Home Region:  North India (South Asia)

Kannauj - Varman Dynasty

D G SC WF EQ 2020  in_kannauj_varman_dyn

Preceding:
No Polity found. Add one here.

Succeeding:
No Polity found. Add one here.

The Middle Ganga corresponds to the eastern portion of the Upper Ganga Plain, in the eastern part of the north-central modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and the state of Bihar. Between c. 650 and 780 CE, it was under the control of the Kannauj polity.
Like many other Indian polities between the seventh and the eleventh centuries, Kannauj was ruled by a king, who received support from a number of key ministers, and who controlled provincial territories indirectly, through a hierarchy of princes and officials (higher tier, in charge of provinces) and visayapatis (lower tier, in charge of districts). [1]
While no information on the polity’s total population could be found, the imperial capital of Kannauj is thought to have had a population of 120,000 people at its peak in 620 CE. [2]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 137-144) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.

[2]: (Chase-Dunn: pers. comm. 2011)

General Variables
Identity and Location
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[650 CE ➜ 780 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Language
Linguistic Family:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
120,000 people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Military Level:
[5 to 6]  
Administrative Level:
[5 to 6]  
Professions
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
inferred present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent  
Judge:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Drinking Water Supply System:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
inferred present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
inferred present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
inferred present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
inferred present  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
inferred present  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
inferred absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
unknown  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
inferred present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling:
present  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
present  
  Composite Bow:
absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
present  
  Sword:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
absent  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
present  
  Limb Protection:
unknown  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
unknown  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Kannauj - Varman Dynasty (in_kannauj_varman_dyn) was in:
 (650 CE 779 CE)   Middle Ganga
Home NGA: Middle Ganga

General Variables
Identity and Location
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[650 CE ➜ 780 CE]

Political and Cultural Relations
Language
Linguistic Family:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI

Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
120,000 people

people. Kanauj in 620 CE. [1]

[1]: (Chase-Dunn: pers. comm. 2011)


Hierarchical Complexity
Military Level:
[5 to 6]

levels.
1. King
2. Chief of the army3. Head of cavalry
3. Head of elephantry
3. Head of infantry inferred4. Other officers inferred5. Other officers inferred6. Individual soldier
Chief of the army: camupati, senapati, mahadandanayaka. [1] Head of cavalry: mahasvapati. Head of elephantry: mahapilupati. [2] "Other military officers are not referred to in our records." [2]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 149) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.

[2]: (Mishra 1977, 150) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.


Administrative Level:
[5 to 6]

levels.
Administration ’stereotyped’ after c500 CE. [1] "The data from the latter half of the 7th century to the 11th century show that there could be some variations in the number, size and sphere of administrative departments, but there was no change of first-rate importance, or organic evolution in the period." [2] "Our sources refer to mahamatya, maha-mantri, amatya, mantri and saciva. The first two designations stood for the chief minister; the last three terms were generally used as synonyms; but sometimes they denoted different categories of ministers. [3] "In the Kuvalayamala we are told that the cabinet of king Drdhavarman of Ayodhya consisted of eight members ... However, the strength of the ministry largely depended on the size of the state." [4] Government ministers were not specialised in role and could hold more than one office. [5] "Big kingdoms were generally split into provinces where either a prince or some other important official was appointed." [6] Districts (visayas) governed by visayapatis. [7] Elders (nagaramahanta) lead the administration of a city. [7] "Bharuci explains samvida as the samiti of villagers whose functions included the protection of tanks and pasture-grounds, and renovation of temples. He adds that the king could exile from his kingdom that member of the samvida who resorted to transgression. Udyotana makes mention of the village elders (grama-mahattara) and their chief (jyestha-mahamahattara)". [8] [8] "In the Deo-Barnark inscription we get a reference to ’talavataka’ which has been translated by Bhagwan Lal Indraji as ’village accountant’. But this interpretation is doubtful." [8]
1. King
_Central government_
2. Chief Minister [3] 3. Government ministers. [9] 4. Lesser officials. [9]
 ?. Mahapratihara (chief of the door-keepers). [9]  ?. Pratiharas / Pratiharis (male/female door-keepers). [9]
_Provincial government_
2. Official or Prince of a province [6]
3. Visayapatis of a district [7]
_Municipal government_
 ?. Elders (nagaramahanta) [7]  ?. City police [7] ? City-guards [7]
_Village government_
 ?. Village chief (jyestha-mahamahattara) [8]  ?. Village elder (grama-mahattara) [8]
 ?. Samvida [8]
 ?. talavataka [8]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 137) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.

[2]: (Mishra 1977, 137-138) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.

[3]: (Mishra 1977, 139) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.

[4]: (Mishra 1977, 139-140) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.

[5]: (Mishra 1977, 140-141) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.

[6]: (Mishra 1977, 142) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.

[7]: (Mishra 1977, 143) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.

[8]: (Mishra 1977, 144) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.

[9]: (Mishra 1977, 138) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.


Professions
Professional Priesthood:
present

Royal Purohita. [1] "Purohita occupied a pre-eminent position in the Vedic and post-Vedic periods. But from c. A.D., he ceased to be a member of the cabinet, and in later times he only exercised moral influence on the king". [2]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 138) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.

[2]: (Mishra 1977, 142) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.


Professional Military Officer:
present

Chief of the army. [1]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 138) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

The Arthaśāstra, which "probably arose in the first half of the first millennium AD" but probably largely "derive[s] from older handbooks" includes instructions for the proper layout of cities, including "public edifices such as treasuries, storehouses for material and food, arsenals, and prisons". [1]

[1]: (Schlingloff 2013: 15) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DAMFF2NV.


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

Government ministers. [1] Court physician. [1] Foreigners were also appointed as government ministers and officials. [2]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 138) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.

[2]: (Mishra 1977, 142) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.


Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent

In the below quote, Rocher argues that professional lawyers did not exist in India for much of its history. Unhelpfully, Rocher does not provide dates or much in the way of temporal boundaries. However, the use of the word “ever” in the sentence “no written source allows us to draw the conclusion that the experts on legal matters ever developed into a professional group whose regular activities consisted in representing parties in the court” may perhaps be taken to mean that professional lawyers did not exist in India before the colonial era.

“Thus, we believe that at an early date—let us roughly say at the time of the dharmasutras—professional lawyers or, to be more precise, specialized dharmasastrins could not exist. The Indian sage in those days was a specialist in all of the texts related to a particular Vedic school. His specialized knowledge concentrated on a specific version of the Vedic samhita and all its related texts: brahmana, aranyaka, upanisad, srautasutra, grhyasutra, dharmasutra, etc. There were no specialists on dharmasastra, and, a fortiori, no specialists on law that were part of it.

“But the situation changed. The texts on dharma grew away from the Vedic schools. Gradually there may have come into being a specialized group of learned men whose main interest was dharma, and the various dharmasastras as such.

“Finally, as the amount of textual material increased, we may assume that certain experts, without detaching themselves completely from aspects of dharmasastra and from Hindu learning generally, accumulated a very specialized knowledge of one aspect of dharma: vivada and vyavahara, or, in modern terminology, law. It is very possible that at this stage the nature of legal representation (niyoga) also underwent a certain change. We do not want to exclude the possibility that, at that moment, in a number of cases legal competence played a role in the choice of a representative. We are even willing to accept that Vyasa refers to the very special circumstance in which the representative was paid for his services. However, no written source allows us to draw the conclusion that the experts on legal matters ever developed into a professional group whose regular activities consisted in representing parties in the court. The impression which we gather from the texts is that, even in cases where the representative was chosen because of his special competence on legal matters, and, a fortiori, in all other cases, the necessary condition for a person to represent a party was the existence, between the former and the latter, of a certain form of close personal relationship.” [1]

[1]: (Rocher 1969: 399-400) Rocher, L. 1969. "Lawyers" in Classical Hindu Law. Law & Society Review 3 (2/3): 383-402. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QKMEMIHW/library


"The king was the original court and an appellate tribunal. Occupying the judgement-seat (dharmasana), he dispensed justice with the help and guidance of judicial officials." [1]
"Asahaya enumerates noble lineage, ripe wisdom, truthfulness, proficiency in the sacred law and close acquaintance with worldly ways, as the qualifications of a judge." [2]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 151) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.

[2]: (Mishra 1977, 152) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Drinking Water Supply System:
present

"Bharuci explains samvida as the samiti of villagers whose functions included the protection of tanks and pasture-grounds, and renovation of temples." [1]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 144) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.


Transport Infrastructure
Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Inferred from presence of court physician. [1]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 138) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.


Sacred Text:
present

Buddhist, Jain and Hindu texts.


Religious Literature:
present

Buddhist, Jain and Hindu texts, including commentaries.


Practical Literature:
present

The Arthaśāstra, which "probably arose in the first half of the first millennium AD" but probably largely "derive[s] from older handbooks" includes instructions for the proper layout of cities, including "public edifices such as treasuries, storehouses for material and food, arsenals, and prisons". [1]

[1]: (Schlingloff 2013: 15) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DAMFF2NV.


Fiction:
present

Poetry. [1]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 138) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.


Calendar:
present

Court astrologers present. [1] Also, Kautilya’s Arthasastra contains a chapter title "Measurement of Space and Time." [2] The Arthaśāstra "probably arose in the first half of the first millennium AD" but probably largely "derive[s] from older handbooks". [3] Moreover, in the preceding Gupta period, "The length of the solar year was calculated with a precision which even the Greeks had not yet achieved". [4]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 138) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.

[2]: (Subramaniam 2001, 79) Subramaniam, V. in Farazmand, Ali. ed. 2001. Handbook of Comparative and Development Public Administration. CRC Press.

[3]: (Schlingloff 2013: 15) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DAMFF2NV.

[4]: (Keay 2010, 153) Keay, John. 2010. India: A History. New Updated Edition. London: HarperPress. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/HSHAKZ3X.


Information / Money
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown

No persuasive evidence could be found, in the literature consulted, for the existence of a postal service of any kind in India, between the end of the Mauryan period and the fourteenth century, when Ibn Battuta visited the Delhi Sultanate and described its communication services. However, it is entirely possible that such systems existed in at least some polities, especially the larger ones.


General Postal Service:
unknown

No persuasive evidence could be found, in the literature consulted, for the existence of a postal service of any kind in India, between the end of the Mauryan period and the fourteenth century, when Ibn Battuta visited the Delhi Sultanate and described its communication services. However, it is entirely possible that such systems existed in at least some polities, especially the larger ones.


Courier:
unknown

No persuasive evidence could be found, in the literature consulted, for the existence of a postal service of any kind in India, between the end of the Mauryan period and the fourteenth century, when Ibn Battuta visited the Delhi Sultanate and described its communication services. However, it is entirely possible that such systems existed in at least some polities, especially the larger ones.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications

Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown

Stone Walls Mortared:
present

The Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang visited Kanauj in the mid-7th century CE and reported a moat and tower fortifications. [1] It is logical to presume the moat was located outside of a circumvallating wall or rampart and that the tower was made from stone or brick.

[1]: 1917. The Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay. Volume 10. Antropological Society of Bombay.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown


When a Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang visited Kanauj in the mid-7th century CE he "gives a vivid description of the city and its king Harsha. The town was over three miles in length, one mile in breadth, and surrounded by a moat and fortified by a strong lofty tower." [1]

[1]: 1917. The Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay. Volume 10. Antropological Society of Bombay.



Earth Rampart:
present

In the 14th century Ibn Battuta who visited the city of Kanauj wrote: "The city is surrounded with a huge rampart". [1] The Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang visited Kanauj in the mid-7th century CE and reported a moat. [2] It is logical to presume the moat was located outside of a circumvallating wall or rampart? When the city of Kanauj was conquered at the end of the Gurjara-Pratisharas (815-1019 CE) the inhabitants took refuge in sturdily-built temples on high ground. This suggests the external fortifications may not have been that substantial: "When the Muslim army approached, most of the inhabitants had taken refuge ’with the gods’, i.e. in the temples. The city was taken possession of in one day, and emptied of its treasure." [3]

[1]: Niharranjan Ray. Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya. Ranabir Chakravarti. V R Mani. eds. 2000. A Sourcebook of Indian Civilization. Orient Blackswan. Hyderabad.

[2]: 1917. The Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay. Volume 10. Antropological Society of Bombay.

[3]: (Wink 1997, 331) Andre Wink. 1997. Al-Hind the Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Volume II. The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest. 11th - 13th Centuries. BRILL. Leiden.



Complex Fortification:
absent

Referring to a period of time that appears to begin with the Mauryan era and include the first millennium CE:"The royal residence is designated with an old name the “interior city” (antaḥpura) and is described as being just as fortified as the city itself. There are even expressions where the palace wall is confused with the city wall and the castle gate with the city gate. Nonetheless, it would be a false conclusion were one to consider the royal residence, on the strength of this description, to be a citadel. We know from the narrative literature that it was easy to negotiate the moat and wall of the king’s palace by means of a pole or rope. The palace wall formed a police and not a military protection. Once besiegers had breached the city wall, the city lay at their feet. There was no last stand for the palace."". [1]

[1]: (Schlingloff 2013: 47) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DAMFF2NV.


Military use of Metals

Armour. [1]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 151) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.


Inferred from the presence of higher metals.


Inferred from the presence of higher metals.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

"Yantra was loosely used to denote a contrivance of any kind and that it was like catapults and ballistics used by the ancient Hebrews, Greeks and Romans in their warfare." [1]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 151) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.


"sling (bhindipala)". [1]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 150) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.


Quivers: "In the Uttararama-carita a great contingent of soldiers armed with corslets, staves and quivers..." [1]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 146) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.


"javelin (tomara), sakti and bhalla (varieties of missile)". [1]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 150) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.


Composite Bow:
absent

The composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but"After the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India." [1]

[1]: (Roy 2011: 122) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/TXZNKIH8.


New World weapon.


Handheld weapons

Staves: "In the Uttararama-carita a great contingent of soldiers armed with corslets, staves and quivers..." [1] Clay plaques from Paharpur (c8th CE) show male and female infantry armed with a club. [1]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 146) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.


Swords: "The Malatimadhava makes mention of a troop of seasoned soldiers equipped with flashing swords and various other weapons not specified." [1] "In the Sisupalavadha, we find soldiers armed with swords and shields". [1] One and multi-edged swords (asi, karvala and khadga). [2]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 146) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.

[2]: (Mishra 1977, 150) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.


Clay plaques from Paharpur (c8th CE)show male and female infantry armed with a sword or dagger". [1]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 146) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.

Clay plaques from Paharpur (c8th CE)show male and female infantry armed with a sword or dagger". [1]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 146) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.


Battle Axe:
present

Axe (kuthara). [1]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 150) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.


Animals used in warfare

Chariotry "seems to have practically fallen into desuetude in the Gupta and later periods." [1] "Cavalry had become an important division of ancient Indian army in the early centuries of the Christian era, and the later periods witnessed a gradual increase in its importance. The knowledge of horses was systematised into a science called asvasatra or asvavidya and it was included in the princely curriculum." [1] "But this swift and agile animal was never given the first rank in ancient Indian army." [2]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 147) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.

[2]: (Mishra 1977, 148) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.


Elephants "occupied the most important place in ancient Indian military organisation; and the study of the science of elephants like that of horses formed part of princely education." [1] Eastern India was the homeland of elephant breeding, west and north-west for horses. [2]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 148) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.

[2]: (Mishra 1977, 149) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
unknown

Inferred from shields.


Shields: "In the Sisupalavadha, we find soldiers armed with swords and shields". [1] Clay plaques from Paharpur (c8th CE) show male and female infantry with a shield". [1]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 146) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.



Plate Armor:
present

Corslet: "In the Uttararama-carita a great contingent of soldiers armed with corslets, staves and quivers..." [1]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 146) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.



Leather Cloth:
present

"thickly knitted" armour on elephants. [1]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 151) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.



Inferred from Gupta period. Might not be of metal.


Chainmail:
present

Clay plaques from Paharpur (c8th CE) show male and female infantry clad in a coat of mail. [1]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 146) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.


Breastplate:
present

Corslet: "In the Uttararama-carita a great contingent of soldiers armed with corslets, staves and quivers..." [1]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 146) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown

"In north India, Bengal and the Indus valley played important role in naval affairs. We are informed that Jivitagupta II of Magadha and Dahir and Jaismha of Sind had also powerful naval forces. Jaisimha was defeated and killed by the Arabs after a hard fought naval battle." [1]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 149) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

"In north India, Bengal and the Indus valley played important role in naval affairs. We are informed that Jivitagupta II of Magadha and Dahir and Jaismha of Sind had also powerful naval forces. Jaisimha was defeated and killed by the Arabs after a hard fought naval battle." [1]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 149) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown

"In north India, Bengal and the Indus valley played important role in naval affairs. We are informed that Jivitagupta II of Magadha and Dahir and Jaismha of Sind had also powerful naval forces. Jaisimha was defeated and killed by the Arabs after a hard fought naval battle." [1]

[1]: (Mishra 1977, 149) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions
- Nothing coded yet.