Home Region:  Anatolia-Caucasus (Southwest Asia)

Konya Plain - Ceramic Neolithic

G SC WF HS EQ 2020  tr_konya_mnl / TrNeoCR

Preceding:
9600 BCE 7000 BCE Konya Plain - Early Neolithic (tr_konya_enl)    [None]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
6600 BCE 6000 BCE Konya Plain - Late Neolithic (tr_konya_lnl)    [None]
Add one more here.

No General Descriptions provided.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
36 S  
Original Name:
Konya Plain - Ceramic Neolithic  
Capital:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Alternative Name:
Ceramic Neolithic  
Neolithikum Keramik in der Ebene von Konya  
Neolithique Ceramique sur la Plaine de Konya  
Konya Seramik Neolitik Ovalar  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[7,000 BCE ➜ 6,600 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
unknown [---]  
Succeeding Entity:
Konya Plain - Late Neolithic  
Preceding Entity:
Preceding:   Konya Plain - Early Neolithic (tr_konya_enl)    [None]  
Succeeding: Konya Plain - Late Neolithic (tr_konya_lnl)    [None]  
Degree of Centralization:
unknown  
Language
Linguistic Family:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Language:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
1  
Religious Level:
1  
Military Level:
1  
Administrative Level:
1  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
unknown  
Professional Priesthood:
unknown  
Professional Military Officer:
unknown  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent  
Merit Promotion:
inferred absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent  
Examination System:
inferred absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown  
Judge:
unknown  
Formal Legal Code:
unknown  
Court:
unknown  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
absent  
Irrigation System:
absent  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
absent  
Port:
absent  
Canal:
absent  
Bridge:
absent  
Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent  
Script:
absent  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent  
Sacred Text:
absent  
Religious Literature:
absent  
Practical Literature:
absent  
Philosophy:
absent  
Lists Tables and Classification:
absent  
History:
absent  
Fiction:
absent  
Calendar:
absent  
Information / Money
Token:
absent  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
absent  
Foreign Coin:
absent  
Article:
absent  
Information / Postal System
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
absent  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
absent  
  Fortified Camp:
absent  
  Earth Rampart:
absent  
  Ditch:
absent  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
absent  
  Copper:
absent  
  Bronze:
absent  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
inferred present  
  Javelin:
inferred present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
unknown  
  Sword:
absent  
  Spear:
unknown  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
inferred present  
  Battle Axe:
unknown  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
absent  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
present  
absent  
  Dog:
present  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
unknown  
  Scaled Armor:
absent  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
inferred absent  
  Leather Cloth:
unknown  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
absent  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
absent  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Konya Plain - Ceramic Neolithic (tr_konya_mnl) was in:
 (7000 BCE 6601 BCE)   Konya Plain
Home NGA: Konya Plain

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Konya Plain - Ceramic Neolithic

Capital:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI

unknown


Alternative Name:
Ceramic Neolithic

Ceramic Neolithic; Neolithikum Keramik in der Ebene von Konya; Néolithique Céramique sur la Plaine de Konya; Konya Seramik Neolitik Ovalar ... this is not machine readable.

Alternative Name:
Neolithikum Keramik in der Ebene von Konya

Ceramic Neolithic; Neolithikum Keramik in der Ebene von Konya; Néolithique Céramique sur la Plaine de Konya; Konya Seramik Neolitik Ovalar ... this is not machine readable.

Alternative Name:
Neolithique Ceramique sur la Plaine de Konya

Ceramic Neolithic; Neolithikum Keramik in der Ebene von Konya; Néolithique Céramique sur la Plaine de Konya; Konya Seramik Neolitik Ovalar ... this is not machine readable.

Alternative Name:
Konya Seramik Neolitik Ovalar

Ceramic Neolithic; Neolithikum Keramik in der Ebene von Konya; Néolithique Céramique sur la Plaine de Konya; Konya Seramik Neolitik Ovalar ... this is not machine readable.


Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[7,000 BCE ➜ 6,600 BCE]

Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
unknown [---]

Succeeding Entity:
Konya Plain - Late Neolithic

Preceding Entity:
Konya Plain - Early Neolithic [tr_konya_enl] ---> Konya Plain - Ceramic Neolithic [tr_konya_mnl]
Preceding Entity:
Konya Plain - Ceramic Neolithic [tr_konya_mnl] ---> Konya Plain - Late Neolithic [tr_konya_lnl]

Degree of Centralization:
unknown

Language
Linguistic Family:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI

Language:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI

inapplicable


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
1

unknown




Administrative Level:
1

village management by council and / or chiefs [1]

[1]: Yakar Y. 2011. Anatolian Chronology and Terminolog [in]: Steadman S, R., G. McMahon (eds.) "The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia 10,000- 323 B.C.E." Oxford University Press.


Professions
Professional Soldier:
unknown

Professional Priesthood:
unknown

Professional Military Officer:
unknown

Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent

Merit Promotion:
absent

inapplicable


Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent

Examination System:
absent

inapplicable


Specialized Buildings: polity owned


Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent


Religious Literature:
absent

Practical Literature:
absent


Lists Tables and Classification:
absent




Information / Money





Information / Postal System
Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
absent

not yet found in settlements such as Çatal Höyük


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown

No information in the archaeological evidence for this time, even if stone architecture has been found in Göbekli Tepe, it does not appear to be for military purposes [1]

[1]: https://www.tf.uni-kiel.de/matwis/amat/iss/kap_a/advanced/ta_1_2b.html


Stone Walls Mortared:
absent

Only archaeological evidence for mudbrick walls at this time


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

Base camps with fortified walls are present, defending against animal or human attackers [1]

[1]: (Leverani 2014, 39-42) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.


Modern Fortification:
absent

Technology not yet available


not yet found in settlements such as Çatal Höyük


Fortified Camp:
absent

Technology not yet available


Earth Rampart:
absent

not yet found in settlements such as Çatal Höyük


not yet found in settlements such as Çatal Höyük


Complex Fortification:
absent

Technology not yet available



Military use of Metals

Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later


Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later


Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later. Beads and tools carved from copper have been found but no weapons or smelting at this time [1]

[1]: https://www.tf.uni-kiel.de/matwis/amat/iss/kap_a/advanced/ta_1_2c.html


Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

Not invented yet


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

Not invented yet


According to a military historian (this data needs to be checked by a polity specialist) 4500 BCE: "Sling invented at Catal Huyuk in Anatolia." [1] The shape and appearance of the blunt force traumatic injuries identified at Çatalhöyük are consistent with injuries from both handheld blunt objects but also from projectiles - thrown stones or other objects. The number, shape, and location on the top and back of the cranium suggest that objects, thrown or sling-delivered, support an association. [2]

[1]: (Gabriel 2007, xii) Richard A Gabriel. 2007. Soldiers’ Lives Through History: The Ancient World. Greenwood Press. Westport.

[2]: Christopher J. Knüsel, Bonnie Glencross, ‘Çatalhöyük, Archaeology, Violence’, ‘’Contagion: Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture’’, Volume 24, 2017, pp. 29-32


At Çatalhöyük clay balls have been interpreted as sling ammunition."The use of the sling is alos attested in wall art that features a purported slinger." [1] According to a military historian (this data needs to be checked by a polity specialist) "The bow was probably between 6,000 and 10,000 years old by the dawn of the Bronze Age". [2] Was the bow used in warfare?

[1]: (Knüsel: Glencross and Milella 2019: 83) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/WH6NHDHM.

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 27-28) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Bone harpoons found for this time, but it is unclear if used for warfare or hunting. There is no reason to believe that other humans couldn’t be the target for these though [1]

[1]: (Leverani 2014, 36) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

Not invented yet


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Not invented yet


Not invented yet


Composite Bow:
absent

"Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE." [1] "The composite bows spread into Palestine around 1800 BCE and were introduced into Egypt by the Hyksos in 1700 BCE." [2]

[1]: Sergey A Nefedov, RAN Institute of History and Archaeology, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. January 2018.

[2]: (Roy 2015, 20) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.


New World weapon


Handheld weapons

According to a military historian (this data needs to be checked by a polity specialist) "The mace was among man’s oldest weapons (at least 6000 B.C.E. at Catal Huyuk)". [1] The shape and appearance of the blunt force traumatic injuries identified at Çatalhöyük are consistent with injuries from both handheld blunt objects but also from projectiles-thrown stones or other objects. The number, shape, and location on the top and back of the cranium suggest that objects, thrown or sling-delivered, support an association. [2]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 51) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[2]: Christopher J. Knüsel, Bonnie Glencross, ‘Çatalhöyük, Archaeology, Violence’, ‘’Contagion: Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture’’, Volume 24, 2017, pp. 29-32


According to a military historian (this data needs to be checked by a polity specialist) "All armies after the seventeenth century B.C.E. carried the sword, but in none was it a major weapon of close combat; rather, it was used when the soldier’s primary weapons, the spear and axe, were lost or broken." [1]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 26-27) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


No information in the archaeological evidence for this time


No information in the archaeological evidence for this time


Bone needles/knives were present by 7200 BC, but no hard evidence for use in warfare [1] Stone blades had been in production in Iraq/Iran since the Paleolithic: ’The Baradostian lithic industry is dominated by blade production. Characteristic tools include slender points, backed blades and bladelets, twisted bladelets with various kinds of light retouch, end scrapers, discoidal scrapers, side scrapers, and burins.’ [2] Obsidian blades have also been found for this period [3] Knife blades became longer during this time but this was for butchery rather than warfare [4]

[1]: (Alizadeh 2003, 82)

[2]: Nicholas J. Conard, Elham Ghasidian, and Saman Heydari-Guran, ’The Paleolithic of Iran’, In Daniel T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, 2013, pp. 38-39

[3]: Lloyd R. Weeks, ‘The Development and Expansion of a Neolithic Way of Life’, In Daniel T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, 2013, p. 57

[4]: (Leverani 2014, 41) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.


Battle Axe:
unknown

No information in the archaeological evidence for this time


Animals used in warfare

Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later


Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later


I don’t understand the reference to ’donkeys’ at Tepcik-ciflik if the the species was only domesticated and at much later time and in Africa. In the Near East pack animals appears by around 7000 BC onward. [1] "The donkey was probably domesticated from the African wild ass ’in more than one place’ but for the Nubian subspecies 5500-4500 BCE in the Sudan. [2] (Only in Africa, presumably, so the donkey would not have been here yet). "Well before 3000 BC donkeys in Upper Egypt were trained to carry loads." [3]

[1]: (Leverani 2014, 41) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.

[2]: (Mitchell 2018, 39) Peter Mitchell 2018. The Donkey in Human History: An Archaeological Perspective. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Drews 2017, 34) Robert Drews. 2017. Militarism and the Indo-Europeanizing of Europe. Routledge. Abingdon.

I don’t understand the reference to ’donkeys’ at Tepcik-ciflik if the the species was only domesticated and at much later time and in Africa. In the Near East pack animals appears by around 7000 BC onward. [1] "The donkey was probably domesticated from the African wild ass ’in more than one place’ but for the Nubian subspecies 5500-4500 BCE in the Sudan. [2] (Only in Africa, presumably, so the donkey would not have been here yet). "Well before 3000 BC donkeys in Upper Egypt were trained to carry loads." [3]

[1]: (Leverani 2014, 41) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.

[2]: (Mitchell 2018, 39) Peter Mitchell 2018. The Donkey in Human History: An Archaeological Perspective. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Drews 2017, 34) Robert Drews. 2017. Militarism and the Indo-Europeanizing of Europe. Routledge. Abingdon.


Dogs were used to defend villages against attacking humans/animals [1]

[1]: (Leverani 2014, 41-44) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.


Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
unknown

No information in the archaeological evidence for this time


No information in the archaeological evidence for this time


Scaled Armor:
absent

Technology not yet available


Plate Armor:
absent

Technology not yet available


Limb Protection:
absent

According to a military historian (this data needs to be checked by a polity specialist) the earliest reference in Greece c1600 BCE: "Early Mycenaean and Minoan charioteers wore an arrangement of bronze armor that almost fully enclosed the soldier, the famous Dendra panoply." [1] It is also earlier than the earliest reference in Anatolia, the Hittite period. [2]

[1]: (Gabriel and Metz 1991, 51) Richard A Gabriel. Karen S Metz. 1991. The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies. Greenwood Press. Westport.

[2]: Bryce T. (2007) Hittite Warrior, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, pp. 15


Leather Cloth:
unknown

No information in the archaeological evidence for this time


Laminar Armor:
absent

Technology not yet available


Earliest reference for present we currently have is for the Hittites. [1] In Egypt helmets were probably first worn by charioteers in the 18th Dynasty c1500 BCE. [2] According to a military historian (this data needs to be checked by a polity specialist) earliest known helmet dates to 2500 BCE in Sumer. [3]

[1]: Bryce T. (2007) Hittite Warrior, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, pp. 15-16

[2]: (Hoffmeier 2001) J K Hoffmeier in D B Redford. ed. 2001. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Gabriel 2002, 22) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Technology not yet available


Breastplate:
absent

Technology not yet available


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

Technology not yet available


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown

No information in the archaeological evidence for this time


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent

Technology not yet available



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions
- Nothing coded yet.