Home Region:  Western Europe (Europe)

Hallstatt B2-3

EQ 2020  fr_hallstatt_b2_3 / FrHallB

The Hallstatt culture, named after an archaeological site in Austria and traditionally divided into four phases, was the main cultural complex in Western Europe during the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age. It coincides with the North Alpine complex, extending over modern-day central and southern Germany, northern Italy, and Switzerland. [1]
Population and political organization
In the Hallstatt B period (c. 1000-800 BCE), [2] the North Alpine cultural complex gradually became incorporated in trade networks dominated by Greek and Etruscan settlements. Hallstatt chiefs mediated the supply of Mediterranean prestige goods in their own spheres of exchange. [1]
The average scale of integration of Hallstatt B polities extended to include land within a roughly 25-kilometre radius. [3] The maximal territorial extent of polities could be as much as 1000 square kilometres, as in the case of Wessex. [1]
In this period, a three-tiered settlement hierarchy can be discerned archaeologically. Previous units fragmented: new autonomous communities polarized around fortified sites, the proportion of which increased. Tumuli became a more noticeable feature in the Hallstatt B landscape, and iron-working activity became much more prevalent. [4]

[1]: (Brun 1995, 14) Brun, Patrice. 1995. “From Chiefdom to State Organization in Celtic Europe.” In Celtic Chiefdom, Celtic State: The Evolution of Complex Social Systems in Prehistoric Europe, edited by Bettina Arnold and D. Blair Gibson, Cambridge University Press, 13-25. Cambridge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RZWRCEPH.

[2]: (CNRS-ENS 2017) CNRS-ENS. 2017. “Atlas de L’âge Du Fer.” Accessed July 7. http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/patlas. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/HUKZMF9J.

[3]: (Brun 2007, 381) Brun, Patrice. 2007. “Une Période de Transition Majeure En Europe: De La Fin Du IVe Au Début Du IIe s. Av. J.-C.(La Tène B2 et C).” In La Gaule Dans Son Contexte Européen Aux IV e et III e Siècle Avant Notre Ère, edited by Christine Mennessier-Jouannet, Anne-Marie Adam, and Pierre-Yves Milcent, 377-84. Lattes: Edition de l’Association pour le Développement de l’Archéologie en Languedoc-Roussillon. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/D2ET47FZ.

[4]: (Brun 1995, 15) Brun, Patrice. 1995. “From Chiefdom to State Organization in Celtic Europe.” In Celtic Chiefdom, Celtic State: The Evolution of Complex Social Systems in Prehistoric Europe, edited by Bettina Arnold and D. Blair Gibson, Cambridge University Press, 13-25. Cambridge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RZWRCEPH.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
31 U  
Original Name:
Hallstatt B  
Alternative Name:
Hallstatt culture  
Hallstatt  
Atlantic Complex  
North-Alpine Complex  
Western Hallstatt  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[900 BCE ➜ 700 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
vassalage to [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
Hallstatt  
Succeeding Entity:
Hallstatt C  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Hallstatt A-B1  
Degree of Centralization:
loose  
Language
Linguistic Family:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[250 to 500] people 900 BCE
[500 to 1,000] people 800 BCE
Polity Territory:
[1,500 to 2,000] km2  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[2 to 3]  
Religious Level:
1  
Military Level:
2  
Administrative Level:
[2 to 3]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred absent  
Professional Priesthood:
inferred absent  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown  
Merit Promotion:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
inferred absent  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown  
Judge:
unknown  
Formal Legal Code:
unknown  
Court:
unknown  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
unknown  
Irrigation System:
unknown  
Food Storage Site:
unknown  
Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
unknown  
Port:
unknown  
Canal:
unknown  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
unknown  
Script:
unknown  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
unknown  
Nonwritten Record:
unknown  
Non Phonetic Writing:
unknown  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
unknown  
Sacred Text:
unknown  
Religious Literature:
unknown  
Practical Literature:
unknown  
Philosophy:
unknown  
Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown  
History:
unknown  
Fiction:
unknown  
Calendar:
unknown  
Information / Money
Token:
unknown  
Precious Metal:
unknown  
Paper Currency:
unknown  
Indigenous Coin:
unknown  
Foreign Coin:
unknown  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
absent  
  Earth Rampart:
absent  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
unknown  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
inferred present  
  Javelin:
inferred present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
inferred absent  
  Composite Bow:
inferred absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
inferred present  
  Polearm:
inferred present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
inferred present  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
unknown  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
inferred present  
  Shield:
inferred present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
unknown  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
inferred present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
inferred present  
  Chainmail:
unknown  
  Breastplate:
inferred present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Hallstatt B2-3 (fr_hallstatt_b2_3) was in:
 (900 BCE 701 BCE)   Paris Basin
Home NGA: Paris Basin

General Variables
Identity and Location


Alternative Name:
Hallstatt culture

Paris Basin straddles the "North-Alpine Complex" and the "Atlantic Complex" cultural region [1]

[1]: (Brun 1995, 14)

Alternative Name:
Hallstatt

Paris Basin straddles the "North-Alpine Complex" and the "Atlantic Complex" cultural region [1]

[1]: (Brun 1995, 14)

Alternative Name:
Atlantic Complex

Paris Basin straddles the "North-Alpine Complex" and the "Atlantic Complex" cultural region [1]

[1]: (Brun 1995, 14)

Alternative Name:
North-Alpine Complex

Paris Basin straddles the "North-Alpine Complex" and the "Atlantic Complex" cultural region [1]

[1]: (Brun 1995, 14)

Alternative Name:
Western Hallstatt

Paris Basin straddles the "North-Alpine Complex" and the "Atlantic Complex" cultural region [1]

[1]: (Brun 1995, 14)


Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[900 BCE ➜ 700 BCE]

Early Hallstatt culture (900-600) based in Austria


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
vassalage to [---]

Point against: the Paris Basin region was very much on the periphery of the Hallstatt zone and their local chiefs might not have been close enough to the important trade center (Austria) to have been vassals at any time.
Hallstatt B2/3-C(900-600 BC)
"The Mediterranean world-economy integrated the North-Alpine complex during Hallstatt B2-3/C. The Greek and Etruscan towns experienced an increasing demand for raw materials which led them to enlarge their supply areas until they embraced a large part of the continent. In this vast exchange system, certain well-positioned local chiefs played the role of privileged intermediaries. They were able to monopolize trade and exchange, and controlled the supply of Mediterranean prestigue goods, ultimately extending their influence into neighbouring territories. They reduced local rulers to vassal status. " [1]

[1]: (Brun 1995, 22-23)






Degree of Centralization:
loose

2500-800 BCE (European Bronze Age)
"centralization of power but only at a restricted scale and in three forms (Brun and Pion 1992): 1. A cluster of dispersed farms gravitate around a monument, a sort of tomb-sanctuary, which symbolizes the unity of the territorial community. This community is ruled by a chief who occupies one of the farms. 2. A cluster of farmsteads polarized by a village, near which is found the territorial sanctuary. ... 3. Identical in organization to #2, but the central role of the village is held by a fortification. It appears that this type of settlement owes its existence to the control it exerted over long-distance exchange, especially over exchange in metal." [1]

[1]: (Brun 1995, 15)


Language

Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[250 to 500] people
900 BCE

Inhabitants.
Estimate assumes fortified center that was significantly smaller than those in 6th Century but much more numerous than a small settlement that applied to a very general 2500-800 BCE period.
There was a fortified center which was possibly "the seat of the local aristocracy." [1]
Estimate of 5,000 for fortified center around 600 BCE
"Rather than a small hillfort of just a few hectares, as once believed, we can now see that in the first half of the 6th century BC Heuneburg was an enormous settlement of 100 ha and at least 5,000 inhabitants." [2]
However, 2500-800 BCE (European Bronze Age) very low estimate of 100 - but this does cover a long time period
"Each autonomous political community consisted of around a hundred people on average, distributed in five to eight small settlements." [3]
"Estimates for population in different areas of Europe vary considerably, but many authors work on a figure for the Late Bronze Age of three people per square kilometre on average (Ostoja-Zagórski 1982). In particular areas this may be more or less accurate, but even allowing for low densities in those areas where the carrying capacity of the land was relatively low (for instance in high mountains or dense scrubland) the implications for Europe as a whole are enormous." [4]

[1]: (Brun 1995, 15)

[2]: (Fernández Götz and Krausse 2012, 31)

[3]: (Brun 1995, 14)

[4]: (Harding 2002, 328-329)

Population of the Largest Settlement:
[500 to 1,000] people
800 BCE

Inhabitants.
Estimate assumes fortified center that was significantly smaller than those in 6th Century but much more numerous than a small settlement that applied to a very general 2500-800 BCE period.
There was a fortified center which was possibly "the seat of the local aristocracy." [1]
Estimate of 5,000 for fortified center around 600 BCE
"Rather than a small hillfort of just a few hectares, as once believed, we can now see that in the first half of the 6th century BC Heuneburg was an enormous settlement of 100 ha and at least 5,000 inhabitants." [2]
However, 2500-800 BCE (European Bronze Age) very low estimate of 100 - but this does cover a long time period
"Each autonomous political community consisted of around a hundred people on average, distributed in five to eight small settlements." [3]
"Estimates for population in different areas of Europe vary considerably, but many authors work on a figure for the Late Bronze Age of three people per square kilometre on average (Ostoja-Zagórski 1982). In particular areas this may be more or less accurate, but even allowing for low densities in those areas where the carrying capacity of the land was relatively low (for instance in high mountains or dense scrubland) the implications for Europe as a whole are enormous." [4]

[1]: (Brun 1995, 15)

[2]: (Fernández Götz and Krausse 2012, 31)

[3]: (Brun 1995, 14)

[4]: (Harding 2002, 328-329)


Polity Territory:
[1,500 to 2,000] km2

in squared kilometers
Around 900-700 BCE, politically independent polities in the northern alpine region (which includes central France [1] ) had a radius of about 25 km, which gives an area of about 1,964 sq kilometers. [2]
[2]
Hallstatt B2/3-C(900-600 BC) -- these quotes reflects disagreement from same author. However, since it is an earlier publication will ignore and code the most recent research. In 1995 he does note that Wessex communities reached 1000 km2 in extent.
Territorial scale: "The economic foundations put in place in the ninth and eighth centuries BC were ... incapable of supporting a political scale of integration greater than tens of square kilometers." [3]
2500-800 BCE (European Bronze Age)"Each politically autonomous territory measured from 7 to 15 km in diameter during the whole period, except during periods of temporary expansion." [4]
"The Wessex communities seem to have succeeded in organizing polities 1000 km2 in extent" however "Evidence of similar polities is very rare in Europe during the same period." [5]

[1]: (Brun 2007, 380)

[2]: (Brun 2007, 381)

[3]: (Brun 1995, 24)

[4]: (Brun 1995, 15)

[5]: (Brun 1995, 14)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[2 to 3]

levels.
1. Fortified center
Includes cemeteries of tumuli and is "the seat of the local aristocracy." [1]
2. Village

3. Farmstead

Hallstatt B2/3-C(900-600 BC)
"the settlement pattern changes markedly. There is a great increase in the number of fortified sites. Small cemeteries of tumuli appear, often close to the fortifications. Typologies of ceramic and metal objects indicate the fragmentation of previous cultural units. Bronze hoards become more numerous - they are larger and their composition is more varied. Iron working becomes widespread. Rare earlier, iron objects increase rapidly in number during the ninth and eighth centuries BC. ... A small fortification, the seat of the local aristocracy, polarizes each politically autonomous territory." [1]
2500-800 BCE (European Bronze Age)
"centralization of power but only at a restricted scale and in three forms (Brun and Pion 1992): 1. A cluster of dispersed farms gravitate around a monument, a sort of tomb-sanctuary, which symbolizes the unity of the territorial community. This community is ruled by a chief who occupies one of the farms. 2. A cluster of farmsteads polarized by a village, near which is found the territorial sanctuary. ... 3. Identical in organization to #2, but the central role of the village is held by a fortification. It appears that this type of settlement owes its existence to the control it exerted over long-distance exchange, especially over exchange in metal." [1]

[1]: (Brun 1995, 15)


Religious Level:
1

levels.
Same as earlier period as no new information to code higher.


Military Level:
2

levels.
Warrior society implies at least 2 levels of military hierarchy.


Administrative Level:
[2 to 3]

levels.
1. Regional aristocratic chief

2. Local chief

3. Headman

Hallstatt B2/3-C(900-600 BC)
A small fortification, the seat of the local aristocracy, polarizes each politically autonomous territory." [1]
2500-800 BCE (European Bronze Age)
"centralization of power but only at a restricted scale and in three forms (Brun and Pion 1992): 1. A cluster of dispersed farms gravitate around a monument, a sort of tomb-sanctuary, which symbolizes the unity of the territorial community. This community is ruled by a chief who occupies one of the farms. 2. A cluster of farmsteads polarized by a village, near which is found the territorial sanctuary. ... 3. Identical in organization to #2, but the central role of the village is held by a fortification. It appears that this type of settlement owes its existence to the control it exerted over long-distance exchange, especially over exchange in metal." [1]

[1]: (Brun 1995, 15)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
absent

Full-time specialists


Professional Priesthood:
absent

Full-time specialists


Bureaucracy Characteristics


Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent

Full-time specialists



Specialized Buildings: polity owned


Food Storage Site:
unknown

"Silo" present during this time period. [1] Does this refer to food storage?

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)



Transport Infrastructure

"Voire" or road is known in France in this period [1] but the two cases are far from the Paris basin region, apparently associated with the Mediterranean and Alps trade.

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)




Information / Writing System






Information / Kinds of Written Documents









Information / Money






Information / Postal System


Courier:
unknown

Is it reasonable to infer from the warrior society the presence of messengers?


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications

Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown

"Rempart en pierres seches" finds within France but not close to the Paris Basin region. [1]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)


Stone Walls Mortared:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

Some fortified villages that appear to be associated with long-distance exchange networks. [1]

[1]: (Brun 1995, 15)


Modern Fortification:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Not mentioned in the literature.


Fortified Camp:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Earth Rampart:
absent

"Mur terre" finds within France but not close to the Paris Basin region. [1]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)


Not mentioned in the literature.


Complex Fortification:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.



Military use of Metals


Copper:
present

"In the Halstatt and early La Tene periods, helmets were made of bronze. Iron helmets first appeared in the 4th century BC and gradually replaced the softer alloy, possibly in response to the development of the long slashing sword." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 119)


Bronze:
present

"In the Halstatt and early La Tene periods, helmets were made of bronze. Iron helmets first appeared in the 4th century BC and gradually replaced the softer alloy, possibly in response to the development of the long slashing sword." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 119)


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Mainly used in the British Isles at this time. [1]

[1]: (Koch ed. 2006, 1469) John T. Koch ed. Celtic Culture. A historical Encyclopedia. Volume I. A-Celti. ABC-CLIO. Santa Barbara.


Self Bow:
present

Finds close to Paris Basin region. [1] Bows used on the continent. [2]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)

[2]: (Koch ed. 2006, 1469) John T. Koch ed. Celtic Culture. A historical Encyclopedia. Volume I. A-Celti. ABC-CLIO. Santa Barbara.


Javelin:
present

Finds within France during this time period but not close to Paris Basin region. [1] Javelins used on the continent. [2]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)

[2]: (Koch ed. 2006, 1469) John T. Koch ed. Celtic Culture. A historical Encyclopedia. Volume I. A-Celti. ABC-CLIO. Santa Barbara.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Crossbow:
absent

Inferred from the absence of crossbows in past and future polities in Paris Basin


Composite Bow:
absent

Inferred from the absence of composite bows in past and future polities in Paris Basin


Not mentioned in the literature.


Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

Inferred from previous and subsequenct (quasi)polities.


Finds close to Paris Basin region. [1] "long slashing swords representative of the aristocratic warrior" from 8th century onwards. [2] "Bronze age swords found by Lake Neuchâtel, Switzerland, estimated to be 3,000 year old." [3] Battle axe more common in the East Hallstatt area while in the Western Hallstatt region use of the dagger and sword was more common. [4]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 22)

[3]: (https://twitter.com/europeshistory/status/630725341313548288)

[4]: (Koch ed. 2006, 1469) John T. Koch ed. Celtic Culture. A historical Encyclopedia. Volume I. A-Celti. ABC-CLIO. Santa Barbara.


Spear:
present

Spears were used from the Palaeolithic period for hunting, both handheld and as projectiles, and also served as weapons in early times, though it was not until the Middle Bronze Age when socketed metal spearheads began to be developed that spear superseded arrows as the preferred projectile. Their frequency in Bronze and Iron Age burials shows that they were used by all warriors and particularly by fighters who did not own a sword." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2006, 298)


Polearm:
present

Inferred from previous and subsequenct (quasi)polities.


Dagger:
present

Finds close to Paris Basin region. [1] Battle axe more common in the East Hallstatt area while in the Western Hallstatt region use of the dagger and sword was more common. [2]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)

[2]: (Koch ed. 2006, 1469) John T. Koch ed. Celtic Culture. A historical Encyclopedia. Volume I. A-Celti. ABC-CLIO. Santa Barbara.


Battle Axe:
present

Finds close to Paris Basin region. [1] Battle axe more common in the East Hallstatt area while in the Western Hallstatt region use of the dagger and sword was more common. [2]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)

[2]: (Koch ed. 2006, 1469) John T. Koch ed. Celtic Culture. A historical Encyclopedia. Volume I. A-Celti. ABC-CLIO. Santa Barbara.


Animals used in warfare
Horse:
present

"From the 8th century BC onwards, the graves of the Halstatt aristocracy are characterized by four-wheeled vehicles together with bits and other items of horse harness" [1] A cart wheel found at the archaeological site at Must Farm in the United Kingdom, and a horse’s spine found nearby, might suggest Britons of this time used domesticated horses to pull wheeled vehicles. This British village over water would have been unlikely to possess a chariot but it shows that the functional use of horses was widespread in northwest Europe at this time.

[1]: (Allen 2007, 22)



Donkey:
unknown

Not mentioned in the literature.


Not mentioned in the literature.



Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

Wicker-work likely. Organic/metal armour, shields, helmets. [1]

[1]: (Koch ed. 2006, 1469) John T. Koch ed. Celtic Culture. A historical Encyclopedia. Volume I. A-Celti. ABC-CLIO. Santa Barbara.


Shield:
present

No finds within France until 620-560 BCE. ("Umbo" = shield boss?) [1] Organic/metal armour, shields, helmets. [2]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)

[2]: (Koch ed. 2006, 1469) John T. Koch ed. Celtic Culture. A historical Encyclopedia. Volume I. A-Celti. ABC-CLIO. Santa Barbara.


Scaled Armor:
unknown

Not mentioned in the literature.


Plate Armor:
unknown

Not mentioned in the literature.


Limb Protection:
present

Inferred from previous and subsequenct (quasi)polities.


Leather Cloth:
present

Leather likely. Organic/metal armour, shields, helmets. [1]

[1]: (Koch ed. 2006, 1469) John T. Koch ed. Celtic Culture. A historical Encyclopedia. Volume I. A-Celti. ABC-CLIO. Santa Barbara.


Laminar Armor:
unknown

Not mentioned in the literature.


Helmet:
present

Finds within France during this time period but not close to Paris Basin region. [1] Organic/metal armour, shields, helmets. [2]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)

[2]: (Koch ed. 2006, 1469) John T. Koch ed. Celtic Culture. A historical Encyclopedia. Volume I. A-Celti. ABC-CLIO. Santa Barbara.


Chainmail:
unknown

"Chaîne de suspension" present. Is this chainmail? [1] Organic chain mail suits appear in iron age. [2] Iron chain mail was introduced in the third century BCE, probably by the Celtic peoples. [3]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)

[2]: (Koch ed. 2006, 1469) John T. Koch ed. Celtic Culture. A historical Encyclopedia. Volume I. A-Celti. ABC-CLIO. Santa Barbara.

[3]: (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Breastplate:
present

"Early Halstatt bronze cuirass from Marmesse, northern France, dated to the 8th century BC. The style is reminiscent of the early Greek ’bell’ cuirass." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 19)


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown

Not mentioned in the literature.


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.