Home Region:  Northeast Africa (Africa)

Egypt - Kushite Period

EQ 2020  eg_kushite / SdKusht

Towards the end of the preceding Thebes-Libyan period, the northern reaches of the Nile River were invaded by Amun-worshipping Kushites from the south who had built up a strong state based in Napata, in the Sudan, at the foot of Gebel Barkal mountain. [1] The first Kushite ruler of Egypt, Piye, was crowned in Napata; [2] this remained the capital of the Kushite Empire until c. 716 BCE, when the entire Nile Valley up to the delta was acquired under Shabaka, [3] who then moved the capital and royal residence from Napata to Memphis in order to emphasize the foreign dynasty’s respect for traditional Egyptian customs. [4] [5] Kushite rule of Egypt (the Twenty-fifth Dynasty) occurred within an extremely complex political climate that has been the cause of much debate among historians. The Twenty-third Dynasty of the preceding Thebes-Libyan Period survived throughout this period, only to be toppled by the first ruler of the Saite Kingdom, Psamtek I (r. 664-610; Twenty-sixth Dynasty). The Egyptologist Jeremy Pope concludes that the ’Double Kingdom’ (Kushite and Libyo-Egyptian) had some form of ’nominal unity’ across a large territory. [6]
Population and political organization
Scholars debate the extent to which there was a centralized bureaucracy in Egypt under Kushite rule. In Lower Nubia, the Kushite king may have exercised power through ’invisible elites’ such as merchants, pastoralists, and local potentates - ’a striking contrast with the bureaucratic formalization of Upper Egypt’. [7] Archaeologist Robert Morkot has argued that the Twenty-fifth Dynasty kept the Egyptian administrative system largely unchanged, making only relatively minor alterations such as appointing new individuals or families to official positions. [8] However, Jeremy Pope believes that we cannot use New Kingdom analogies to draw conclusions about Kushite governing principles, and that ’central authority and administration had disappeared’ in this period. [9] The Egyptian position of vizier probably continued but was ’deprived of effective power’. [10]
What is not in doubt is that the Kushite king was a powerful military ruler and, in the Libyan tradition, likely made marriage alliances with the elite throughout Egypt. [11] In general, Kushite rule drew its power from military capacity and the day-to-day workings of local government were left in the hands of the Egyptian dynasts. [12] Nubians and Egyptians also shared a common set of religious practices. King Piye, who successfully invaded Egypt, boasted of his divine legitimacy on a stele: ’Amon of Napata has made me sovereign over every people’, [3] and established an official cult of Amun around 780-760 BCE; his sister became priestess. [13] The existing powerful religious offices in Upper Egypt were also important for Kushite rule: the position of God’s Wife (or Divine Adoratrice) at Thebes was maintained due to its political utility, and Kushite royals were installed as high priests. [12] In earlier times, the high priest at Thebes had exercised both civil and military authority, but the Kushites maintained their own Kushite military commanders, while civil authority was given initially to Kushite governors and later to ’Theban bureaucrats’. [14] The end of Kushite rule in Egypt and the beginning of the Saite Dynasty furnishes a rare example of a peaceful transition, involving the adoption of the Saite princess Nitocris by the last Kushite Divine Adoratrice of Amun, Amenirdis II, in 656 BC. [15]
Kushite-period Memphis, where the chief royal residence was based, [5] is thought to have had a population of perhaps 65,000; the first capital, Napata, about 43,000. The Kushite Empire spanned roughly 600,000-700,000 square kilometres, but it is difficult to find reliable estimates for its population.

[1]: (Leclant 1981, 285) J. Leclant. 1981. ’The Empire of Kush: Napata and Meroe’, in General History of Africa, Vol II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa, edited by G. Mokhtar, 278-97. Paris: UNESCO.

[2]: (Török 1997, 154) László Török. 1997. The Kingdom of Kush: Handbook of the Napatan-Meriotic Civilization Handbook of Oriental Studies, No. 31. Leiden: Brill.

[3]: (Leclant 1981, 280) J. Leclant. 1981. ’The Empire of Kush: Napata and Meroe’, in General History of Africa, Vol II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa, edited by G. Mokhtar, 278-97. Paris: UNESCO.

[4]: (Török 1997, 167) László Török. 1997. The Kingdom of Kush: Handbook of the Napatan-Meriotic Civilization Handbook of Oriental Studies, No. 31. Leiden: Brill.

[5]: (Taylor 2000, 349) John Taylor. 2000. ’The Third Intermediate Period (1069-664 BC)’, in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 324-63. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[6]: (Pope 2014, 280) Jeremy Pope. 2014. The Double Kingdom Under Taharqo. Leiden: Brill.

[7]: (Pope 2014, 191) Jeremy Pope. 2014. The Double Kingdom Under Taharqo. Leiden: Brill.

[8]: (Morkot 2013, 963) Robert G. Morkot. 2014. ’Thebes under the Kushites’, in Tombs of the South Asasif Necropolis: Thebes, Karakhamun (TT 223), and Karabasken (TT 391) in the Twenty-fifth Dynasty, edited by Elena Pischikova, 5-22. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.

[9]: (Pope 2014, 203) Jeremy Pope. 2014. The Double Kingdom Under Taharqo. Leiden: Brill.

[10]: (Taylor 2000, 348) John Taylor. 2000. ’The Third Intermediate Period (1069-664 BC)’, in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 324-63. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[11]: (Morkot 2013, 961) Robert G. Morkot. 2014. ’Thebes under the Kushites’, in Tombs of the South Asasif Necropolis: Thebes, Karakhamun (TT 223), and Karabasken (TT 391) in the Twenty-fifth Dynasty, edited by Elena Pischikova, 5-22. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.

[12]: (O’Connor 1983, 243) David O’Connor. 1983. ’Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period c. 2686-1552 BC’, in Ancient Egypt: A Social History, edited by Bruce G. Trigger, Barry J. Kemp, David O’Connor and Alan B. Lloyd, 183-278. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[13]: (Török 1997, 144) László Török. 1997. The Kingdom of Kush: Handbook of the Napatan-Meriotic Civilization Handbook of Oriental Studies, No. 31. Leiden: Brill.

[14]: (O’Connor 1983, 208) David O’Connor. 1983. ’Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period c. 2686-1552 BC’, in Ancient Egypt: A Social History, edited by Bruce G. Trigger, Barry J. Kemp, David O’Connor and Alan B. Lloyd, 183-278. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[15]: (Morkot 2013) Robert G. Morkot. 2014. ’Thebes under the Kushites’, in Tombs of the South Asasif Necropolis: Thebes, Karakhamun (TT 223), and Karabasken (TT 391) in the Twenty-fifth Dynasty, edited by Elena Pischikova, 5-22. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
36 P  
Original Name:
Egypt - Kushite Period  
Capital:
Napata  
Memphis  
Napata  
Meroe  
Alternative Name:
25th Dynasty  
Ethiopian Dynasty  
Kingdom of Napata  
Cush  
Kush  
Kushite Kingdom  
Kush Empire  
Kushite Empire  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
663 BCE  
Duration:
[747 BCE ➜ 656 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
Supracultural Entity:
Nubia  
Succeeding Entity:
Neo-Assyrian Empire  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
[150,000 to 250,000] km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Egypt - Thebes-Libyan Period  
Degree of Centralization:
confederated state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Afro-Asiatic  
Language:
Merotic  
Egyptian  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Egyptian Religions  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
65,000 people 700 BCE
Polity Territory:
[600,000 to 700,000] km2 700 BCE
Polity Population:
[2,500,000 to 3,000,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[4 to 5]  
Religious Level:
6  
Military Level:
[4 to 6]  
Administrative Level:
5  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
inferred present  
Merit Promotion:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
inferred absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
inferred absent  
Judge:
inferred absent  
Formal Legal Code:
unknown  
Court:
unknown  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
inferred absent  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
inferred present  
Port:
inferred present  
Canal:
inferred present  
Bridge:
inferred present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
present  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
inferred present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
inferred present  
Practical Literature:
inferred present  
Philosophy:
inferred present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
inferred present  
Fiction:
inferred present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Token:
unknown  
Precious Metal:
inferred present  
Paper Currency:
inferred absent  
Indigenous Coin:
inferred absent  
Foreign Coin:
inferred absent  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown  
General Postal Service:
inferred absent  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
inferred present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
inferred present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
inferred present  
  Earth Rampart:
inferred present  
  Ditch:
inferred present  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
unknown  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
inferred present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
present  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
inferred present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
inferred absent  
  Composite Bow:
inferred present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred absent  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
inferred present  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
inferred present  
  Battle Axe:
inferred absent  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
present  
  Donkey:
unknown  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
inferred absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
inferred present  
  Shield:
inferred present  
  Scaled Armor:
inferred present  
  Plate Armor:
inferred absent  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
inferred present  
  Laminar Armor:
inferred absent  
  Helmet:
inferred present  
  Chainmail:
inferred absent  
  Breastplate:
inferred present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
inferred absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
inferred absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Egypt - Kushite Period (eg_kushite) was in:
 (760 BCE 656 BCE)   Upper Egypt
Home NGA: Upper Egypt

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Egypt - Kushite Period

Kingdom of Kush. [1]

[1]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 280)


Capital:
Napata

Napata: 800-716 BCE; Memphis: 716-664 BCE; Napata: 664-591 BCE; Meroe: 591-300 BCE
Capital began at Napata at the foot of the sacred Gebel Barkal mountain. [1] The Kushite ruler of Egypt was crowned in Napata. [2]
In c716 BCE Shabaka moved the capital and royal residence from Napata to Memphis [3] (or Thebes? [4] ).
Memphis was the capital of the immediate successors of Peye [5] possibly until Taharqa (690-664 BCE).
The capital was at Napata when the city was raided in 591 BCE. Capital moved to Meroe under Shandi. [6] [7]
Butana was an administrative city. [8]
"a stele from Kawa records that Taharqo was crowned at Memphis, and Shabaqo, Shabitqo, and Taharqo are all known to have carried out building works there. This made excellent political sense (Tanis being too remote geographically to serve as the focus for a united Egypt), but there were also sound ideological reasons for boosting the importance of the Memphite area, for in this way the Kushite pharaohs could associate themselves directly with the great rulers of the Old Kingdom." [9]
Memphis became the chief royal residence. [9]

[1]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 285)

[2]: (Török 1997, 154)

[3]: (Török 1997, 167)

[4]: (Stearns 2001, 31)

[5]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 284)

[6]: (Encyclopaedia Britannica 2011, [1])

[7]: (Metz 1991, [2])

[8]: (Török 1997, 153)

[9]: (Taylor 2000, 349)

Capital:
Memphis

Napata: 800-716 BCE; Memphis: 716-664 BCE; Napata: 664-591 BCE; Meroe: 591-300 BCE
Capital began at Napata at the foot of the sacred Gebel Barkal mountain. [1] The Kushite ruler of Egypt was crowned in Napata. [2]
In c716 BCE Shabaka moved the capital and royal residence from Napata to Memphis [3] (or Thebes? [4] ).
Memphis was the capital of the immediate successors of Peye [5] possibly until Taharqa (690-664 BCE).
The capital was at Napata when the city was raided in 591 BCE. Capital moved to Meroe under Shandi. [6] [7]
Butana was an administrative city. [8]
"a stele from Kawa records that Taharqo was crowned at Memphis, and Shabaqo, Shabitqo, and Taharqo are all known to have carried out building works there. This made excellent political sense (Tanis being too remote geographically to serve as the focus for a united Egypt), but there were also sound ideological reasons for boosting the importance of the Memphite area, for in this way the Kushite pharaohs could associate themselves directly with the great rulers of the Old Kingdom." [9]
Memphis became the chief royal residence. [9]

[1]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 285)

[2]: (Török 1997, 154)

[3]: (Török 1997, 167)

[4]: (Stearns 2001, 31)

[5]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 284)

[6]: (Encyclopaedia Britannica 2011, [1])

[7]: (Metz 1991, [2])

[8]: (Török 1997, 153)

[9]: (Taylor 2000, 349)

Capital:
Napata

Napata: 800-716 BCE; Memphis: 716-664 BCE; Napata: 664-591 BCE; Meroe: 591-300 BCE
Capital began at Napata at the foot of the sacred Gebel Barkal mountain. [1] The Kushite ruler of Egypt was crowned in Napata. [2]
In c716 BCE Shabaka moved the capital and royal residence from Napata to Memphis [3] (or Thebes? [4] ).
Memphis was the capital of the immediate successors of Peye [5] possibly until Taharqa (690-664 BCE).
The capital was at Napata when the city was raided in 591 BCE. Capital moved to Meroe under Shandi. [6] [7]
Butana was an administrative city. [8]
"a stele from Kawa records that Taharqo was crowned at Memphis, and Shabaqo, Shabitqo, and Taharqo are all known to have carried out building works there. This made excellent political sense (Tanis being too remote geographically to serve as the focus for a united Egypt), but there were also sound ideological reasons for boosting the importance of the Memphite area, for in this way the Kushite pharaohs could associate themselves directly with the great rulers of the Old Kingdom." [9]
Memphis became the chief royal residence. [9]

[1]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 285)

[2]: (Török 1997, 154)

[3]: (Török 1997, 167)

[4]: (Stearns 2001, 31)

[5]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 284)

[6]: (Encyclopaedia Britannica 2011, [1])

[7]: (Metz 1991, [2])

[8]: (Török 1997, 153)

[9]: (Taylor 2000, 349)

Napata: 800-716 BCE; Memphis: 716-664 BCE; Napata: 664-591 BCE; Meroe: 591-300 BCE
Capital began at Napata at the foot of the sacred Gebel Barkal mountain. [1] The Kushite ruler of Egypt was crowned in Napata. [2]
In c716 BCE Shabaka moved the capital and royal residence from Napata to Memphis [3] (or Thebes? [4] ).
Memphis was the capital of the immediate successors of Peye [5] possibly until Taharqa (690-664 BCE).
The capital was at Napata when the city was raided in 591 BCE. Capital moved to Meroe under Shandi. [6] [7]
Butana was an administrative city. [8]
"a stele from Kawa records that Taharqo was crowned at Memphis, and Shabaqo, Shabitqo, and Taharqo are all known to have carried out building works there. This made excellent political sense (Tanis being too remote geographically to serve as the focus for a united Egypt), but there were also sound ideological reasons for boosting the importance of the Memphite area, for in this way the Kushite pharaohs could associate themselves directly with the great rulers of the Old Kingdom." [9]
Memphis became the chief royal residence. [9]

[1]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 285)

[2]: (Török 1997, 154)

[3]: (Török 1997, 167)

[4]: (Stearns 2001, 31)

[5]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 284)

[6]: (Encyclopaedia Britannica 2011, [1])

[7]: (Metz 1991, [2])

[8]: (Török 1997, 153)

[9]: (Taylor 2000, 349)


Alternative Name:
25th Dynasty

Ethiopian Dynasty is a term from French historiographical tradition. Not to be confused with modern Ethiopia. [1]

[1]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 281)

Alternative Name:
Ethiopian Dynasty

Ethiopian Dynasty is a term from French historiographical tradition. Not to be confused with modern Ethiopia. [1]

[1]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 281)

Alternative Name:
Kingdom of Napata

Ethiopian Dynasty is a term from French historiographical tradition. Not to be confused with modern Ethiopia. [1]

[1]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 281)

Alternative Name:
Cush

Ethiopian Dynasty is a term from French historiographical tradition. Not to be confused with modern Ethiopia. [1]

[1]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 281)

Alternative Name:
Kush

Ethiopian Dynasty is a term from French historiographical tradition. Not to be confused with modern Ethiopia. [1]

[1]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 281)

Alternative Name:
Kushite Kingdom

Ethiopian Dynasty is a term from French historiographical tradition. Not to be confused with modern Ethiopia. [1]

[1]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 281)

Alternative Name:
Kush Empire

Ethiopian Dynasty is a term from French historiographical tradition. Not to be confused with modern Ethiopia. [1]

[1]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 281)

Alternative Name:
Kushite Empire

Ethiopian Dynasty is a term from French historiographical tradition. Not to be confused with modern Ethiopia. [1]

[1]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 281)


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
663 BCE

Taharqa (690-664 BCE). [1] Also date of peak territory prior to the capture of Thebes by the Neo-Assyrian Empire.

[1]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 281)


Duration:
[747 BCE ➜ 656 BCE]

"Table 1. The chronology of the cultures on the Middle Nile, ninth century BC to sixteenth century AD." [1]
Kushite, Napatan phase, 9th-4th BCE
Kushite, Meroitic phase, 4th BCE - 4th CE
Post-Meroitic, Post-pyramidal Meroitic phase, 4th - 6th CE (below 3rd cataract)
X-Group, Ballana culture phase, 4th - 6th CE (between 1st and 3rd cataract)
Christian, Transitional phase, 550-600 CE
"Kushite rule in Thebes lasted from around 750 BC until the transfer of power to Psamtik I marked by the arrival of the Saite princess Nitocris to be adopted by Amenirdis II in 656 BC." [2]
Kingdom of Meroe begins 591 BCE.
Kushite rule 747-664 BCE [3]
"Kushites still acknowledged in Upper Egypt until 656 BCE." [4]

[1]: (Welsby 2002, 13) Derek A Welsby. 2002. The Medieval Kingdoms of Nubia. Pagans, Christians and Muslims along the Middle Nile. The British Museum Press. London.

[2]: (Morkot 2014) Morkot, Robert G. Thebes under the Kushites. in Pischikova, Elena. ed. 2014. Tombs of the South Asasif Necropolis: Thebes, Karakhamun (TT 223), and Karabasken (TT 391) in the Twenty-fifth Dynasty. American University in Cairo Press.

[3]: (Taylor 2000, 345)

[4]: (Alcock 2001, 245) Alcock, S E. 2001. Empires: Perspectives from Archaeology and History. Cambridge University Press.


Political and Cultural Relations


Succeeding Entity:
Neo-Assyrian Empire

Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
[150,000 to 250,000] km2

km squared.



Preceding Entity:
Egypt - Thebes-Libyan Period

This could in future be changed for the short Hermopolis period in Upper Egypt.


Degree of Centralization:
confederated state

[1]
"The Double Kingdom may therefore be credited with some form of ’nominal unity’ across a considerable territory." [2]

[1]: (Taylor 2000, 353-354)

[2]: (Pope 2014, 280) Pope, Jeremy. 2014. The Double Kingdom Under Taharqo. BRILL. Leiden.


Language

Language:
Merotic

Egyptianized professional class [1] [2] Kushite language. Expressed first in Egyptian hieroglyphs, then Kushite hieroglyphs, then Kushite cursive writing. [3]

[1]: (Török 1997, 153)

[2]: (Welsby 1998, 20)

[3]: (Encyclopaedia Britannica 2011, [3])

Language:
Egyptian

Egyptianized professional class [1] [2] Kushite language. Expressed first in Egyptian hieroglyphs, then Kushite hieroglyphs, then Kushite cursive writing. [3]

[1]: (Török 1997, 153)

[2]: (Welsby 1998, 20)

[3]: (Encyclopaedia Britannica 2011, [3])


Religion



Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
65,000 people
700 BCE

65,000: 660 BCE; 47,000: 430 BCE In 650 BCE Memphis had a population of 65,000 and Napata had a population of 43,000. [1] Meroë 47,000: 430 BCE. [2]

[1]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

[2]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet])


Polity Territory:
[600,000 to 700,000] km2
700 BCE

Campaigns of Peye c720 BCE. By 750 occupied part of Upper Egypt. [1] By 713 BCE, entire Nile Valley to Delta under Empire of Kush. Still there under Taharqa (690-664 BCE). [2] 663 BCE Assyrians capture Thebes. Soon thereafter end of Empire in Egypt.
[600,000-700,000]: 700 BCE

[1]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 278-279)

[2]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 280-281)


Polity Population:
[2,500,000 to 3,000,000] people

2.5 million for Egypt, 0.5 million for region of Sudan under control of Kingdom of Meroe (successor polity, dated sixth century BCE to fourth century CE). [1]

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 226, 235)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[4 to 5]

At most: (1) Capital; (2) Regional centres; (3) Minor centres; (4) Villages; (5) Hamlets. Inferred from previous periods.


Religious Level:
6

Official cult of Amun established c780-760 BCE under Alara, whose sister was made a priestess. [1] High priests. [2]
Temples were centres of territorial administration. [3]
Peye claimed divine legitimacy, as written on one Stele: “Amon of Napata has made me sovereign over every people.” [4]
Priests of temple of Amum had “enormous influence.” [5]
"The highest ranks in the priestly offices of Thebes were those of Gods’ Wife of Amun and the High Priest (First Prophet) of Amun." "Of the other major priesthoods of Amun at Thebes some, such as that of Second Prophet," seem to have ’gaps’ in the recorded holders." There was also a rank of Third Prophet and Fourth Prophet. [6]
1. King?2. Gods’ Wife of Amun3. High Priest or First Prophet of Amun4. Second Prophet5. Third Prophet6. Fourth Prophet
... ? ...... ? ...
"A cult that may be specifically Twenty-fifth Dynasty in date is that of the Wadjty, the Two Serpent Goddesses: this may be connected with the two cobras worn by the Kushite kings. The priests of this cult also carry the title "Royal Friend," suggesting a close connection with the kingship." [7]

[1]: (Török 1997, 144)

[2]: (Török 1997, 179)

[3]: (Török 1997, 171)

[4]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 280)

[5]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 318)

[6]: (Morkot 2013, 962)

[7]: (Morkot 2014, 11) Morkot, Robert G. Thebes under the Kushites. in Pischikova, Elena. ed. 2014. Tombs of the South Asasif Necropolis: Thebes, Karakhamun (TT 223), and Karabasken (TT 391) in the Twenty-fifth Dynasty. American University in Cairo Press.


Military Level:
[4 to 6]

levels. Estimated. Competent and organized enough to take conquer.
At the least something like:
1. Ruler
2. Army commanders(3. Captains)4. Individual soldiers


Administrative Level:
5

Argument in favour of the existence of a central administration: "As far as we can see Kushite rule did not alter the way in which Egypt was administered: the alterations were more straightforwardly related to the holders of office, whether individuals or families." [1] - however, others (E.g. Exell and Naunton) argued that central authority and administration had disappeared by 25th Dynasty.
Argument against the existence of a central administration: "Exell and Naunton have concluded that New Kingdom analogies are of little help for ascertaining the governing principles of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty." [2] Exell and Naunton argue: "Maat having been achieved, the pharoah was perhaps content to leave the mundane business of running the country to those individuals and systems already in place: which, if true, confirms that, by this point, central authority and administration had disappeared." [2]
1. King
autocratic ruler. Royal residence (likely Meroe) centre of political rule. [3]
Period saw the decline of centralized state, emergence of "direct regency of god". [4]
"The Kushites followed Libyan practice by making marriage alliances with the elite, probably throughout Egypt." [5]
_ Central government line_ [3] NOTE: Central government may not have existed
2. The position of vizier continued but was "deprived of effective power." [6] King did not delegate power to an office of vizier or high priest.
Government had "federate character."
However: Morkot refers to a Vizierate [7]
2. Known titles of officials: Chiefs of treasury; army commanders; seal bearers; heads of archives; chiefs of granaries; the chief scribe of Kush.Officials played a role in the election of a king
high priests were in the key offices of government [8]
3. ... ? ...
Note: the granaries administration could involve than 5 levels
_Provincial line_ [3]
2. Regional viceroyRegional viceroy ("pesto") directly responsible to king. [9]
Key offices in Upper Egypt: Southern Vizierate, High Steward of the Divine Adoratrice, Mayor of Thebes; Lower Egypt: (local dynasties and ancestral territories of unknown dependence). [8]
3. Provincial governorsProvinces: traces of royal palaces in localities. [3]
Provincial centres. [10]
"In the north ... the local dynasts were left in control of their provinces " until the Kushite reconquest of Egypt in 716 BCE when Shabaqo "forcibly imposed his authority over the provincial governors." [11]
4. MayorE.g. Mayor of Thebes [8] [5]
5. Village chief
Jeremy Pope, The Double Kingdom Under Taharqo.
"Naunton has argued that Kushite diplomacy in Thebes was then extended to all Egypt" [12]
"Nevertheless, the absence of evidence for either centralized administration or state investment should not be taken to signify a political vacuum. A more defensible scenario would instead posit Taharqo’s immediate subordinates within the region as ’invisible elites’ - merchants, pastoralists, and local potentates essential to the functioning of the state who neither held office within centralized institution nor manifested their wealth and influence through biographical inscriptions and private statuary. In this regard, Lower Nubia under the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty present a striking contrast with the bureaucratic formalization of Upper Egypt." [13]
"Semna West, Buhen, Qasr Ibrim, and Philae can be viewed primarily as loci for the ’formulation, demonstration, and explanation of royal authority’ - i.e., as sites for the promotion of ritual suzerainty in lieu of centralized administration. ... However, the intra-site and inter-site sustainability networks of Egyptian-style temple-towns are not well-reflected in the surviving evidence from the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty." [14]
"Across the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty, neither a Vizier, a God’s Wife of Amun, her Chief Steward, nor any other state official below the pharaoh is attested iconographically or textually between the First and Third Cataracts. The marked contrast between this circumstance and the elaborate hierarchy of officialdom in Upper Egypt and Upper Nubia on either side would suggest that Lower Nubia was rather treated as a separate unit." [15]
"the Kushite kings of the Napatan era were evidently not averse to delegating responsibility from afar - much as Taharqo appears to have done during the temple constructions at Kawa and Sanam." [16]
"Immediately below the king were the royal kinsmen (sn.w. nsw), from among whom the heir apparent was chosen by means of the Amun oracle." [16]
Royal kinsmen "did not hold a monpoloy on upon the highest offices of government for as in Aspelta’s Enthronement Stela the royal kinsmen were sent before the oracle by a separate group of commanders ..., palace officials ..., and ’friends’..." [16] Aspelta is post-25th Dynasty
"a variety of more specific offices are attested, all clearly named after Egyptian precedents": these include Mayor, Palace Treasurer, Royal Sealer, Superior of the Tribunal, Chief Scribe, Royal Scribe, Overseer of the Gold of the Hill-Countries, Overseer of the Granary, Royal Scribe of the Granary, Scribe of the Temple-Compound, Sistrum-Player, Prohet, Great Priest, Chief Official of the God. [17]
Inscriptional record suggests there was not a royal monopoly on these positions. [17]
One analysis is "Upper Egypt was the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty state - the only Egyptian region in which Kushite hegemony approached the time-honored pharaonic ideal of centralized governance ... An alternative view ... articulated by Naunton ... Upper Egypt was not exceptional but rather microcosmic - even formative - for Kushitenherrschaft and its development over the course of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty." [18]
"The Amun cult belonged in large part to the Kushite house, but the civil administration of Upper Egypt evidently did not." [19]
Civil administration in Delta region, titles: "Grandee in the Towns of the East", "Grandee of the East", "Prophet of Bastet, mistress of Bubastis". Montuhotep was also a Northern Vizier. [20]
In the Dongola-Napata Reach "the details of local administration found in the royal corpus of the Napatan period speak quite forcefully against the assumptions that Upper Nubian officialdom was peopled by Egyptian emigres or controlled by a small oligarchy. Authority appears instead to have been dispersed across a number of kin groups; there is odddly little pyramidal hierachy of governmental positions; and offices which might otherwise be equated with the king’s unique deputy are found divided among several individuals." [21] this provides possible inferrence for 25th Dynasty
"the most recent attempt at a comprehensive analysis of Theban officials and their duties during the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty has concluded that even in Upper Egypt ’it is not possible to speak of a "court" for the centuries following the New Kingdom,’ as ’central authority and administration had disappeared’ [quoting Naunton]" [22]
O’Conner (1983) [23]
"Kushite rule was based on military strength, and local civil government was left largely to the Egyptian dynasts." [24]
"At Thebes, the Kushites continued the politically useful office of ’god’s wife’; the High Priesthood, held by a Kushite prince and his son, was revived but stripped of military and civil authority. The former was surely exercised by Kushite commanders, the latter first by Kushite governors, and later by Theban bureaucrats." [24]

[1]: (Morkot 2014, 963) Robert G Morkot. 2014. ’Thebes under the Kushites’ in Tombs of the South Asasif Necropolis: Thebes, Karakhamun (TT 223), and Karabasken (TT 391) in the Twenty-fifth Dynasty edited by Elena Pischikova. American University in Cairo Press.

[2]: (Pope 2014, 203) Pope, Jeremy. 2014. The Double Kingdom Under Taharqo. BRILL. Leiden.

[3]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 304-305)

[4]: (Török 1997, 156)

[5]: (Morkot 2013, 961)

[6]: (Taylor 2000, 348)

[7]: (Morkot 2013, 963)

[8]: (Török 1997, 179-180)

[9]: (Welsby 1998, 35)

[10]: (Török 1997, 172)

[11]: (Taylor 2000, 347)

[12]: (Pope 2014, 279) Pope, Jeremy. 2014. The Double Kingdom Under Taharqo. BRILL. Leiden.

[13]: (Pope 2014, 191) Pope, Jeremy. 2014. The Double Kingdom Under Taharqo. BRILL. Leiden.

[14]: (Pope 2014, 179) Pope, Jeremy. 2014. The Double Kingdom Under Taharqo. BRILL. Leiden.

[15]: (Pope 2014, 174) Pope, Jeremy. 2014. The Double Kingdom Under Taharqo. BRILL. Leiden.

[16]: (Pope 2014, 148) Pope, Jeremy. 2014. The Double Kingdom Under Taharqo. BRILL. Leiden.

[17]: (Pope 2014, 149) Pope, Jeremy. 2014. The Double Kingdom Under Taharqo. BRILL. Leiden.

[18]: (Pope 2014, 194) Pope, Jeremy. 2014. The Double Kingdom Under Taharqo. BRILL. Leiden.

[19]: (Pope 2014, 202) Pope, Jeremy. 2014. The Double Kingdom Under Taharqo. BRILL. Leiden.

[20]: (Pope 2014, 266) Pope, Jeremy. 2014. The Double Kingdom Under Taharqo. BRILL. Leiden.

[21]: (Pope 2014, 276) Pope, Jeremy. 2014. The Double Kingdom Under Taharqo. BRILL. Leiden.

[22]: (Pope 2014, 277) Pope, Jeremy. 2014. The Double Kingdom Under Taharqo. BRILL. Leiden.

[23]: (O’Connor 1983) O’Connor, David. "New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period 1552-664 BC" in Trigger, B G. Kemp, B J. O’Connor, D. LLoyd, A B. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[24]: (O’Connor 1983, 243) O’Connor, David. "New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period 1552-664 BC" in Trigger, B G. Kemp, B J. O’Connor, D. LLoyd, A B. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

[1]

[1]: (Welsby 1998, 35, 39)


Professional Priesthood:
present

Priesthood of Amun. [1] Egyptian cult temples established with professional personnel. [2]
Taharqa (690-664 BCE) endowed one of his numerous temples with ??? kilogrammes of gold in nine years. [3]

[1]: (Welsby 1998, 35)

[2]: (Török 1997, 153 and 167)

[3]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 311)


Professional Military Officer:
present

[1]

[1]: (Welsby 1998, 35, 39)


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Inferred from existence in previous periods.


Merit Promotion:
unknown

Foreign Kushite rulers may have been willing to choose Egyptian officials based on their abilities since there wouldn’t be the problem of nepotism.


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

Including an Egyptianized professional class [1] and an official treasurer [2] .

[1]: (Török 1997, 153)

[2]: (Török 1997, 178)


Examination System:
absent

No reference to examination system found.


Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent

No professional judges or lawyers. [1] First professional lawyers in Ptolemaic era.

[1]: (McDowell 2001)


No professional judges or lawyers. [1]

[1]: (McDowell 2001)




Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

There were market places in Ancient Egypt e.g. Ramesside Egypt.


Irrigation System:
present

Ancient irrigation works on Kerma plateau date from c1500 BCE. First shaduf human-powered system, then the saqiya animal-powered water-wheel. However, latter probably appeared in Lower Nubia only in Meroitic times, after 300 BCE. [1]

[1]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 309)


Food Storage Site:
present

Granaries. [1]

[1]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 304-305)



Transport Infrastructure

"Today a road known as the “Forty Days Road” (so named because of the time it takes to traverse), takes the same route to Egypt as the ancient Meroitic road, and passes right by the cemetery." [1]

[1]: (Powell, E A. 2013. Monday, June 10. Miniature Pyramids of Sudan. http://www.archaeology.org/issues/95-1307/features/940-sedeinga-necropolis-sudan-meroe-nubia)


Inferred from existence of "Shipping Masters" or "Masters of the Quay." [1]

[1]: (Morkot 2013, 959)



Bridge:
present

Small bridges existed in Ramesside Egypt. [1]

[1]: (Arnold 2003, 37)


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

During antiquity Kush produced estimated 1.6 million kg (1600 metric tonnes) of gold. [1]

[1]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 311)


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Stele texts. [1] Sanam Historical Inscription of Taharqo. [2]

[1]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981)

[2]: Edwards, David N. University of Leicester. Jeremy Pope. The Double Kingdom under Taharqo: Studies in the History of Kush and Egypt, c. 690 - 664 BC (Leiden: Brill, 2014).



Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent

The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language. The repertoire of glyphs is based on the Greek alphabet augmented by letters borrowed from the Egyptian Demotic and is the first alphabetic script used for the Egyptian language. [1]

[1]: Ritner, Robert Kriech. 1996. "The Coptic Alphabet". In The World’s Writing Systems, edited by Peter T. Daniels and William Bright. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. 1994:287-290.


Nonwritten Record:
present

Stele texts. [1] Sanam Historical Inscription of Taharqo. [2]

[1]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981)

[2]: Edwards, David N. University of Leicester. Jeremy Pope. The Double Kingdom under Taharqo: Studies in the History of Kush and Egypt, c. 690 - 664 BC (Leiden: Brill, 2014).


Non Phonetic Writing:
present

Hieroglyphs.



Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Medical texts were known in Ramesside Egypt and temples and libraries were maintained in the Kushite period.


Sacred Text:
present

Temple libraries.


Religious Literature:
present

"... Egypt’s court culture, religion, script, literature, art, architecture ... " [1]

[1]: (Taylor 2000, 351)


Practical Literature:
present

"... Egypt’s court culture, religion, script, literature, art, architecture ... " [1]

[1]: (Taylor 2000, 351)


Philosophy:
present

Temples and libraries were maintained that had books on philosophy consulted/written by priests.


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Libraries and archives existed.


History:
present

"... Egypt’s court culture, religion, script, literature, art, architecture ... " [1]

[1]: (Taylor 2000, 351)


Fiction:
present

Present in Ramesside Egypt. There was a literate culture in Egypt: "... Egypt’s court culture, religion, script, literature, art, architecture ... " [1]

[1]: (Taylor 2000, 351)


Calendar:
present

Egyptian likely in use, transmitted via temples.


Information / Money






Information / Postal System



Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

needs expert verification


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present

needs expert verification


Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown

needs expert verification


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

needs expert verification




Fortified Camp:
present

needs expert verification


Earth Rampart:
present

needs expert verification



Complex Fortification:
absent

Despite textual descriptions and iconographic depictions of sieged warfare in the first millennium BCE, there is little evidence for walls surrounding entire settlements; indeed, the norm seems to have been for walls to surround temple complexes, and for the rest of the settlement to remain exposed, though it is possible that the settlement’s inhabitants could expect to find reguge within the temple enclosure in the event of an attack. [1]

[1]: (Kemp 2004: 271-276) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/HD39CU6I.



Military use of Metals

Little evidence of iron working during this period. [1] In Egypt! presumably. This is a Sudanese based polity: "It is thought that the seventh century Kushite king Taharqa ’deliberately initiated a large iron industry at Meroe after learning that the Assyrians had begun using iron weapons." Excavations suggest 10 tons of metal were produced per annum at Meroe." [2] The Butana Plain was deforested to produce the charcoal needed for the iron smelters at Meroe. [3]

[1]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 312)

[2]: J P Martin. 2016. African Empires: Volume 1: Your Guide to the Historical Record of Africa. Volume 1. Trafford Publishing.

[3]: (Collins and Burns 2014, 61) Robert O Collins. James M Burns. 2014. A History of Sub-Saharan Africa. Second Edition. Cambridge University Press. New York.


Copper:
present

"the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty" [1]

[1]: (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 135-138) Fischer-Bovet (2014) Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge University Press


Bronze:
present

"the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty" [1]

[1]: (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 135-138) Fischer-Bovet (2014) Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge University Press


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

not yet developed


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

not yet developed


"The sling is shown being used in assault on towns in the early Middle Kingdom tombs at Beni Hasan. Examples found in the tomb of Tutankhamun were made of linen. Despite its rare appearance in battle scenes, it was probably widely used. [...] A sling shot from the Ptolemaic and Roman periods could be made of lead, and carried inscribed messages for the unfortunate recipient." [1]

[1]: (Morkot 2010: 222) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/AHFJE5Z2.


Self Bow:
present

"In western Asia, [the self bow] was replaced by the composite bow. In Egypt, the self-bow continued to be widely used, especially by Nubian troops." [1] According to this source, for which we require expert confirmation: "Kushite soldiers were expert archers. Nubian bows were about six feet in length. Arrows were short with poisonous tips." [2] Arrow-heads. [3]

[1]: (Morkot 2010: 50) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/AHFJE5Z2.

[2]: (http://www.afropedea.org/kush#TOC-Military)

[3]: (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 278)


Javelin:
present

Javelins common in this period.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

not yet developed


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

not yet developed




New World weapon


Handheld weapons
War Club:
absent

Academic histories of warfare and weaponry in Egypt stop mentioning axes and maces once they reach the New Kingdom, suggesting they fell out of use. This source, for which we require expert confirmation, say the Kushites "fought with clubs, swords, pikes, and hatchets." [1]

[1]: (http://www.afropedea.org/kush#TOC-Military)


This source, for which we require expert confirmation, say the Kushites "fought with clubs, swords, pikes, and hatchets." [1]

[1]: (http://www.afropedea.org/kush#TOC-Military)


Spear:
present

Widely used in previous periods. This source, for which we require expert confirmation, say the Kushites "fought with clubs, swords, pikes, and hatchets." [1]

[1]: (http://www.afropedea.org/kush#TOC-Military)



Dagger:
present

This source, for which we require expert confirmation, say the Kushites "fought with clubs, swords, pikes, and hatchets." [1]

[1]: (http://www.afropedea.org/kush#TOC-Military)


Battle Axe:
absent

Academic histories of warfare and weaponry in Egypt stop mentioning axes and maces once they reach the New Kingdom, suggesting they fell out of use. This source, for which we require expert confirmation, say the Kushites "fought with clubs, swords, pikes, and hatchets." [1]

[1]: (http://www.afropedea.org/kush#TOC-Military)


Animals used in warfare

Horse breeding, chariots, cavalry. [1] According to this source, for which we require expert confirmation: “Horses may have been considered sacred since Napatan pharaohs were often found buried together with their horses. However, unlike the Egyptians, the Kushites preferred to ride directly on top of horses rather than use chariots or oxen." [2] Horse remains from Buhen, Upper Nubia, show characteristics of domestication (1700-1600 BC) [3]

[1]: (Török 1997, 158)

[2]: ([4])

[3]: Kelekna, Pita. Northern Africa: Equestrian Penetration of the Sahara and the Sahel and Its Impact on Adjacent Regions in Olsen, Sandra, ed. 2013. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, in press.


Elephant:
present

According to this source, for which we require expert confirmation: "Kushite military also fought with elephants. They were probably the first to use elephants in warfare in the ancient world. They trained war elephants for export to Egypt." [1]

[1]: (http://www.afropedea.org/kush#TOC-Military)


Donkey:
unknown

"During the Bronze Age the standard mechanism of transport was the donkey (Egypt) or the solid-wheeled cart drawn by the onager (Sumer). Ramses II revolutionized Egyptian logistics by introducing the ox-drawn cart, which quickly became the standard mode of military logistical transport for almost a thousand years." [1] Donkey may still have, on occasion, been used.

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 7) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.



camels not considered native to Egypt, likely introduced by Persians in 525 BCE


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

needs expert verification


Shield:
present

during the 18th Dynasty Kushite tribute to Egypt included shields. [1]

[1]: (Morkot 2010, 25) Morkot, R. 2010. The A to Z of Ancient Egyptian Warfare. Rowman & Littlefield.


Scaled Armor:
present

"the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty, "but it consisted of nothing more elaborate than metal scales sewn onto a leather base." [1]

[1]: (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 135-138) Fischer-Bovet (2014) Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge University Press


Plate Armor:
absent

"the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty, "but it consisted of nothing more elaborate than metal scales sewn onto a leather base." [1]

[1]: (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 135-138) Fischer-Bovet (2014) Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge University Press


Limb Protection:
present

In the New Kingdom: "Body armour, in the formof small bronze plates riveted to linen or leather jerkins, with a tapered lower half, began to be used." Jerkins do not have sleeves. [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1991: 42) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.


Leather Cloth:
present

needs expert verification


Laminar Armor:
absent

"the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty, "but it consisted of nothing more elaborate than metal scales sewn onto a leather base." [1]

[1]: (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 135-138) Fischer-Bovet (2014) Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge University Press


Helmet:
present

Certainly present in Egypt probably worn by charioteers by the 18th Dynasty c1500 BCE. [1]

[1]: (Hoffmeier 2001) J K Hoffmeier in D B Redford. ed. 2001. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Chainmail:
absent

In the New Kingdom mail coats were made out of bronze developed for charioteers. Evidence from a scene from the tomb of Kenamun. Colour of painting suggests bronze used for scales. [1] Is Hoffmeier referring to chainmail or coats with scales? Code assumes the latter. "the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty, "but it consisted of nothing more elaborate than metal scales sewn onto a leather base." [2]

[1]: (Hoffmeier 2001)

[2]: (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 135-138) Fischer-Bovet (2014) Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge University Press


Breastplate:
present

In the New Kingdom: "Body armour, in the formof small bronze plates riveted to linen or leather jerkins, with a tapered lower half, began to be used." Jerkins do not have sleeves. [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1991: 42) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

needs expert verification


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

needs expert verification


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent

needs expert verification



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.