Home Region:  Northeast Africa (Africa)

Egypt - Thebes-Libyan Period

D G SC WF HS CC EQ 2020  eg_thebes_libyan / EgThebL

Preceding:
1293 BCE 1070 BCE Egypt - New Kingdom Ramesside Period (eg_new_k_2)    [elite migration]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
747 BCE 656 BCE Egypt - Kushite Period (eg_kushite)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

The Theban-Libyan Period in Egypt (Twenty-first, Twenty-second and Twenty-third Dynasties, 1069-747 BCE) [1] represents another time of decentralization in Egypt and, together with the subsequent Kushite period, makes up the Third Intermediate Period. [2]
Population and political organization
The governments at Memphis and Thebes followed the traditional ’intermediate period’ pattern of rulers (pharaoh at Memphis, high priest at Thebes) who ran a bureaucratic system managed by a vizier and overseers of departments. [3] However, the vizier and overseers of the treasury and granaries were unable to project their influence over the regions [3] and Egypt in this period is best characterised as ’a federation of semi-autonomous rulers, nominally subject (and often related) to an overlord-king’. [4]
The Egyptian pharaohs of the Twenty-first Dynasty (1077-943 BCE), based at Memphis near the Nile Delta, [5] served only as nominal heads of state for the whole of Egypt; [6] a formal agreement ceded control of Middle and Upper Egypt to priest-rulers at Thebes. [7] [6] The priests, who doubled as military commanders, derived their right to rule from the oracles of the ’Theban triad’ of gods, Amun, Mut and Khons. [8]
The Twenty-first Dynasty pharaohs, perhaps in an effort to provide greater legitimacy for their rule over Upper Egypt, turned Tanis in the delta into a ’holy city’, building royal tombs within temples built for the Theban triad. [5] The most powerful pharaoh of this period, however, was the first Libyan ruler and founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty, Shoshenq I (r. 945-924 BCE). He embarked on an ’ambitious royal building programme’ and attempted to regain control of the entirety of Egypt, curtail Thebes’ independence, and expand into the Levant. [9] The high point did not last long. The perennial problem of Upper Egyptian independence eventually led to the formal division of the state, an imaginative if drastic solution that created a parallel Twenty-third Dynasty based in Leontopolis, or perhaps Herakleopolis. [10] The new dynasty was enjoined to reassert control of the south, allowing the Twenty-second Dynasty rulers to concentrate on Lower Egypt. [10] This did not work: by the time of Shoshenq III (r. 827-773 CE), the Twenty-second Dynasty pharaohs could barely even control the north: ’numerous local rulers - particularly in the Delta - became virtually autonomous and several declared themselves kings’. [11]
Unfortunately, due to scant evidence, there are no reliable population estimates for this time.

[1]: (Baines 2017) John Baines. January 2017. Seshat workshop. Oxford.

[2]: (Pagliari 2012, 183) Giulia Pagliari. 2012. ’Function and Significance of Ancient Egyptian Royal Palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite Period: A Lexicographical Study and Its Possible Connection with the Archaeological Evidence’. PhD thesis, University of Birmingham.

[3]: (Taylor 2000, 337) John Taylor. 2000. ’The Third Intermediate Period (1069-664 BC)’, in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 324-63. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[4]: (Taylor 2000, 338) John Taylor. 2000. ’The Third Intermediate Period (1069-664 BC)’, in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 324-63. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[5]: (Taylor 2000, 327) John Taylor. 2000. ’The Third Intermediate Period (1069-664 BC)’, in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 324-63. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[6]: (Van De Mieroop 2011, 270) Marc Van De Mieroop. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

[7]: (O’Connor 1983, 232) David O’Connor. 1983. ’Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period c. 2686-1552 BC’, in Ancient Egypt: A Social History, edited by Bruce G. Trigger, Barry J. Kemp, David O’Connor and Alan B. Lloyd, 183-278. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[8]: (Taylor 2000, 327-28) John Taylor. 2000. ’The Third Intermediate Period (1069-664 BC)’, in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 324-63. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[9]: (Taylor 2000, 329) John Taylor. 2000. ’The Third Intermediate Period (1069-664 BC)’, in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 324-63. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[10]: (O’Connor 1983, 233) David O’Connor. 1983. ’Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period c. 2686-1552 BC’, in Ancient Egypt: A Social History, edited by Bruce G. Trigger, Barry J. Kemp, David O’Connor and Alan B. Lloyd, 183-278. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[11]: (Taylor 2000, 330) John Taylor. 2000. ’The Third Intermediate Period (1069-664 BC)’, in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 324-63. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
36 R  
Original Name:
Egypt - Thebes-Libyan Period  
Capital:
Memphis  
Alternative Name:
Third Intermediate Period  
Bubastite dynasty  
Libyan dynasty  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
924 BCE  
Duration:
[1,069 BCE ➜ 747 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
Supracultural Entity:
Libyan tribes  
Succeeding Entity:
Egypt - Kushite Period  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
350,000 km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
elite migration  
Preceding Entity:
Succeeding: Egypt - Kushite Period (eg_kushite)    [continuity]  
Preceding:   Egypt - New Kingdom Ramesside Period (eg_new_k_2)    [elite migration]  
Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity  
nominal  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Afro-Asiatic  
Language:
Ancient Egyptian  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Egyptian Religions  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
120,000 people 1069 BCE 951 BCE
100,000 people 950 BCE 761 BCE
Polity Territory:
[190,000 to 230,000] km2  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[3 to 5]  
Religious Level:
[3 to 5]  
Military Level:
[4 to 6]  
Administrative Level:
[5 to 7]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
inferred present  
Merit Promotion:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
inferred absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown  
Judge:
unknown  
Formal Legal Code:
unknown  
Court:
unknown  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
inferred present  
Irrigation System:
inferred present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
absent  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
inferred present  
Port:
inferred present  
Canal:
inferred present  
Bridge:
inferred present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
present  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
inferred present  
Sacred Text:
inferred present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
inferred present  
Philosophy:
inferred present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
inferred present  
History:
inferred present  
Fiction:
inferred present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Token:
unknown  
Precious Metal:
inferred present  
Paper Currency:
inferred absent  
Indigenous Coin:
inferred absent  
Foreign Coin:
inferred absent  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
inferred absent  
General Postal Service:
inferred absent  
Courier:
inferred present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
inferred present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
present  
  Earth Rampart:
inferred present  
  Ditch:
inferred present  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
absent  
  Copper:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
inferred present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
inferred present  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
inferred present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
inferred absent  
  Composite Bow:
inferred present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
unknown  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
inferred present  
  Polearm:
absent  
  Dagger:
inferred present  
  Battle Axe:
inferred absent  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Donkey:
inferred present  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
inferred absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
inferred present  
  Shield:
inferred present  
  Scaled Armor:
inferred present  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
inferred absent  
  Leather Cloth:
inferred present  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
inferred present  
  Chainmail:
inferred absent  
  Breastplate:
inferred present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
inferred present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred present  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Egypt - Thebes-Libyan Period (eg_thebes_libyan) was in:
 (1070 BCE 761 BCE)   Upper Egypt
Home NGA: Upper Egypt

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Egypt - Thebes-Libyan Period

Capital:
Memphis

Memphis was probably the "major administrative base" and "residence of the northern kings." [1]
Temples to the Theban triad were erected there and Tanis’s role as a holy city was enhanced by the siting of the tombs of the 21st Dynasty kings within the temple precinct." [1]

[1]: (Taylor 2000, 327)


Alternative Name:
Third Intermediate Period

Third Intermediate Period 1069-664 BCE [1]

[1]: (Taylor 2000, 324)

Alternative Name:
Bubastite dynasty

Third Intermediate Period 1069-664 BCE [1]

[1]: (Taylor 2000, 324)

Alternative Name:
Libyan dynasty

Third Intermediate Period 1069-664 BCE [1]

[1]: (Taylor 2000, 324)


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
924 BCE

Reign of Seshong I was the "high point in the Third Intermediate Period." [1]
"expansionist foreign policy" [1]
"ambitious royal building programme" [1]
"attempt to exert direct control over the whole of Egypt involved curtailling the virtually independent status of Thebes." [1]

[1]: (Taylor 2000, 329)


Duration:
[1,069 BCE ➜ 747 BCE]

[1]
Libyan Period: 21st - 24th Dynasties [2] note that the 24th Dynasty is after 747 BCE
First Libyan ruler in Egypt was Osorkon the Elder (984-978 BCE), son of the Chief of the Meshwesh. [3]
A chief of the Meshwash was the first king of the 22nd Dynasty: Sheshong I (945-925 BCE). [4]
Last king in this period to rule significant territory was Sheshong III (827-773 BCE) and after him "numerous local rulers - particularly in the Delta - became virtually autonomous and several declared themselves kings." [5]
period ending with Shoshenq V in ~747 BCE

[1]: (John Baines, Oxford workshop January 2017)

[2]: (Taylor 2000, 332)

[3]: (Taylor 2000, 328)

[4]: (Taylor 2000, 329)

[5]: (Taylor 2000, 330)


Political and Cultural Relations

Supracultural Entity:
Libyan tribes

Succeeding Entity:
Egypt - Kushite Period

This could in future be changed for the short Hermopolis period in Upper Egypt. Last king in this period was Sheshong III (827-773 BCE) and after him "numerous local rulers - particularly in the Delta - became virtually autonomous and several declared themselves kings." [1]

[1]: (Taylor 2000, 330)


Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
350,000 km2

km squared. Area including Cyrenacia to west of the Nile Delta?


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
elite migration

Preceding Entity:
Egypt - Thebes-Libyan Period [eg_thebes_libyan] ---> Egypt - Kushite Period [eg_kushite]

This could in future be changed for the short Hermopolis period in Upper Egypt.

Preceding Entity:
Egypt - New Kingdom Ramesside Period [eg_new_k_2] ---> Egypt - Thebes-Libyan Period [eg_thebes_libyan]

Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity

"In 21st-dynasty Egypt the northern royal house nominally ruled the entire country, but in reality allowed another branch of the family to run the south on the basis of its priestly office." [1]
Control High Priest of Amun had "over all sectors of government made him like a king and most high priests of Amun used royal titles, but only as local kings and they did not date their records with regnal years." [2]
Although technically second in authority, southern commanders had "supreme civil, military, and religious authority" in Upper Egypt. [3]
After Seshong I (945-924 BCE) monarchy weakened, power of provincial rulers increased and there was "fragmentation of the country." [4]
"The political picture that emerges as the Third Intermediate Period progresses is one of a federation of semi-autonomous rulers, nominally subject (and often related) to an overlord-king." [5]
"Thebes and Tanis functioned as independent centers of power. They were the seats of parallel dynaties ... The official characterization of government in the two places was distinct - religious in Thebes and secular in Tanis - and the holders of power were related by blood and marriage and most often worked in unison in a system they both accepted. Scholars have likened the arrangement to a concordat, the division of power between popes and kings in European history." [2]
Third Intermediate Period was "an era of political decentralization in the Nile Valley". [6]

[1]: (Van De Mieroop 2011, 270) Van De Mieroop, Marc. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Wiley-Backwell. Chichester.

[2]: (Van De Mieroop 2011, 265) Van De Mieroop, Marc. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Wiley-Backwell. Chichester.

[3]: (Taylor 2000, 327)

[4]: (Taylor 2000, 330)

[5]: (Taylor 2000, 338)

[6]: (Pagliari 2012, 183) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.

Degree of Centralization:
nominal

"In 21st-dynasty Egypt the northern royal house nominally ruled the entire country, but in reality allowed another branch of the family to run the south on the basis of its priestly office." [1]
Control High Priest of Amun had "over all sectors of government made him like a king and most high priests of Amun used royal titles, but only as local kings and they did not date their records with regnal years." [2]
Although technically second in authority, southern commanders had "supreme civil, military, and religious authority" in Upper Egypt. [3]
After Seshong I (945-924 BCE) monarchy weakened, power of provincial rulers increased and there was "fragmentation of the country." [4]
"The political picture that emerges as the Third Intermediate Period progresses is one of a federation of semi-autonomous rulers, nominally subject (and often related) to an overlord-king." [5]
"Thebes and Tanis functioned as independent centers of power. They were the seats of parallel dynaties ... The official characterization of government in the two places was distinct - religious in Thebes and secular in Tanis - and the holders of power were related by blood and marriage and most often worked in unison in a system they both accepted. Scholars have likened the arrangement to a concordat, the division of power between popes and kings in European history." [2]
Third Intermediate Period was "an era of political decentralization in the Nile Valley". [6]

[1]: (Van De Mieroop 2011, 270) Van De Mieroop, Marc. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Wiley-Backwell. Chichester.

[2]: (Van De Mieroop 2011, 265) Van De Mieroop, Marc. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Wiley-Backwell. Chichester.

[3]: (Taylor 2000, 327)

[4]: (Taylor 2000, 330)

[5]: (Taylor 2000, 338)

[6]: (Pagliari 2012, 183) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.


Language
Linguistic Family:
Afro-Asiatic

Language:
Ancient Egyptian

Script evolved into two distinct types: Demotic hieratic in the north; abnormal hieratic at Thebes. [1]

[1]: (Taylor 2000, 339)


Religion
Religion Genus:
Egyptian Religions

Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI


Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
120,000 people
1069 BCE 951 BCE

Inhabitants.
Modelski (2003)
Memphis: 100,000: 1000 BCE; 100,000: 900 BCE; 100,000: 800 BCE [1]
Thebes: 120,000: 1000 BCE; 100,000: 900 BCE; 100,000: 800 BCE [1]
Population estimates for the New Kingdom (c. 1550-1069 BCE) [2]
Tanis 105 ha 31,000 persons 295 per ha
Luxor 280 ha 85,000 persons 305 per ha
Memphis 79 ha
Some of these cities might have had similar occupation patterns in the Libyan period.

[1]: (Modelski 2003, 49)

[2]: (Mumford 2010, 331)

Population of the Largest Settlement:
100,000 people
950 BCE 761 BCE

Inhabitants.
Modelski (2003)
Memphis: 100,000: 1000 BCE; 100,000: 900 BCE; 100,000: 800 BCE [1]
Thebes: 120,000: 1000 BCE; 100,000: 900 BCE; 100,000: 800 BCE [1]
Population estimates for the New Kingdom (c. 1550-1069 BCE) [2]
Tanis 105 ha 31,000 persons 295 per ha
Luxor 280 ha 85,000 persons 305 per ha
Memphis 79 ha
Some of these cities might have had similar occupation patterns in the Libyan period.

[1]: (Modelski 2003, 49)

[2]: (Mumford 2010, 331)


Polity Territory:
[190,000 to 230,000] km2

in squared kilometers
Estimated area around that Delta that has control of Thebes and has influence as far south as Aswan.
21st Dynasty
"control was divided between a line of kings in the north and a sequence of army commanders who held the post of high priest of Amun, at Thebes." [1]

[1]: (Taylor 2000, 325)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[3 to 5]

levels. AD: uncoded, so replaced by a code.
1. Memphis, capital.
2. Town3. Village(4. Hamlet)


Religious Level:
[3 to 5]

levels. AD: estimated as a range based on previous polities with a minimum of 3: ruler, priest of a major temple and local priest.
1. ruler of the theocracy
(2. priest of a major temple)(3. local priest)
Under Smendes (1069-1043 BCE) "the government of Egypt was in effect a theocracy, supreme political authority being vested in the god Amun himself." Decisions of the gods were "communicated via oracles. The workings of the theocratic government are explicitly documented at Thebes, where oracular consultations were formalized by the institution of a regular Festival of the Divine Audience, held at Karnak." [1]
_ Cult of Amun _
1.

2.
3.
4.
_ Oracles _
Oracles of Amun, Mut, and Khons at times were very influential in government. [2]

[1]: (Taylor 2000, 325-327)

[2]: (Taylor 2000, 327)


Military Level:
[4 to 6]

levels. AD: was left uncoded, coded as a range to allow for flexibility.
1. Ruler
2. Provincial governors/ army commanders(3. Captains)4. Individual soldiers


Administrative Level:
[5 to 7]

levels.
1. King
"The political picture that emerges as the Third Intermediate Period progresses is one of a federation of semi-autonomous rulers, nominally subject (and often related) to an overlord-king." [1]
_ King’s own administration _
2. Vizier"Officials of traditional centralised government, such as the vizier and overseers of the treasury and granaries ... now wielded only local influence." [2]
3. Treasury / granary head official4. Treasury / granary sub official (inferred)5. Scribe within treasury / granary (inferred)6. Other workers (inferred)
_ Provincial government _
2. Commander and governor at Thebesat Thebes, highest offices (chief general and high priest of Amun) held by Herihor then passed to the family of General Piankh. They "derived their executive powers from the oracles of Amun, Mut, Khons, by whom clerical appointments and major policy decisions of the rulers were sanctioned." [3]
Upper Egypt "retained greater territorial cohesion than the north" with Thebes predominent [2]
3. Vizier"Officials of traditional centralised government, such as the vizier and overseers of the treasury and granaries ... now wielded only local influence." [2]
4. Treasury / granary head official5. Treasury / granary sub official (inferred)6. Scribe within treasury / granary (inferred)7. Other workers (inferred)
2. Commander and governor elsewhereMost provincial governors were also army commanders. [4]

[1]: (Taylor 2000, 338)

[2]: (Taylor 2000, 337)

[3]: (Taylor 2000, 327-328)

[4]: (Taylor 2000, 339)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

Nubian mercenaries would have been paid.


Professional Priesthood:
present

Professional Military Officer:
present

Provincial governors were army commanders. [1]

[1]: (Taylor 2000, 339)


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Inferred from previous periods.



Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

Examination System:
absent

Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Present in Ramesside period.


Irrigation System:
present

Present in Ramesside period.


Food Storage Site:
present

There were government positions for overseer of granaries in this period. [1]

[1]: (Taylor 2000, 337)


Drinking Water Supply System:
absent

A pipe network that connects the drinking water to individual settlements is not known to exist / not thought to be present.


Transport Infrastructure

Present in Ramesside period.


Present in Ramesside period.


Canal:
present

Present in Ramesside period.


Bridge:
present

Present in Ramesside period.


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

"the residence-city of Piramesse cited in the Gebel elSilsilah stele no. 100 (C.I.2) should have been used by king Seshonq I for a certain period of time, being the passage in question a commemoration of local quarry work carried out or the king’s building project in Karnak." [1]

[1]: (Pagliari 2012, 200) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.


Information / Writing System

Script:
present

Evolved into two distinct types of hieratic: Demotic in the north; abnormal at Thebes. [1]

[1]: (Taylor 2000, 339)


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent

The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language. The repertoire of glyphs is based on the Greek alphabet augmented by letters borrowed from the Egyptian Demotic and is the first alphabetic script used for the Egyptian language. [1]

[1]: Ritner, Robert Kriech. 1996. "The Coptic Alphabet". In The World’s Writing Systems, edited by Peter T. Daniels and William Bright. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. 1994:287-290.



Non Phonetic Writing:
present

Hieroglyphs.


Mnemonic Device:
unknown

unknown


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Present in Ramesside period.


Sacred Text:
present

Libraries in temples.


Religious Literature:
present

Hymn to Amun on papyrus from Deir el-Bahri. [1]

[1]: (Taylor 2000, 326)


Practical Literature:
present

Present in Ramesside period.


Philosophy:
present

Libraries in temples. Literature Egyptian priests had libraries in temples.


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

archival buildings?


History:
present

Present in Ramesside period.


Fiction:
present

Present in Ramesside Period Egypt and there were libraries in temples.


Calendar:
present

"regular Festival of the Divine Audience, held at Karnak." [1]

[1]: (Taylor 2000, 327)


Information / Money

Precious Metal:
present

Present in the later New Kingdom. "The wealth of some farmers is also expressed in private documents, like a late 2nd millennium letter from Elephantine stating that several nemeh-cultivators paid their taxes to the treasury in gold." [1]

[1]: (Juan Carlos Moreno García, Recent Developments in the Social and Economic History of Ancient Egypt, 17)






Information / Postal System

General Postal Service:
absent


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
unknown

Was enough timber available in Egypt to make wooden palisades a realistic option for a fortification system?


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present

Enclosure walls non-mortared?


Stone Walls Mortared:
present

Enclosure walls non-mortared?

Stone Walls Mortared:
absent

Enclosure walls non-mortared?


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

"civilian settlements also appeared to have acquired the character of military strongholds in the Third Intermediate Period." Memphis and Hermopolis were fortified and were "sufficiently strong to withstand a siege." [1]

[1]: (Taylor 2000, 34)




Fortified Camp:
present

"civilian settlements also appeared to have acquired the character of military strongholds in the Third Intermediate Period." Memphis and Hermopolis were fortified and were "sufficiently strong to withstand a siege." [1]

[1]: (Taylor 2000, 34)




Complex Fortification:
absent

Despite textual descriptions and iconographic depictions of sieged warfare in the first millennium BCE, there is little evidence for walls surrounding entire settlements; indeed, the norm seems to have been for walls to surround temple complexes, and for the rest of the settlement to remain exposed, though it is possible that the settlement’s inhabitants could expect to find reguge within the temple enclosure in the event of an attack. [1] Fortresses on Nile south of Faiyum. [2]

[1]: (Kemp 2004: 271-276) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/HD39CU6I.

[2]: (Taylor 2000, 328)



Military use of Metals


bronze is made with copper. In the New Kingdom bronze plates were added to leather armor. [1] and mail coats were made out of bronze. [2]

[1]: (Gnirs 2001)

[2]: (Hoffmeier 2001)


In the New Kingdom bronze plates were added to leather armor. [1] and mail coats were made out of bronze. [2]

[1]: (Gnirs 2001)

[2]: (Hoffmeier 2001)


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

not yet developed


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

not yet developed


"The sling is shown being used in assault on towns in the early Middle Kingdom tombs at Beni Hasan. Examples found in the tomb of Tutankhamun were made of linen. Despite its rare appearance in battle scenes, it was probably widely used. [...] A sling shot from the Ptolemaic and Roman periods could be made of lead, and carried inscribed messages for the unfortunate recipient." [1]

[1]: (Morkot 2010: 222) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/AHFJE5Z2.


"In western Asia, [the self bow] was replaced by the composite bow. In Egypt, the self-bow continued to be widely used, especially by Nubian troops." [1]

[1]: (Morkot 2010: 50) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/AHFJE5Z2.



Handheld Firearm:
absent

not yet developed


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

not yet developed



New world weapon


Handheld weapons

Present but used less frequently? Preiser-Kapeller (2015) suggests next data for war clubs for an Upper Egypt NGA polity may be East Roman Empire 395-631 CE. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)




first recorded use in Egypt 312 BCE [1]

[1]: (Lloyd 2000, 394) Lloyd, A B in Shaw, I. 2000. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Oxford.



Battle Axe:
absent

Academic histories of warfare and weaponry in Egypt stop mentioning axes once they reach the New Kingdom, suggesting they fell out of fashion.


Animals used in warfare

Horse-driven chariots. [1]

[1]: (Taylor 2000, 329)




camels not considered native to Egypt, likely introduced by Persians in 525 BCE


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

inferred from presence in previous polities [1]

[1]: (Fields 2007, 4)



Scaled Armor:
present

"the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty, "but it consisted of nothing more elaborate than metal scales sewn onto a leather base." [1] Present in the New Kingdom (Bronze scale armor on short-sleeved, knee length shirt made out of linen or leather. [2] )

[1]: (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 135-138) Fischer-Bovet (2014) Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge University Press

[2]: (Gnirs 2001)


Plate Armor:
absent

"the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty, "but it consisted of nothing more elaborate than metal scales sewn onto a leather base." [1]

[1]: (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 135-138) Fischer-Bovet (2014) Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge University Press


Limb Protection:
absent

In the New Kingdom: "Body armour, in the form of small bronze plates riveted to linen or leather jerkins, with a a tapered lower half, began to be used." [1] Jerkins do not have sleeves.

[1]: (Shaw 1991: 42) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.


Leather Cloth:
present

Shields covered with hide. [1] Leather armor used for horses and warriors. [2]

[1]: (Brewer and Teeter 1999, 74)

[2]: (Gnirs 2001)


Laminar Armor:
absent

Technology not yet available.


Certainly present in Egypt probably worn by charioteers by the 18th Dynasty c1500 BCE. [1]

[1]: (Hoffmeier 2001) J K Hoffmeier in D B Redford. ed. 2001. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


In the New Kingdom mail coats were made out of bronze developed for charioteers. Evidence from a scene from the tomb of Kenamun. Colour of painting suggests bronze used for scales. [1] Is Hoffmeier referring to chainmail or coats with scales? Code assumes the latter. "the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty, "but it consisted of nothing more elaborate than metal scales sewn onto a leather base." [2]

[1]: (Hoffmeier 2001)

[2]: (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 135-138) Fischer-Bovet (2014) Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge University Press


Breastplate:
present

In the New Kingdom: "Body armour, in the form of small bronze plates riveted to linen or leather jerkins, with a a tapered lower half, began to be used." [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1991: 42) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

major navy base during Ramesside period [1]

[1]: (Bietak in Maree ed. 2010, 139)


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present


Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions
- Nothing coded yet.