Home Region:  Southern Europe (Europe)

Roman Kingdom

EQ 2020  it_roman_k / ItRomRg

The Regal Period refers to the period at the end of the Iron Age during which Rome developed as a uncleared settlement in the heart of Latium (modern-day Lazio), ruled over by ’Etruscan kings’. Although there is archaeological evidence for the permanent occupation of Rome from the Iron Age ’centuries before’ the city’s mythic foundation date of 754 BCE, [1] perhaps from as early as 1000 BCE, [2] we have chosen to begin this polity in 716, with the traditional death date of the city’s legendary founder Romulus. [3] The city prospered during this time, which saw the development of many of the institutions - political administration, legal system, religious practices - characteristic of the later Roman Republic. The last king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (534-509 BCE), was expelled from Rome for his and his family’s tyrannical excesses. In his place, the leading Roman elites established an aristocratic city-state, ushering in the Republican period. [4]
Population and political organization
By end of the Regal Period, Rome was a well-developed city-state, boasting civic infrastructure (marsh drainage, roads), political institutions (assemblies, Senate), monuments (temples), and a powerful military. It held at least one third of the area of Latium vetus (Old Latium) [5] and had a population of 20,000-50,000 people.
According to legend, Rome became a city when the eponymous founder Romulus slew his twin brother Remus, both outcasts from a nearby Latium settlement, in a contest over where to found their new city. Numa Pompilius (r. 715-673 BCE), of Sabine origin, was the next king. Pompilius is traditionally credited with establishing ’all the major religious institutions of the state, including the calendar and the priesthoods’. [6] Starting with Tarquinius Priscus (r. 616-579 BCE), Rome was ruled by a series of kings of Etruscan descent, who could thus draw on the legacy of this powerful and complex culture from north-central Italy (around modern-day Etruria). The Roman king served as chief legislator, military commander, highest judge and chief priest. [7] [8] Archaeological remains found on the Palatine Hill dating to the late 8th century BCE suggest that the king lived in a palace from the earliest times. Rome’s relationship with other settlements in Latium, particularly on military matters, were important. [9] The hereditary clan system (gens) formed the basis of the Roman nobility, [10] likely serving first as the king’s advisors, although administrative structures gradually became more institutionalized (for example, through the establishment of a formal senate and voting assemblies) throughout the late 8th and 7th centuries BCE.
The city of Rome, with a population somewhere between 14,000 and 57,000 during this period, fared well in military and economic terms. Several kings claimed important victories over nearby settlements in Latium and Etruria, expanding Rome’s sphere of influence and establishing economic connections throughout central Italy. The Via Salaria (’salt road’) and the Sacra Via in Rome were in existence from the beginning of the Roman Kingdom [11] - although at this time the roads would not have been paved. A port known as Caere was situated 50 kilometres northwest of Rome. [12] The first bridge, thought to be the Pons Sublicius, may have been built in 642 BCE under Ancus Marcius. [12] Roman kings also reclaimed marshland and carried out drainage works. [13]

[1]: (Cornell 1995, 80) Tim J. Cornell. 1995. The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000-264 BC). London: Routledge.

[2]: (Cornell 1995, 72) Tim J. Cornell. 1995. The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000-264 BC). London: Routledge.

[3]: (Martin 2012, 42) Thomas R. Martin. 2012. Ancient Rome: From Romulus to Justinian. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

[4]: (Cornell 1995, 118, 120) Tim J. Cornell. 1995. The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000-264 BC). London: Routledge.

[5]: (Cornell 1995, 205) Tim J. Cornell. 1995. The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000-264 BC). London: Routledge.

[6]: (Cornell 1995, 120) Tim J. Cornell. 1995. The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000-264 BC). London: Routledge.

[7]: (Adkins and Adkins 1998, 62) Lesley Adkins and Roy A. Adkins. 1998. Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[8]: (Cornell 1995, 252) Tim J. Cornell. 1995. The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000-264 BC). London: Routledge.

[9]: (Armstrong 2016, 73) Jeremy Armstrong. 2016. War and Society in Early Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[10]: (Cornell 1995, 115) Tim J. Cornell. 1995. The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000-264 BC). London: Routledge.

[11]: (Cornell 1995, 48, 96) Tim J. Cornell. 1995. The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000-264 BC). London: Routledge.

[12]: (Cornell 1995, 128) Tim J. Cornell. 1995. The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000-264 BC). London: Routledge.

[13]: (Cornell 1995, 164) Tim J. Cornell. 1995. The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000-264 BC). London: Routledge.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
33 T  
Original Name:
Roman Kingdom  
Capital:
Rome  
Alternative Name:
Rome  
Kingdom of Rome  
Regal Period  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
535 BCE  
Duration:
[716 BCE ➜ 509 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
Supracultural Entity:
Hellenistic Civilization  
Succeeding Entity:
Early Roman Republic  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
[1,000,000 to 1,500,000] km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Latium - Iron Age  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
Latin  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[4,000 to 16,000] people 700 BCE
[14,250 to 57,000] people 600 BCE
Polity Territory:
1,000 km2  
Polity Population:
[20,000 to 50,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[2 to 3]  
Religious Level:
[1 to 2]  
Military Level:
[4 to 5]  
Administrative Level:
3  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
absent  
Professional Priesthood:
inferred present  
Professional Military Officer:
absent  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent  
Examination System:
absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent  
Judge:
absent  
Formal Legal Code:
present 716 BCE 600 BCE
absent 716 BCE 600 BCE
inferred present 600 BCE 509 BCE
Court:
absent  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
inferred absent  
Food Storage Site:
inferred present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
absent  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
inferred present  
Port:
present  
absent  
Canal:
absent  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
inferred present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
absent  
Foreign Coin:
absent  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
absent  
General Postal Service:
absent  
Courier:
inferred present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
inferred present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
inferred present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
inferred absent  
  Fortified Camp:
absent  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
present  
  Complex Fortification:
unknown  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
inferred present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
inferred present  
  Self Bow:
inferred present  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
inferred present  
  Atlatl:
inferred absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
inferred absent  
  Dog:
inferred absent  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
inferred absent 716 BCE 700 BCE
unknown 699 BCE 601 BCE
present 600 BCE 509 BCE
  Limb Protection:
present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
inferred absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
inferred absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Roman Kingdom (it_roman_k) was in:
 (716 BCE 510 BCE)   Latium
Home NGA: Latium

General Variables
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
535 BCE

Under the last king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. Represented by the building of the Temple of Jupiter. [1] Or after the reforms of Servius Tullius (578-535 BC) - since the last king was overthrown.

[1]: (Cornell 1995, 118, 121)


Duration:
[716 BCE ➜ 509 BCE]

In terms of earliest habitation, there is archaeological evidence for the permanent occupation of Rome “centuries before 754 BCE” [1] perhaps from 1000 BCE. [2] In 2014, "The daily Il Messagero quoted Patrizia Fortini, the archaeologist responsible for the Forum, as saying that a wall constructed well before the city’s traditional founding date had been unearthed." Examination of ceramic material found beside the wall suggested a date "between the 9th century and the beginning of the 8th century." [3]
First king of Rome may be Numa Pompilus (716-674 BCE) and a palace found on Palatine Hill dates to the late 8th century BCE. But was Numa Pompilus really the first king? Romulus, the official founder, was mythical but could be representative of an earlier date (753 BCE?).
The Hellenisation of Latium began in the 8th Century. [4] This timeframe (730-580 BCE) was an “orientalising period” marked by increasing social stratification shown by burial evidence of wealth, armour and chariots. [5]
Not a peak date but a notable moment: the period of rule under Etruscan monarchs, beginning with Lucius Tarquinius Priscus from 616 BCE, saw a step-up in hierarchization of the Roman polity, and dates the moment when two groups known as patricians and plebians became more distinguishable. The first paving of the Roman Forum (meeting-place, market and civic centre) occurred around 625-575 BCE. [6] The first senate building, the Curia Hostilia, existed from about 600 BCE. [7] Monumental architecture was present from the end of the 7th Century [8] and included a sanctuary constructed in 580 BCE. [7] Etruscan monarchs were responsible for large building projects such as the Cloaca Maxima (sewer system), the Circus Maximus and in 535 BCE the last king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (another Etruscan) built the Temple of Jupiter. [9]
Last king is Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (534-509 BCE). He was expelled from Rome by the aristocrats who set up Rome as a Republic. [10]

[1]: (Cornell 1995, 80)

[2]: (Cornell 1995, 72)

[3]: (Hooper, J. Sunday 13 April 2014 17.38 BST. "Archaeologists’ findings may prove Rome a century older than thought" The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/apr/13/archaelogists-find-rome-century-older-than-thought)

[4]: (Cornell 1995, 87)

[5]: (Cornell 1995, 81-82)

[6]: (Southern 2012) Southern, Patricia. 2012. Ancient Rome: The Republic 753 BC - 30 BC. Amberely Publishing Limited. Gloucestershire.

[7]: (Cornell 1995, 94)

[8]: (Cornell 1995, 100)

[9]: (Cornell 1995, 118, 121)

[10]: (Cornell 1995, 118, 120)


Political and Cultural Relations

Supracultural Entity:
Hellenistic Civilization

Succeeding Entity:
Early Roman Republic

Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
[1,000,000 to 1,500,000] km2

km squared.





Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[4,000 to 16,000] people
700 BCE

[4,000-16,000]: 700 BCE; [14,250-57,000]: 650 BCE
100,000: 509 BCE [1] In this period city was growing from a low baseline. Can reasonably infer population was less than 100,000 in 600 BCE. In the 150 years between c700 BCE and 550 BCE Rome acquired c200ha. On the basis of urban area, and a roughly proportional decrease based on Modelksi’s 509 BCE estimate (we should remember that as cities acquire more area they generally acquire greater population density), we could infer a population in the region of 15,000-25,000 for 700 BCE.
The highest officers in the Roman military system were not professionals. Not until 406 BCE did "Romans introduce pay for military service." [2] This is the earliest possible start date for professional soldiers.
Urban area of Rome [3]
early 8th Century BCE: 50 ha. 2500-10,000 using an estimate of 50-200 people per hectare.
late 8th Century BCE: 80 ha. 4000-16,000 using an estimate of 50-200 people per hectare. Previous estimate: 15,000-20,000.
mid 6th Century: 285 ha. 14,250-57,000 using an estimate of 50-200 people per hectare.
Previous estimates: [4,000-16,000]: 700 BCE; [60,000-90,000]: 600 BCE

[1]: (Modelski 2003, 49)

[2]: (Fields 2011)

[3]: (Cornell 1995, 204)

Population of the Largest Settlement:
[14,250 to 57,000] people
600 BCE

[4,000-16,000]: 700 BCE; [14,250-57,000]: 650 BCE
100,000: 509 BCE [1] In this period city was growing from a low baseline. Can reasonably infer population was less than 100,000 in 600 BCE. In the 150 years between c700 BCE and 550 BCE Rome acquired c200ha. On the basis of urban area, and a roughly proportional decrease based on Modelksi’s 509 BCE estimate (we should remember that as cities acquire more area they generally acquire greater population density), we could infer a population in the region of 15,000-25,000 for 700 BCE.
The highest officers in the Roman military system were not professionals. Not until 406 BCE did "Romans introduce pay for military service." [2] This is the earliest possible start date for professional soldiers.
Urban area of Rome [3]
early 8th Century BCE: 50 ha. 2500-10,000 using an estimate of 50-200 people per hectare.
late 8th Century BCE: 80 ha. 4000-16,000 using an estimate of 50-200 people per hectare. Previous estimate: 15,000-20,000.
mid 6th Century: 285 ha. 14,250-57,000 using an estimate of 50-200 people per hectare.
Previous estimates: [4,000-16,000]: 700 BCE; [60,000-90,000]: 600 BCE

[1]: (Modelski 2003, 49)

[2]: (Fields 2011)

[3]: (Cornell 1995, 204)


Polity Territory:
1,000 km2

[1]
By end of the Regal Period, Rome held about one third, or more, of the area of Latium Vetas. [2]
"as a consequence of Rome’s urban development during the sixth century, which involved increased economic activity, a rise in population from growth and incorporation of foreigners as new citizens, and the increase in the territorial extent of the Roman state, a new military organization was introduced to take advantage of these economic, demographic, and geographical changes, and the result was a hoplite phalanx recruited from new territorial districts called tribes." [3]

[1]: (Chase-Dunn spreadsheet)

[2]: (Cornell 1995, 205)

[3]: (Forsythe 2006, 115) Forsythe, Gary. 2006. A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War. University of California Press.


Polity Population:
[20,000 to 50,000] people

20,000-25,000 (Beloch). 40,000-50,000 (De Martino). 35,000 at most (Ampolo). 25,000-40,000 (Cornell). [1] Previous estimate: {[20,000-30,000]; [40,000-50,000]}
"as a consequence of Rome’s urban development during the sixth century, which involved increased economic activity, a rise in population from growth and incorporation of foreigners as new citizens, and the increase in the territorial extent of the Roman state, a new military organization was introduced to take advantage of these economic, demographic, and geographical changes, and the result was a hoplite phalanx recruited from new territorial districts called tribes." [2]

[1]: (Cornell 1995, 205)

[2]: (Forsythe 2006, 115) Forsythe, Gary. 2006. A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War. University of California Press.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[2 to 3]

1. Rome.
2. Satellite town.3. Villages (need to be checked).


Religious Level:
[1 to 2]

Lavinium was an important religious centre and place of pilgrimage. The Penates, the cult of the ancestral gods was located here. [1] Cult of Vesta and Capitoline Jupiter attested from middle 7th Century. [2] "The reforms of Servius Tullius, as presented in the literary sources, represented a seismic shift in the organization of Roman society, changing not only how the early Roman army was recruited and equipped, but also the social, politicial, and possibly religious divisions of early Roman society." [3]
1.King (ritual specialist along with other functions; e.g. Numa noted as founding many Roman ritual practices during Regnal period)
public auspices rituals "formed the basis of regal and then, in the Republic, magisterial power" [4]
2. Priest in temple

[1]: (Cornell 1995, 66)

[2]: (Cornell 1995, 102)

[3]: (Armstrong 2016, 75) Armstrong, Jeremy. 2016. War and Society in Early Rome. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[4]: (Brennan 2004, 37) Brennan, Corey T. Power and Process Under The Republican ’Constitution’. Flower, Harriet I ed. 2004. The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic. Cambridge University Press.


Military Level:
[4 to 5]

"the military organization of the thirty curiae and three archaic tribes can perhaps best be dated to the period of Rome’s early unification, during the second half of the seventh century B.C". [1] "while the urban community at Rome may have begun to develop a distinct, community-based identity from the eighth century onwards, the gentilicial elite of Rome, even as late as the early sixth century, would probably be best characterized as simply ’Latin,’ or possibily even ’central Italian’. The presence of this pan-central Italian gentilicial aristocracy would have had a dramatic impact on how Rome interracted with other Latin settlements as it may have blurred man of the assumed settlement-based divisions, particularly with regard to military matters, which seem to have been almost entirely under the purview of the more mobile gentilicial elite." [2] "The reforms of Servius Tullius, as presented in the literary sources, represented a seismic shift in the organization of Roman society, changing not only how the early Roman army was recruited and equipped, but also the social, politicial, and possibly religious divisions of early Roman society." [3]
1. King

2. Leaders of the three tribesThree tribes: Tities, Ramnes, Luceres, each subdivided into 10 curiae, formed the basis of military organization. [4]
3. Leaders of a curiaeThree tribes: Tities, Ramnes, Luceres, each subdivided into 10 curiae, formed the basis of military organization. [4]
4. Individual soldier
1. King

2. Leaders of a centuryThe Centuriate organisation of Servius Tullius (578-534 BCE) had five categories based on wealth. Century was the basic unit. Each curia had 100 men. [5]
3. Leaders of a curiae
4. Individual soldier

[1]: (Forsythe 2006, 115) Forsythe, Gary. 2006. A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War. University of California Press.

[2]: (Armstrong 2016, 73) Armstrong, Jeremy. 2016. War and Society in Early Rome. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[3]: (Armstrong 2016, 75) Armstrong, Jeremy. 2016. War and Society in Early Rome. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[4]: (Cornell 1995, 114)

[5]: (Cornell 1995, 183)


Administrative Level:
3

Before the Roman Principate there was no formal bureaucracy. The old Roman treasury - the aerarium Saturni - was housed in the basement of the Temple of Saturn [1] The state treasury of the Roman Republic was kept in the custody of the priesthood inside the temple of Saturn, and was managed by elected aristocratic officials called quaestors. [2] Work on this temple is only thought to have been begun by the last king of the Regal Period, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. During the Roman Kingdom, therefore, the treasury must have been held somewhere else; one might speculate within the court of the monarch. King Servius Tullius (578-535 BCE) - presumably with the resources of his court - may have used this to administer the first census of Rome.
1. King
"while the urban community at Rome may have begun to develop a distinct, community-based identity from the eighth century onwards, the gentilicial elite of Rome, even as late as the early sixth century, would probably be best characterized as simply ’Latin,’ or possibily even ’central Italian’. The presence of this pan-central Italian gentilicial aristocracy would have had a dramatic impact on how Rome interracted with other Latin settlements as it may have blurred man of the assumed settlement-based divisions, particularly with regard to military matters, which seem to have been almost entirely under the purview of the more mobile gentilicial elite." [3]
"After Romulus, the position of king was held by men of Sabine, Latin and Etruscan extraction. The kingship was not hereditary." [4]
_Central government_
2. Senate and an assembly. [5]
from tradition we can "infer an early elective monarchy, the king being elective by vote of the heads of all the Roman families; (i.e., voting under the form of suffrage known as the comitia curiata), and having as merely advisory council, the Senate." [6]
2. Senior magistrates of the Assembly (comitia curiata) [7] Rome was similar to a Greek polis. [8]
3. Scribes (inferred - working for senior magistrates)
_Clan system (gens)_
2. Tribal leaderTribes were the basis of political and military organization in middle 7th century BCE. [7]
The gens became established in Latium before c600 BCE. [9]
The gens system was reformed under Servius Tullius (578-534 BCE). [10] New tribes were created to replace the old three tribes with the division based on wealth. [11]

[1]: Garrett Fagan. Personal Communication.

[2]: (Adkins and Adkins 1998, 42) Adkins, Lesley. Adkins, Roy A. 1998. Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford University Press. New York.

[3]: (Armstrong 2016, 73) Armstrong, Jeremy. 2016. War and Society in Early Rome. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[4]: (Adkins and Adkins 1994, 3) Adkins, Lesley. Adkins, Roy A. 1998. Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[5]: Richard Hooker http://richard-hooker.com/sites/worldcultures/ROME/KINGDOM.HTM

[6]: (Shumway 1902, 100) Shumway, Edgar S. 1902. Some View-Points of Roman Law Prior to the Twelve Tables. The American Law Register (1898-1905). Vol. 50. No. 2. Volume 41. New Series. The University of Pennsylvania Law Review. pp. 97-104.

[7]: (Cornell 1995, 115)

[8]: (Cornell 1995, 118)

[9]: (Cornell 1995, 84)

[10]: (Cornell 1995, 128)

[11]: (Cornell 1995, 173, 179)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
absent

Not until 406 BCE did "Romans introduce pay for military service." [1] This is the earliest possible start date for professional soldiers.

[1]: (Fields 2011)


Professional Priesthood:
present

Early Roman cults were funded by regular public offerings, large individual donations, and payment for services. The hierarchy could also profit from land ownership. Professionalism of the priesthood likely pre-dates the Roman era as similar patterns are evident in Greek and Egyptian civilization. When the state provided gifts, it was often in the form of a lavish construction, such as a new temple. Examples: priests of Isis were "full-time religious professionals" [1]

[1]: (Grant and Kitzinger 1988, 938) Grant, M, Kitzinger, R (1988) Civilization of the ancient Mediterranean: Greece and Rome, Volume 2, Scribner’s.


Professional Military Officer:
absent

The highest officers in the Roman military system were not professionals.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

The first senate building, the Curia Hostilia, existed from about 600 BCE. [1] The first paving of the Roman Forum occurred around 575-625 BCE. [2] The first coin minted in Rome occurred about 269 BCE (one in Neapolis produced coins slightly earlier, around 281 BCE) and the first state archives was created in 78 BCE. Other possible buildings include: granaries and storehouses.

[1]: (Cornell 1995, 94)

[2]: (Cornell 1995, 100)


Merit Promotion:
absent

Roman administration was typically formed out of a class of hereditary aristocrats. Within the army, distinctions between classes of legionary and distinctions between age and experience were not eliminated until Marius in 105 BCE. [1]

[1]: (Dupuy and Dupuy 2007)


Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent

Before the Roman Principate there was no formal bureaucracy. The old Roman treasury - the aerarium Saturni - was housed in the basement of the Temple of Saturn [1] The state treasury of the Roman Republic was kept in the custody of the priesthood inside the temple of Saturn, and was managed by elected aristocratic officials called quaestors. [2] Work on this temple is only thought to have been begun by the last king of the Regal Period, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. During the Roman Kingdom, therefore, the treasury must have been held somewhere else; one might speculate within the court of the monarch. King Servius Tullius (578-535 BCE) - presumably with the resources of his court - may have used this to administer the first census of Rome.

[1]: Garrett Fagan. Personal Communication.

[2]: (Adkins and Adkins 1998, 42) Adkins, Lesley. Adkins, Roy A. 1998. Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford University Press. New York.


Examination System:
absent

There was no examination system.


Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent

Law specialists first existed during the Principate when they commanded fees for their expertise. We know this because Emperor Claudius attempted to "limit the fees of advocates, which had become intolerably heavy" to protect "women and other helpless litigants from the rapacity of their lawyers." [1] The first law school in Rome, for persons who wished to pursue career in the Imperial civil service, was established late second century CE. "Professional" lawyers replaced orators during the Roman Dominate period. [2]

[1]: (Allcroft and Haydon 1902, 121 [1])

[2]: (Mousourakis 2007, 163)


Professional judges did not exist until the Roman Dominate although at that time their precise role vis-a-vis that of Imperial officials is a matter of debate. [1] Before this time there were no judges as a distinct profession in the Roman system of law. Local magistrates dealt with local matters, provincial governors dealt with provincial matters, and the praetors often dealt with cases in Rome. The Roman people could be duly convened as a final court of appeal in cases involving citizens.

[1]: (Mousourakis 2007, 161) Mousourakis, G. 2007. A Legal History of Rome, Routledge.


Formal Legal Code:
present
716 BCE 600 BCE

A formal legal code was first founded in the Twelve Tables of 450-449 BCE. Law thereafter was based on precedent. Our sources of knowledge of Roman law include the forensic speeches of Cicero; the Institutes of Gaius textbook (from 160 CE); and, much later, the sixth century CE Corpus Ius Civilis of Justinian. Wax tablets and papyri (contracts and wills etc.) also provide information on Roman law. [1] However, before this time restrictions on funerary extravagance, from the start of the 6th century, may suggest the Twelve Tables laws (of the Early Republic) codified an existing body of law and legal practices. [2] At which time in the history of the polity did it become present?

[1]: (Tellegen-Couperus, 2002, 66)

[2]: (Cornell 1995, 106)

Formal Legal Code:
absent
716 BCE 600 BCE

A formal legal code was first founded in the Twelve Tables of 450-449 BCE. Law thereafter was based on precedent. Our sources of knowledge of Roman law include the forensic speeches of Cicero; the Institutes of Gaius textbook (from 160 CE); and, much later, the sixth century CE Corpus Ius Civilis of Justinian. Wax tablets and papyri (contracts and wills etc.) also provide information on Roman law. [1] However, before this time restrictions on funerary extravagance, from the start of the 6th century, may suggest the Twelve Tables laws (of the Early Republic) codified an existing body of law and legal practices. [2] At which time in the history of the polity did it become present?

[1]: (Tellegen-Couperus, 2002, 66)

[2]: (Cornell 1995, 106)

Formal Legal Code:
present
600 BCE 509 BCE

A formal legal code was first founded in the Twelve Tables of 450-449 BCE. Law thereafter was based on precedent. Our sources of knowledge of Roman law include the forensic speeches of Cicero; the Institutes of Gaius textbook (from 160 CE); and, much later, the sixth century CE Corpus Ius Civilis of Justinian. Wax tablets and papyri (contracts and wills etc.) also provide information on Roman law. [1] However, before this time restrictions on funerary extravagance, from the start of the 6th century, may suggest the Twelve Tables laws (of the Early Republic) codified an existing body of law and legal practices. [2] At which time in the history of the polity did it become present?

[1]: (Tellegen-Couperus, 2002, 66)

[2]: (Cornell 1995, 106)


During the Roman Dominate administration of justice was "thoroughly bureaucratized" and "regular courts, special courts were established to deal with particular matters and categories of persons." [1] Before this time there was no specialised court building. Courts could be held in the basilicas [2] (introduced by the 3rd Century BCE [3] ) where a provincial governor could an hold audience or in the Roman forum. Basilicas were multi-purpose buildings a place for banking and money-changing and town hall activities. The forum was a multi-purpose building which had existed since the Roman Kingdom.

[1]: (Mousourakis 2007, 161) Mousourakis, G. 2007. A Legal History of Rome, Routledge.

[2]: (Berger 1968, 742) Berger, A. 1968. Encyclopedic Dictionary of Roman Law, Volume 43, American Philosophical Society.

[3]: (Stearns 2001) Stearns, P. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History. 6th Edition. James Clarke & Co Ltd. Cambridge.


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Cities of Latium were Hellenistic (Hellenisation of Latium beginning in the 8th Century [1] ): walls, streets, market places, temples, monumental buildings.” [2] [3] The multi-function forum building also functioned as a marketplace.

[1]: (Cornell 1995, 87)

[2]: (Cornell 1995, 59)

[3]: (Cornell 1995, 102)


Irrigation System:
absent

Possibly unnecessary within Italy at this time due to sufficient rainfall. [1]

[1]: (Evans 2013 Evans, J (2013) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Roman Republic, John Wiley & Sons)


Food Storage Site:
present

Stored in the forum building. Rome’s mayoral office which supervised the import of grain, dates back to early days of the Roman Republic. [1] "The Republican stages of the Roman attempt to deal with storage problems are to some extent lost, because the material remains of most of the warehouses we have found belong to the Imperial period, but there are some clues." [2] From literary sources [Livy] it seems that the major development of Rome’s river port and its attendant warehouses did not take place until the early second century B.C. Earlier the old Forum Boarium and Forum Holitorium in the centre of Rome seem to have coped with the main flow of imports which had probably come down the Tiber from the Italian hills." [2]

[1]: (Canciello 2005)

[2]: (Rickman 1971, 2)


Drinking Water Supply System:
absent

A pipe network that connects the drinking water to individual settlements is not known to exist / not thought to be present. First aqueduct commissioned by Appius Claudius Caecus 312 BCE. "The wall, made from blocks of volcanic tuff, appeared to have been built to channel water from an aquifer under the Capitoline hill" [1]

[1]: (Hooper, J. Sunday 13 April 2014 17.38 BST. "Archaeologists’ findings may prove Rome a century older than thought" The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/apr/13/archaelogists-find-rome-century-older-than-thought)


Transport Infrastructure

The Via Salaria, “salt road,” and the Sacra Via in Rome, were in existence from the beginning of the Roman Kingdom. [1] The first paved road was the probably the Appian Way which dates to 312 BCE. In about 450 BCE the laws of the Twelve Tables, dated to approximately 450 BCE, issued regulations for the dimensions of roads. So at least from 450 BCE the pre-paved roads had maintenance work done of them. Due to the importance of the "salt road", however, it is likely this mud track had maintenance work during the Roman Kingdom.

[1]: (Cornell 1995, 48, 96)


There was a port known as Caere 50km north west of Rome during the Roman Kingdom. [1] A port is thought to have been built under Ancus Marcius. However, another source says: "The port of Cosa, the earliest Roman port thus far known, was founded in 273 B.C." [2]

[1]: (Cornell 1995, 128)

[2]: [2]

There was a port known as Caere 50km north west of Rome during the Roman Kingdom. [1] A port is thought to have been built under Ancus Marcius. However, another source says: "The port of Cosa, the earliest Roman port thus far known, was founded in 273 B.C." [2]

[1]: (Cornell 1995, 128)

[2]: [2]


The first canal is thought to have been built by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (consul 187 BCE) to drain the lower Po region.


Bridge:
present

The first bridge thought to be the Pons Sublicius possibly in built 642 BCE under Ancus Marcius.


Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Western alphabet developed c800 BCE and by 700 BCE had arrived in Italy. [1]

[1]: (Cornell 1995, 103)


Script:
present

Western alphabet developed c800 BCE and by 700 BCE had arrived in Italy. [1]

[1]: (Cornell 1995, 103)



Nonwritten Record:
present

Art. E.g. Black-figure pottery painting.


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Sacred Text:
present

Religious inscriptions discovered at Lavinium. [1]

[1]: (Cornell 1995, 66)


Religious Literature:
present

The Sibyl of Cumae reportedly offered nine books of prophecies to the Roman Kingdom monarch Tarquin. Three books were purchased and kept in the Temple of Jupiter.


Practical Literature:
present

Government related instructional literature?


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Servius Tullius (578-534 BCE) carried out the first Roman census. [1]

[1]: (Cornell 1995, 173, 179)


Calendar:
present

First Roman calendar thought to be the 8th century BCE "Calendar of Romulus." Numa Pompilius reformed this calendar in 713 BCE>


Information / Money
Paper Currency:
absent

The Romans did not use paper currency in any period.


Indigenous Coin:
absent

Rome produced its first coin about 281 BCE, a Greek-style silver didrachma, minted in Neapolis (and twelve years later coins were minted in Rome.) [1]

[1]: (Crawford 2001, 32)


Foreign Coin:
absent

Greek coinage was present in Rome and the first Roman coin was based on the Greek style. Coin production spread from Asia minor, where it originated in the late 7th BCE, "to Greek colonies in southern Italy by 500 BC. These coins came to be made of pure silver formed between obverse and reverse dies. Bronze coins were first minted in the Greek areas of southern Italy." [1] However this was after this polity’s temporal span, currency not present in this period.

[1]: (Adkins and Adkins 1994, 305) Adkins, Lesley. Adkins, Roy A. 1998. Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Article:
present

Salt was used as payment to soldiers from 406 BCE and was an essential commodity with the "Salt Road" being in existence from the start of the Roman Kingdom period.


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
absent

No general postal service until the Cursus Publicus, established by Augustus during the Principate.


General Postal Service:
absent

No general postal service until the Cursus Publicus, established by Augustus during the Principate.


Courier:
present

"Before Augustus, Romans wanting to post a letter had to find a courier wherever they could, and work out the arrangements for delivery ad hoc. [1]

[1]: (Nicholson 1994)


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications

Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present

"Romans were so fond of the texture effect of opus quadratum that they continued to use this technique even after having developed more effective kinds of masonry." [1]

[1]: (http://www.romeartlover.it/Costroma.html)


Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown

opus caementicium - Roman concrete. Stone walls have been dated to the 8th Century. [1] Archaeologist Patrizia Fortini dated an earlier wall from nearby ceramic remains "between 9th century and the beginning of the 8th century." [2] There was no complete fortification of Rome in the 6th Century. Parts had walls. [3]

[1]: (Cornell 1995, 72)

[2]: (Hooper, J. Sunday 13 April 2014 17.38 BST. "Archaeologists’ findings may prove Rome a century older than thought" The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/apr/13/archaelogists-find-rome-century-older-than-thought)

[3]: (Cornell 1995, 200)




no fortresses to moat?



Earth Rampart:
present

This concept of defense, ditch and mound, is an old one, as the defenses of Ardea, Decima, Acqua Acetosa, Laurentina and Gabii demonstrate. [1]

[1]: R. Ross Holloway, The Archaeology of Early Rome and Latium (1994), p.91


This concept of defense, ditch and mound, is an old one, as the defenses of Ardea, Decima, Acqua Acetosa, Laurentina and Gabii demonstrate. [1]

[1]: R. Ross Holloway, The Archaeology of Early Rome and Latium (1994), p.91




Military use of Metals
Steel:
present

"By the time of the Roman Republic (c.509—44BC), the use of steel in the manufacture of swords was well advanced and Roman swordsmiths smelted iron ore and carbon in a bloomery furnace (the predecessor of the blast furnace)." [1] However, this source is not very academic, so a better source is needed to be sure.

[1]: (http://www.weapons-universe.com/Swords/Ancient_Roman_Weapons.shtml)


Sword blades made of bronze iron being "comparatively rare." [1] Used in spearheads. [1]

[1]: (Fields 2011)


Copper:
present

Copper is used to make bronze.


Bronze:
present

[1] "Whereas clansmen were best equipped for and accustomed to cattle raids and skirmishes, hoplites were armoured spearmen who fought shoulder to shoulder in a phalanx formation. These citizen-soldiers were now protected by helmet, corselet and greaves, all of bronze, and wielded a long spear and large shield." [2]

[1]: (Cornell 1995, 81-82)

[2]: (Fields 2011)


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

In Anatolia siege warfare was mentioned in Old Hittite records. [1] Presumably at this time the catapult was not used? In India, according to Jain texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone". [2] Marsden (1969) said archaeological records exist before the 4th century BCE. [3] The Achaemenids (c400 BCE?) are assumed to have had the catapult because the Macedonians did. [4] Pollard and Berry (2012) say torsion catapults first came into widespread use in the Hellenistic period 4th - 1st centuries BCE. [5] The Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE which encouraged the development of large tension-powered weapons. [6]

[1]: Siegelova I. and H. Tsumoto (2011) Metals and Metallurgy in Hittite Anatolia, pp. 278 [In:] H. Genz and D. P. Mielke (ed.) Insights Into Hittite History And Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven, Paris, Walpole MA: PEETERS, pp. 275-300

[2]: (Singh 2008, 272) Upinder Singh. 2008. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Longman. Delhi.

[3]: (Marsden 1969, 5, 16, 66.) Marsden, E. W. 1969. Greek and Roman Artillery: The Historical Development. Toronto: Oxford University Press.

[4]: (Dandamaev 1989, 314) Dandamaev, M A. 1989. A Political History of the Achaemenid Empire. Brill.

[5]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 45) Pollard, N, Berry, J (2012) The Complete Roman Legions, Thames and Hudson, London Rives, J (2006) Religion in the Roman Empire, Wiley

[6]: (Keyser and Irby-Massie 2006, 260) Paul T Keyser. Georgia Irby-Massie. Science, Medicine, And Technology. Glenn R Bugh. ed. 2006. The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

The counter-weight trebuchet was first used by the Byzantines in 1165 CE.


Sling:
present

According to a military historian (can a Roman expert confirm whether the data applies to this polity?) many ancient armies used slingers. Vulnerable to counter-attacks, slinger units were usually small and used at the start of the battle. Because of the training required to produce and effective slinger they were often hired mercenaries. [1] Stones. [2] Perhaps carried by Servian classes IV and V. [3]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 31) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[2]: (Cornell 1995, 179)

[3]: (Fields 2011)


Self Bow:
present

Arrowheads found in earlier period. Expert advice is needed as to whether bows used during the Roman Kingdom period were used in a military capacity.


Javelin:
present

[1] "Other weapons included the javelin" [2]

[1]: (Cornell 1995, 179)

[2]: (Fields 2011)


Handheld Firearm:
absent

Not invented yet.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Not invented yet.


Crossbow:
absent

Not at this time: "the hand-held crossbow was invented by the Chinese, in the fifth century BC, and probably came into the Roman world in the first century AD, where it was used for hunting." [1] The crossbow also developed after the Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE. [2]

[1]: (Nicholson 2004, 99) Helen Nicholson. 2004. Medieval Warfare: Theory and Practice of War in Europe, 300-1500. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[2]: (Keyser and Irby-Massie 2006, 260) Paul T Keyser. Georgia Irby-Massie. Science, Medicine, And Technology. Glenn R Bugh. ed. 2006. The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Composite Bow:
present

Present in earlier periods. [1] RA couldn’t find relevant information, but don’t appear in book on warfare [2] . Expert advice is needed.

[1]: (James 2018: 9) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/HDQVHM42.

[2]: (Fields 2011)


Atlatl:
absent

RA couldn’t find relevant information, but don’t appear in book on warfare [1] . Expert advice is needed.

[1]: (Fields 2011)


Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

An aklys isa small club, sometimes with spikes on one end and often attached to the arm with a leather strap, estimated to have been used by the Osci tribes of prehistoric Italy. [1] Illustration of a Villanovan chieftain and weapons does not show a war club. [2] . Don’t appear in book on warfare [2] . Expert advice is needed.

[1]: (Tarassuk and Blair 1982: 17) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/LK8ZLPC7.

[2]: (Fields 2011)


Hoplite was equipment used from about 600 BCE. [1]

[1]: (Cornell 1995, 189)


Spears [1] Hoplite was equipment used from about 600 BCE. [2] "Hoplite panoplies have been discovered in the so-called Tomb of the Warrior at Vulci, dating to c. 530 B.C., as well as in a tomb at Lanuvium in Latium dating to the early fifth century" (citing Torelli 1989 and Drummond). [3]

[1]: (Cornell 1995, 179)

[2]: (Cornell 1995, 189)

[3]: (Forsythe 2006, 114) Forsythe, Gary. 2006. A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War. University of California Press.


Polearm:
present

Lances were buried along with the remains of an elite male at Castel di Decima [1] .

[1]: G. Forsythe, A Critical History of Early Rome (2006), pp. 53-58


Dagger:
present

"Other weapons included ... the dagger." [1]

[1]: (Fields 2011)


Battle Axe:
present

"Other weapons included ... the axe" [1]

[1]: (Fields 2011)


Animals used in warfare


Donkey:
absent

RA couldn’t find relevant information, but don’t appear in book on warfare [1] . Expert advice is needed.

[1]: (Fields 2011)


RA couldn’t find relevant information, but don’t appear in book on warfare [1] . Expert advice is needed.

[1]: (Fields 2011)



Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

Ash-wood spears. Wooden shields. [1]

[1]: (Fields 2011)


Shield:
present

Round shields used by Servius class I (wealthiest). Oblong shields used by classes II-IV. [1]

[1]: (Cornell 1995, 179)



Plate Armor:
absent
716 BCE 700 BCE

By 600 BCE early Greeks and Romans had introduced the bronze cast bell muscle cuirass. [1] This is a military historian’s opinion. Do Roman specialists agree?

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

Plate Armor:
unknown
699 BCE 601 BCE

By 600 BCE early Greeks and Romans had introduced the bronze cast bell muscle cuirass. [1] This is a military historian’s opinion. Do Roman specialists agree?

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

Plate Armor:
present
600 BCE 509 BCE

By 600 BCE early Greeks and Romans had introduced the bronze cast bell muscle cuirass. [1] This is a military historian’s opinion. Do Roman specialists agree?

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Limb Protection:
present

Greaves, worn by classes I-II. [1] "Hoplite panoplies have been discovered in the so-called Tomb of the Warrior at Vulci, dating to c. 530 B.C., as well as in a tomb at Lanuvium in Latium dating to the early fifth century" (citing Torelli 1989 and Drummond). [2]

[1]: (Cornell 1995, 179)

[2]: (Forsythe 2006, 114) Forsythe, Gary. 2006. A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War. University of California Press.


Leather Cloth:
present

Leather lined shields. Linen and composite corselet armour. [1] "Hoplite panoplies have been discovered in the so-called Tomb of the Warrior at Vulci, dating to c. 530 B.C., as well as in a tomb at Lanuvium in Latium dating to the early fifth century" (citing Torelli 1989 and Drummond). [2]

[1]: (Fields 2011)

[2]: (Forsythe 2006, 114) Forsythe, Gary. 2006. A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War. University of California Press.


Laminar Armor:
unknown

Possible. Already introduced by the Assyrians.


Helmet:
present

Worn by classes I-III. [1] "Disc-and-stud helmet (Bologna, Museo Civico Archeologico) from the Necropoli sotto la Rocca-Lippi la Tomba Principesca N.85, 7th century BC ... made of a wickerwork cap reinforced with bronze discs, the gaps between these discs being filled with bronze studs." [2] - example from Lippi Necropolis, Verruchio. "Hoplite panoplies have been discovered in the so-called Tomb of the Warrior at Vulci, dating to c. 530 B.C., as well as in a tomb at Lanuvium in Latium dating to the early fifth century" (citing Torelli 1989 and Drummond). [3]

[1]: (Cornell 1995, 179)

[2]: (Fields 2011)

[3]: (Forsythe 2006, 114) Forsythe, Gary. 2006. A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War. University of California Press.



Breastplate:
present

Worn by class I. [1] Probably "based upon the elaborate poncho-type cuirass discovered at Narce (Tomb 43) in Etruria." [2] "Hoplite panoplies have been discovered in the so-called Tomb of the Warrior at Vulci, dating to c. 530 B.C., as well as in a tomb at Lanuvium in Latium dating to the early fifth century" (citing Torelli 1989 and Drummond). [3]

[1]: (Cornell 1995, 179)

[2]: (Fields 2011)

[3]: (Forsythe 2006, 114) Forsythe, Gary. 2006. A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War. University of California Press.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

RA couldn’t find relevant information. Expert advice is needed


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

RA couldn’t find relevant information. Expert advice is needed


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent

RA couldn’t find relevant information. Expert advice is needed



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.