who discharged military, administrative, diplomatic and legal functions and bore titles such as tarkhan, chor and tudun. In order to facilitate the administration, the tribes were divided into two territorial groups, the Tardush (western) and the Tölish (eastern). The soldiery of these two groups composed the right and left wings of the army’s battle order, and they were led by the close kinsmen of the kaghan (the shads) and the most influential tribal leaders of each wing." [2]
Khagan
Counsellors (buyur): titles are tarkhan, chor and tudun.

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 225)

[2]: (Klyashtorny 1996, 332)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
absent

"Every male was an er, “man” and implicitly “warrior”; every young man had to earn his “warrior name” (er ati) through prowess in battle or the hunt; and an elite male, too, was an er bashi, or commander of so many men.82" [1]

[1]: (Findley 2005, 45)


Professional Priesthood:
present

"The religious beliefs of the Türk focused on a sky god, Tängri, and an earth goddess, Umay.9 Some of the Turks—notably the Western Turks in Tokharistan—converted very early to Buddhism, and it played an impor- tant role among them. Other religions were also influential, particularly Christianity and Manichaeism, which were popular among the Sogdians, close allies of the Türk who were skilled in international trade. Although the Sogdians were a settled, urban people, they were like the Türk in that they also had a Central Eurasian warrior ethos with a pervasive comitatus tradi- tion, and both peoples were intensely interested in trade." [1]
"Türk religious life, not extensively documented, was based on an ancient complex of beliefs widespread in Inner Asia.84 The term “shamanism,” although conventional, is a misleading name for this belief system. Shamans, male and female, served as religious specialists, who could communicate with the spirit world. They were called on, however, only for exceptional reli- gious or medical needs, not for routine religious practice. Their ability, real or reputed, to divine the future or conjure up storms on the battlefield made their services especially significant for rulers. However, the heroic, ecstatic quest that transformed an individual from sickness and alienation through initiation into a shaman capable of performing such wonders little resembled his or her neighbors’ usual religious observance." [2]

[1]: (Beckwith 2009, 115)

[2]: (Findley 2005, 45-47)


Professional Military Officer:
absent

"Every male was an er, “man” and implicitly “warrior”; every young man had to earn his “warrior name” (er ati) through prowess in battle or the hunt; and an elite male, too, was an er bashi, or commander of so many men.82" [1]

[1]: (Findley 2005, 45)


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

"According to the Chinese chroniclers, there were 28 hereditary ranks or titles in the Turk political system, suggesting a formal bureaucracy but not an entirely centralized administration." [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 225)



Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

"According to the Chinese chroniclers, there were 28 hereditary ranks or titles in the Turk political system, suggesting a formal bureaucracy but not an entirely centralized administration." [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 225)


Examination System:
unknown

Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown


Formal Legal Code:
unknown

"According to the Chinese chroniclers, there were 28 hereditary ranks or titles in the Turk political system, suggesting a formal bureaucracy but not an entirely centralized administration." [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 225)



Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
unknown

"Mutual benefit was derived from the strength of the ties which were established. The qaghans, thanks to the Sogdians’ experience in trading and their connections, were able to start up the sale of war booty and tribute, particularly of silk. For the Sogdians Turkic power was no great burden. The strength of the Turks guaranteed their safe passage along trade routes, and the political influence of the Turks assisted them in opening up new markets." [1] -- opening up new markets i.e. sources of goods - which could be China - rather than market places

[1]: (Khazanov 1984, 256-257)



Food Storage Site:
unknown

"Impoverished nomads who had lost their livestock were settled in winter quarters and in small, permanent settlements (balïqs), where they engaged in a primitive form of agriculture. They mainly sowed millet and built small forts (qurgans or kurgans) in which to store their grain." [1] Nothing here indicated that food storage structures were not privately owned.

[1]: (Klyashtorny 1996, 333)


Drinking Water Supply System:
absent

Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

"There are several major inscriptions in the Turkic runic script from Khoshoo Tsaidam but also from the Tuul, Ongi, and Selenge River basins." [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 226)


Script:
present

"There are several major inscriptions in the Turkic runic script from Khoshoo Tsaidam but also from the Tuul, Ongi, and Selenge River basins." [1] "Further inscriptions of this kind are known to us; these historical and biographical texts are memorials or eulogies for the living, and they tell of the deeds of Türk kaghans and their retainers. They combine descriptions of events that involved the hero of the inscription (or his ancestors) with an exposition of the political beliefs and ideas of the author of the text; they may be seen as ‘declarations of intent’ and to some extent were used as propaganda (Figs. 3 and 4). Even more common were memorial inscriptions on rock faces, some of which proclaimed the author’s right to use the adjacent pasture or site (Figs. 5 and 6).9" [2]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 226)

[2]: (Klyashtorny 1996, 340-341)


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

Nonwritten Record:
unknown

"There are several major inscriptions in the Turkic runic script from Khoshoo Tsaidam but also from the Tuul, Ongi, and Selenge River basins." [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 226)


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
unknown


Religious Literature:
unknown

Practical Literature:
present

Political manifestos. "As the manifestos recorded in inscriptions dating from the kaghanate show, there were frequent appeals for unity between the begs and the people and for obedience to the kaghan." [1] "Further inscriptions of this kind are known to us; these historical and biographical texts are memorials or eulogies for the living, and they tell of the deeds of Türk kaghans and their retainers. They combine descriptions of events that involved the hero of the inscription (or his ancestors) with an exposition of the political beliefs and ideas of the author of the text; they may be seen as ‘declarations of intent’ and to some extent were used as propaganda (Figs. 3 and 4). Even more common were memorial inscriptions on rock faces, some of which proclaimed the author’s right to use the adjacent pasture or site (Figs. 5 and 6).9" [2]

[1]: (Klyashtorny 1996, 332)

[2]: (Klyashtorny 1996, 340-341)



Lists Tables and Classification:
present

"According to the Chinese chroniclers, there were 28 hereditary ranks or titles in the Turk political system, suggesting a formal bureaucracy but not an entirely centralized administration." [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 225)


History:
present

"The earliest example appears to be the memorial from Choiren, which dates from between 687 and 691; the inscription tells of the Türks’ return to their lands in northern Mongolia and of their victory over the Tokuz-Oghuz." [1]

[1]: (Klyashtorny 1996, 340)



Calendar:
present

"According to the Chinese chroniclers, there were 28 hereditary ranks or titles in the Turk political system, suggesting a formal bureaucracy but not an entirely centralized administration." [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 225)


Information / Money

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Precious Metal:
absent

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Paper Currency:
absent

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Indigenous Coin:
absent

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Foreign Coin:
present

Turks used Sogdian money. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Article:
present

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Information / Postal System

General Postal Service:
unknown


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
absent

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Stone Walls Mortared:
absent

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
absent

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Modern Fortification:
absent

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Fortified Camp:
absent

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Earth Rampart:
absent

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Complex Fortification:
absent

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)



Military use of Metals

By the seventh century the "Sogdians and Turkic peoples "had their own sophisticated metallurgical industries." [1] "The other peoples who were heavily involved with arms production and trade with the Tibetans were the Turkic peoples and especially the Karluks, allies of the Tibetans during the eighth and early ninth centuries ... The Karluks ... were noted by Islamic geographers as producers and exporters of iron artifacts and weapons to Tibet and China." [2]

[1]: (Clarke 2006, 21-22) John Clarke. A History of Ironworking in Tibet: Centers of Production, Styles, and Techniques. Donald J LaRocca. ed. 2006. Warriors of the Himalayas: Rediscovering the Arms and Armor of Tibet. Yale University Press. New Haven.

[2]: (Clarke 2006, 22) John Clarke. A History of Ironworking in Tibet: Centers of Production, Styles, and Techniques. Donald J LaRocca. ed. 2006. Warriors of the Himalayas: Rediscovering the Arms and Armor of Tibet. Yale University Press. New Haven.


Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region. [1] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [2]

[1]: (Baumer 2012) Baumer, Christoph. 2012. The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors. I.B.Tauris. London.

[2]: (Di Cosmo 2002, 84) Nicola Di Cosmo. 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


long been in use in the region. Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region. [1] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [2]

[1]: (Baumer 2012) Baumer, Christoph. 2012. The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors. I.B.Tauris. London.

[2]: (Di Cosmo 2002, 84) Nicola Di Cosmo. 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


long been in use in the region. Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region. [1] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [2]

[1]: (Baumer 2012) Baumer, Christoph. 2012. The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors. I.B.Tauris. London.

[2]: (Di Cosmo 2002, 84) Nicola Di Cosmo. 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Projectiles

Sling Siege Engine:
absent

First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon. [1]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.





Handheld Firearm:
absent

"Firearms appeared in Siberia and Mongolia in the 17th century in the form of flintlock rifles. Flintlocks were the only firearms used in most areas until the turn of the 20th century." [1]

[1]: (Atwood 2004, 229)


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

not in use until much later



Composite Bow:
present

"It is no wonder that the skill required to produce steel swords over charcoal fires seemed supernatural. The same could be said for bow makers, who required great time and expertise to make the composite bows, which still set distance records exceeding those of European-style longbows “by humiliating margins.”83" [1]

[1]: (Findley 2005, 45)



Handheld weapons




"Among the steppe riders a dagger was typically carried in all periods, and a number of dagger designs are encountered in the archaeological and artistic record." [1]

[1]: (Karasulas 2004, 28)



Animals used in warfare

Horses were the means of travel for mobile nomadic warriors since the establishment of cavalry forces by the mid-first millennium BCE






Armor

"Shields were known in all periods and, though they are mentioned in the contemporary literature, they only occasionally appear in artistic representations. They were typically made of leather on a reed frame, and a few rare examples survive." [1]

[1]: (Karasulas 2004, 29)





Leather Cloth:
present

"Shields were known in all periods and, though they are mentioned in the contemporary literature, they only occasionally appear in artistic representations. They were typically made of leather on a reed frame, and a few rare examples survive." [1]

[1]: (Karasulas 2004, 29)



"Helmets were widely used, although just as much evidence suggests soft, perhaps padded, headgear was also common. All types of helmets typical of the eras in this discussion found expression among the nomads, often with stylistic changes made to suit the tastes of the new nomadic owner. Often, especially among the Turkic and Mongolian tribes, metal helmets had leather neckflaps attached." [1]

[1]: (Karasulas 2004, 30)




Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
absent

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions
- Nothing coded yet.