Home Region:  Afghanistan (Central and Northern Eurasia)

Kidarite Kingdom

D G SC WF EQ 2020  af_kidarite_k / AfKidar

Preceding:
[elite migration, continuity; Sassanid Empire I] [continuity]   Update here
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
No Polity found. Add one here.

The Kidarite state in Central Asia (~ 388-477 CE) may have lasted less than 100 years, but its earliest phase under the suzerainty of the Sassanid Empire is not well known. [1] "It has been suggested that they conquered K’ang-chu and Sogdiana in c. 300 but the literary sources have not yet been corroborated by the archaeological evidence." [2]
The most influential ruler of the Kidarites was perhaps king Kidara: narrative sources place him in the c420s CE but numismatists agree his rule began c390 CE. [3] The Chinese chronicle Peo-Shih (Annals of the Wei Dynasty) say Kidara held "vast territories to the north and south of the Hindu Kush" and his most imporant city was near Peshawar, probably Purushapura, [4] the late capital of the Kushan Empire.
Much like the Kushan Empire little is known about how exactly they ruled their territories. The Kidarites founded new cities (Panjikent and Kushaniya), Kushaniya being a royal foundation [3] that shows that the Kidarites attempted to draw some of their legitimacy from the preceding Kushan period. Zeimal (1996) concludes that "It seems likely that the administrative and government structure created by the Kushans was left largely intact under the Kidarites." [5]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 125) E. V. Zeimal. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 124-125) E V Zeimal. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[3]: (Grenet 2005) Frantz Grenet. 2005. KIDARITES. Iranicaonline. www.iranicaonline.org/articles/kidarites

[4]: (Zeimal 1996, 126) E V Zeimal. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[5]: (Zeimal 1996, 132) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
42 T  
Original Name:
Kidarite Kingdom  
Capital:
Balkh  
Gandhara  
Alternative Name:
Kidarites  
Chionites  
Kidarite Huns  
Huna  
Honk  
Kushans  
Ta Yeuh-chih  
Lesser Yeuh-chih  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[420 CE ➜ 440 CE]  
Duration:
[388 CE ➜ 477 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
nominal allegiance to [---]  
alliance with [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
Eurasian nomadic  
Persian  
Indian  
Succeeding Entity:
Hephthalite Empire  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
9,000,000 km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
elite migration  
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
UNCLEAR:    [continuity]  
Degree of Centralization:
confederated state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
Sogdian  
Bactrian  
Pahlavi  
Brahmi  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Zoroastrianism  
Buddhism  
Hinduism  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
250,000 km2 400 CE
[850,000 to 900,000] km2 450 CE
Polity Population:
[1,000,000 to 1,500,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4  
Religious Level:
[1 to 2]  
Military Level:
4  
Administrative Level:
[3 to 5]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
inferred present  
Law
Judge:
inferred present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
inferred present  
Irrigation System:
inferred present  
Food Storage Site:
inferred present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
inferred absent  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
inferred present  
Port:
inferred present  
Bridge:
inferred present  
Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
inferred present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
inferred present  
Sacred Text:
inferred present  
Religious Literature:
inferred present  
Practical Literature:
inferred present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
inferred present  
Calendar:
inferred present  
Information / Money
Paper Currency:
unknown  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
inferred present  
Article:
inferred present  
Information / Postal System
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
present  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
inferred present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
present  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
inferred present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
inferred present  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
unknown  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
unknown  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Camel:
present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
present  
  Shield:
present  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Kidarite Kingdom (af_kidarite_k) was in:
 (388 CE 472 CE)   Sogdiana
Home NGA: Sogdiana

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Kidarite Kingdom

Kidarite Kingdom. [1] The term "Kidarites" reflects the dynastic name, derived from King Kidara; the people were Chionites or Huns. [2]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 123) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 124) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Accordng to the Chinese chronicle, the Pei-shih (Annals of the Wei Dynasty) the capital was Ying-chien-shih, which "was probably located at the ancient capital of Bactria, near Balkh." [1] Another Chinese source the Wei-shu mistakenly claimed that the capital was transferred to another city. [1] Capital captured by Sassanids 467 CE which forced Kidarites to retreat south of Hindu Kush to Gandhara. [2]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 126) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 130) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

Capital:
Gandhara

Accordng to the Chinese chronicle, the Pei-shih (Annals of the Wei Dynasty) the capital was Ying-chien-shih, which "was probably located at the ancient capital of Bactria, near Balkh." [1] Another Chinese source the Wei-shu mistakenly claimed that the capital was transferred to another city. [1] Capital captured by Sassanids 467 CE which forced Kidarites to retreat south of Hindu Kush to Gandhara. [2]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 126) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 130) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Alternative Name:
Kidarites

Kidarites, Chionites (Latin authors), ’Huns who are Kidarites’ (Greek authors), Huna (Indian chronicles), Honk’ and Kushans (Armenian literature), Ta Yueh-chih or Lesser Yueh-chih (Chinese annals). [1] The term "Kidarites" reflects the dynastic name, derived from King Kidara; the people were Chionites or Huns. [2] Junagadh inscription of c457 CE which refers to the reign of Skandagupta (455-467 CE) is referring to the Kidarites (or Hephthalites) by the name ’Mlecchas’. [3]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 123) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 124) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[3]: (Zeimal 1996, 127) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

Alternative Name:
Chionites

Kidarites, Chionites (Latin authors), ’Huns who are Kidarites’ (Greek authors), Huna (Indian chronicles), Honk’ and Kushans (Armenian literature), Ta Yueh-chih or Lesser Yueh-chih (Chinese annals). [1] The term "Kidarites" reflects the dynastic name, derived from King Kidara; the people were Chionites or Huns. [2] Junagadh inscription of c457 CE which refers to the reign of Skandagupta (455-467 CE) is referring to the Kidarites (or Hephthalites) by the name ’Mlecchas’. [3]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 123) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 124) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[3]: (Zeimal 1996, 127) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

Alternative Name:
Kidarite Huns

Kidarites, Chionites (Latin authors), ’Huns who are Kidarites’ (Greek authors), Huna (Indian chronicles), Honk’ and Kushans (Armenian literature), Ta Yueh-chih or Lesser Yueh-chih (Chinese annals). [1] The term "Kidarites" reflects the dynastic name, derived from King Kidara; the people were Chionites or Huns. [2] Junagadh inscription of c457 CE which refers to the reign of Skandagupta (455-467 CE) is referring to the Kidarites (or Hephthalites) by the name ’Mlecchas’. [3]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 123) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 124) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[3]: (Zeimal 1996, 127) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

Alternative Name:
Huna

Kidarites, Chionites (Latin authors), ’Huns who are Kidarites’ (Greek authors), Huna (Indian chronicles), Honk’ and Kushans (Armenian literature), Ta Yueh-chih or Lesser Yueh-chih (Chinese annals). [1] The term "Kidarites" reflects the dynastic name, derived from King Kidara; the people were Chionites or Huns. [2] Junagadh inscription of c457 CE which refers to the reign of Skandagupta (455-467 CE) is referring to the Kidarites (or Hephthalites) by the name ’Mlecchas’. [3]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 123) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 124) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[3]: (Zeimal 1996, 127) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

Alternative Name:
Honk

Kidarites, Chionites (Latin authors), ’Huns who are Kidarites’ (Greek authors), Huna (Indian chronicles), Honk’ and Kushans (Armenian literature), Ta Yueh-chih or Lesser Yueh-chih (Chinese annals). [1] The term "Kidarites" reflects the dynastic name, derived from King Kidara; the people were Chionites or Huns. [2] Junagadh inscription of c457 CE which refers to the reign of Skandagupta (455-467 CE) is referring to the Kidarites (or Hephthalites) by the name ’Mlecchas’. [3]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 123) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 124) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[3]: (Zeimal 1996, 127) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

Alternative Name:
Kushans

Kidarites, Chionites (Latin authors), ’Huns who are Kidarites’ (Greek authors), Huna (Indian chronicles), Honk’ and Kushans (Armenian literature), Ta Yueh-chih or Lesser Yueh-chih (Chinese annals). [1] The term "Kidarites" reflects the dynastic name, derived from King Kidara; the people were Chionites or Huns. [2] Junagadh inscription of c457 CE which refers to the reign of Skandagupta (455-467 CE) is referring to the Kidarites (or Hephthalites) by the name ’Mlecchas’. [3]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 123) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 124) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[3]: (Zeimal 1996, 127) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

Alternative Name:
Ta Yeuh-chih

Kidarites, Chionites (Latin authors), ’Huns who are Kidarites’ (Greek authors), Huna (Indian chronicles), Honk’ and Kushans (Armenian literature), Ta Yueh-chih or Lesser Yueh-chih (Chinese annals). [1] The term "Kidarites" reflects the dynastic name, derived from King Kidara; the people were Chionites or Huns. [2] Junagadh inscription of c457 CE which refers to the reign of Skandagupta (455-467 CE) is referring to the Kidarites (or Hephthalites) by the name ’Mlecchas’. [3]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 123) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 124) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[3]: (Zeimal 1996, 127) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

Alternative Name:
Lesser Yeuh-chih

Kidarites, Chionites (Latin authors), ’Huns who are Kidarites’ (Greek authors), Huna (Indian chronicles), Honk’ and Kushans (Armenian literature), Ta Yueh-chih or Lesser Yueh-chih (Chinese annals). [1] The term "Kidarites" reflects the dynastic name, derived from King Kidara; the people were Chionites or Huns. [2] Junagadh inscription of c457 CE which refers to the reign of Skandagupta (455-467 CE) is referring to the Kidarites (or Hephthalites) by the name ’Mlecchas’. [3]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 123) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 124) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[3]: (Zeimal 1996, 127) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[420 CE ➜ 440 CE]

Greatest territorial extent first half of 5th century. [1]
During the reign of king Kidara "the Kidarite kingdom occupied vast territories to the north and south of the Hindu Kush." [2]
Scholars believe that the information about king Kidara’s reign in the Pei-shih "was based on the report of Tung Wan sent to the West in 437." [2]
"Kidara’s rise to power, the founding of his state and the annexation of the territories to the south of the Hindu Kush ... should be dated to an earlier period ... some time between 390 and 430, but probably before 410." [1]
Further territories may have been taken in India in the mid-5th century when "a considerable portion of central and western Panjab was under Kidarite rule" during the reign of the Gupta king Kumaragupta I (413-455 CE). [1]
Indian inscriptians that refer to reign of Skandagupta (455-467 CE) mention Huna invaders. [1]
the Sassanians "laid waste territories subject to the Kidarites and took fortresses" during Yazdgird II’s eastern campaigns and that by 449 CE they had the advantage. however, sometimes the Kidarites got the best of it and in 456 CE they refused to pay tribute. [3]
Capital captured by Sassanids 467 CE which forced Kidarites to retreat south of Hindu Kush to Gandhara. [4]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 127) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 126) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[3]: (Zeimal 1996, 129-130) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[4]: (Zeimal 1996, 130) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Duration:
[388 CE ➜ 477 CE]

Of 2,000 coins minted in Samarkand 1st-5th CE only 7 have the name of Kidara which suggests "Kidarite rule was short-lived." [1] The numismatics of these coins suggests that the Kidara ones cannot be earlier than mid-4th CE. [1]
Sassanian-type Kidarite coins suggest an early relationship with the Sassanids - perhaps official recognition for Sassanian suzerainty. This could be as early as c350 CE and as late as 388 CE. [1]
300 CE
"It has been suggested that they conquered K’ang-chu and Sogdiana in c. 300 but the literary sources have not yet been corroborated by the archaeological evidence." [2]
350 CE
c350 CE Ammianus Marcellinus (XVI, 9.4) reports that the "Chionites (i.e. the Kidarites) fought in Syria as allies of the Sasanian king, Shapur II (309-379), at the siege of Amida (the modern Diyarbekir)." [3] They were led into battle by a new king called Grumbrates who had an alliance with Shapur II (Ammianus Marcellinus XVII, 5.1). [3] What had happened to the old king? Was this when the alliance was first agreed?
390 CE
"Kidara’s rise to power, the founding of his state and the annexation of the territories to the south of the Hindu Kush ... should be dated to an earlier period ... some time between 390 and 430, but probably before 410." [4]
for reign of king Kidara narrative sources suggest c420s CE but numismatists agree his rule began c390 CE. [5]
End
"It was probably not Skandagupta’s victories but a new wave of nomadic invaders from the north ... Hephthalites ... that put an end of the Kidarite state in Gandhara and Panjab." [6]
lost Tokharistan to Hepththalites in 467 CE, "residual North Indian kingdom, perhaps in Swat, until 477." [5]
possible kinglist, unknown source
Kidara I, Kungas, Varhran I, Grumbat, Kidara II, Brahmi Buddhatala, Unknown, Varhran II, Goboziko, Salanavira, Vinayaditya, Kandik
Chinese pilgrim Sung Yun visited Gandhara in 520 and discovered Hephthalites were rulers

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 125) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 124-125) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[3]: (Zeimal 1996, 124) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[4]: (Zeimal 1996, 127) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[5]: (Grenet 2005) Grenet, Frantz. 2005. KIDARITES. Iranicaonline. www.iranicaonline.org/articles/kidarites

[6]: (Zeimal 1996, 128) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
nominal allegiance to [---]

Sassanian-type Kidarite coins suggest an early relationship with the Sassanids - perhaps official recognition for Sassanian suzerainty. This could be as early as c350 CE and as late as 388 CE. [1]
unknown source
sent an embassy to China 477 CE

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 125) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]

Sassanian-type Kidarite coins suggest an early relationship with the Sassanids - perhaps official recognition for Sassanian suzerainty. This could be as early as c350 CE and as late as 388 CE. [1]
unknown source
sent an embassy to China 477 CE

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 125) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Supracultural Entity:
Eurasian nomadic
Supracultural Entity:
Persian
Supracultural Entity:
Indian

Succeeding Entity:
Hephthalite Empire

Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
9,000,000 km2

km squared. Total area of Eurasian nomadic, Persian and Indian cultural regions would be on the scale of 9 million km2 (core regions of these areas).


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
elite migration

"It has been suggested that they conquered K’ang-chu and Sogdiana in c. 300 but the literary sources have not yet been corroborated by the archaeological evidence." [1] The Kidarites might have been present (rulers?) in Tokharistan under the Kushans.

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 124-125) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

"It has been suggested that they conquered K’ang-chu and Sogdiana in c. 300 but the literary sources have not yet been corroborated by the archaeological evidence." [1] The Kidarites might have been present (rulers?) in Tokharistan under the Kushans.

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 124-125) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Preceding Entity:
Sassanid Empire I

(Relationship): "It has been suggested that they conquered K’ang-chu and Sogdiana in c. 300 but the literary sources have not yet been corroborated by the archaeological evidence." [1] The Kidarites might have been present (rulers?) in Tokharistan under the Kushans., "It has been suggested that they conquered K’ang-chu and Sogdiana in c. 300 but the literary sources have not yet been corroborated by the archaeological evidence." [1] The Kidarites might have been present (rulers?) in Tokharistan under the Kushans.
(Entity): Accordng to the Chinese chronicle, the Pei-shih (Annals of the Wei Dynasty) "The original nucleus of the Kidarite state was the territory of Tokharistan (now northern Afghanistan and southern Uzbekistan and Tajikstan), which was previously part of the Kushan Empire and subsequently of the Kushano-Sasanians." [2]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 124-125) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 126) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Degree of Centralization:
confederated state

During the reign of king Kidara "the Kidarite kingdom occupied vast territories to the north and south of the Hindu Kush." "the principal city of the Kidarites south of the Hindu Kush was situated near present day Peshawar ... Fu-lou-sha ... which probably represents Purushapura ... Its ruler was Kidara’s son". [1] Accordng to the Chinese chronicle, the Pei-shih (Annals of the Wei Dynasty)

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 126) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European

Language:
Sogdian

"We do not know what language the Kidarites spoke". [1] Coinage had "inscriptions in Sogdian, Bactrian, Middle Persian and Brahmi." [2] "The Bactrian script and language were used for a long time after the Kushan age but only small fragments of Bactrian literary works have been discovered so far." [3] Administration was carried out at a regional level and probably in the local language by administrators recruited from the majority settled population.

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 136) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 136-137) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[3]: (Harmatta 1994, 424) Harmatta, J. Languages and literature in the Kushan Empire. in Harmatta, Janos. Puri, B. N. Etemadi, G. F. eds. 1994. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume II. The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations 700 B.C. to A.D. 250. UNESCO Publishing.

Language:
Bactrian

"We do not know what language the Kidarites spoke". [1] Coinage had "inscriptions in Sogdian, Bactrian, Middle Persian and Brahmi." [2] "The Bactrian script and language were used for a long time after the Kushan age but only small fragments of Bactrian literary works have been discovered so far." [3] Administration was carried out at a regional level and probably in the local language by administrators recruited from the majority settled population.

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 136) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 136-137) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[3]: (Harmatta 1994, 424) Harmatta, J. Languages and literature in the Kushan Empire. in Harmatta, Janos. Puri, B. N. Etemadi, G. F. eds. 1994. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume II. The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations 700 B.C. to A.D. 250. UNESCO Publishing.

Language:
Pahlavi

"We do not know what language the Kidarites spoke". [1] Coinage had "inscriptions in Sogdian, Bactrian, Middle Persian and Brahmi." [2] "The Bactrian script and language were used for a long time after the Kushan age but only small fragments of Bactrian literary works have been discovered so far." [3] Administration was carried out at a regional level and probably in the local language by administrators recruited from the majority settled population.

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 136) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 136-137) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[3]: (Harmatta 1994, 424) Harmatta, J. Languages and literature in the Kushan Empire. in Harmatta, Janos. Puri, B. N. Etemadi, G. F. eds. 1994. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume II. The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations 700 B.C. to A.D. 250. UNESCO Publishing.

Language:
Brahmi

"We do not know what language the Kidarites spoke". [1] Coinage had "inscriptions in Sogdian, Bactrian, Middle Persian and Brahmi." [2] "The Bactrian script and language were used for a long time after the Kushan age but only small fragments of Bactrian literary works have been discovered so far." [3] Administration was carried out at a regional level and probably in the local language by administrators recruited from the majority settled population.

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 136) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 136-137) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[3]: (Harmatta 1994, 424) Harmatta, J. Languages and literature in the Kushan Empire. in Harmatta, Janos. Puri, B. N. Etemadi, G. F. eds. 1994. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume II. The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations 700 B.C. to A.D. 250. UNESCO Publishing.


Religion

Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI


Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
250,000 km2
400 CE

in squared kilometers
King Kidara incorporated Gandhara into the kingdom, and "four other territories to the north of it." [1]
Further territories may have been taken in India in the mid-5th century when "a considerable portion of central and western Panjab was under Kidarite rule" during the reign of the Gupta king Kumaragupta I (413-455 CE). [2]
"total absence of Gupta coins in the western regions of India and in Pakistan" at beginning of Skandagupta’s (455-467 CE) reign. [3]
After defeat north of the Hindu Kush by Peroz (Sassanids) in alliance with Hephthalites, Kidarites retreated to Gandhara in India, later to be overrun by the Hephthalites. [4]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 126) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 127) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[3]: (Zeimal 1996, 128) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[4]: (Zeimal 1996, 130) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

Polity Territory:
[850,000 to 900,000] km2
450 CE

in squared kilometers
King Kidara incorporated Gandhara into the kingdom, and "four other territories to the north of it." [1]
Further territories may have been taken in India in the mid-5th century when "a considerable portion of central and western Panjab was under Kidarite rule" during the reign of the Gupta king Kumaragupta I (413-455 CE). [2]
"total absence of Gupta coins in the western regions of India and in Pakistan" at beginning of Skandagupta’s (455-467 CE) reign. [3]
After defeat north of the Hindu Kush by Peroz (Sassanids) in alliance with Hephthalites, Kidarites retreated to Gandhara in India, later to be overrun by the Hephthalites. [4]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 126) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 127) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[3]: (Zeimal 1996, 128) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[4]: (Zeimal 1996, 130) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Polity Population:
[1,000,000 to 1,500,000] people

People.
Estimate for the population of Bactria c400 CE.
Bactria included part of modern Afghanistan and the region McEverdy and Jones (1979) called Russian Turkestan. In 400 CE McEvedy and Jones estimate 2.5 million and 2 million for those entire regions, respectively. [1] At this time in history Bactria would have been the core area of settled population in both these regions (with perhaps the exception of Khwarezm region in Russian Turkestan). However, core Bactria is only a very small part of northern Afghanistan. I would estimate 500,000 at most for the Afghan region and 1,000,000 for the region in Russian Turkestan, and express this as a range of 1-1.5 million.

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1979) McEvedy, C. Jones, R. 1979. Atlas of World Population History. Allen Lane. London.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4

levels.
1. Capital
Balkh, Gandhara.
2. Large town / new foundationsKidarite rule "coincided with ... the foundation of new cities such as Panjikent and Kushaniya. (The name of the latter probably indicates a Kidarite royal foundation, as neither the Great Kushans nor the Kushano-Sasanians had exerted control over that region.)" [1]
3. Small town ?4. Village ?

[1]: (Grenet 2005) Grenet, Frantz. 2005. KIDARITES. Iranicaonline. www.iranicaonline.org/articles/kidarites


Religious Level:
[1 to 2]

levels.
There was "a local variety of Zoroastrianism (Mazdaism) in Tokharistan, various expressions of Buddhism and Hinduism in the territory of Gandhara and also, probably, the official Sasanian doctrine." [1]
"It appears that the Kidarites’ beliefs had not yet developed into a rigid religious system". [1]
"The Buddhist religious centre in Old Termez, destroyed probably in the 360s-370s by the Sasanians, already lay in ruins". [2]
also at time of Kidarites were abandoned buildings and caves of monasteries. [2]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 137) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 131) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Military Level:
4

levels. No data. However, minimum of four levels, probably more, likely as they representated a capable fighting force against the Sasanid and Gupta Empires.
1. King
2.3.4. Individual soldier.
Clan and tribal organizations traditional to nomadic peoples were likely "reflected in the administrative structure of the state and in the organization of the army". [1]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 136) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Administrative Level:
[3 to 5]

levels.
1. King
Sources do not tell us whether the new Hephthalite polity was a dynastic regime change or a ’clash of armies’. [1] "It is known, however, that the name Kidara was kept, although now as an honorific title (meaning ’honoured’, ’hero’, ’valiant’), long after the Kidarite state had ceased to exist, just as the original Kidara used to style himself on coins Kusana Sahi (king of Kushan) many years after the fall of the Empire of the Kushans." [1]
Kidarites were a group of nomadic origin. [2]
Chinese chronicle the Pei-shih claimed that the Kidarites "’move around following their herds of cattle’ .... On the other hand, it is known that there were Kidarite capitals both in Gandhara and Tokharistan, and thus that they lived in towns." [3]
"more accurate to think of the Kidarite state not as a unified society but one with a clear distinction between the conquerers - the ruling group - and their subject peoples, the latter preserving their own traditions." [3]
_ Central Administration _
2. Top administrator
Kidarite rule "coincided with ... the foundation of new cities such as Panjikent and Kushaniya. (The name of the latter probably indicates a Kidarite royal foundation, as neither the Great Kushans nor the Kushano-Sasanians had exerted control over that region.)" [4]
"It is tempting to draw an analogy with the vast state of the Kushans. This is not only because the Kidarites claimed to be the successors ... ; a no less important factor is that the former nomadic invaders came into possession of vast territories inhabited by settled agricultural peoples with a culture and traditions dating back many centuries, just as had been the case with the Tokharians ... who created the Kushan Empire. It seems likely that the administrative and government structure created by the Kushans was left largely intact under the Kidarites." [5] 3.4. Scribes
4. Manager of a MintThe Kidarite coinage was not a separate monetary system but "an adaptation to the local issues in each area they conquered. In Sogdiana small silver coins were issued ... They followed the design of early Sogdian coins ... In Tokharistan gold inars were issued in the name of Kidara, following the gold coins of the Kushano-Sasanians ... The silver coins of Sasanian type can be attributed to Gandhara and the area around. ... In their Indian territories the Kidarites also issued gold coins based on the model of the Late Kushan dinars". [6]
Economy was advanced enough that copper coinage was minted in quantities that implied it was used as ’small change’. Copper coin design was also an adaptation to existing currency in each region. [7]
The Kidarite monetary system "created favourable conditions for maintaining the established traditions in local trades. ... flourishing international trade networks and wide trading links between various regions of the Kidarite state." [3]
5. Mint worker
_ Provincial government _
2.Clan and tribal organizations traditional to nomadic peoples were likely "reflected in the administrative structure of the state". [3]
Hephthalites
Western sources suggests the Hephthalites were "a tribal group distinct from and apparently sometimes hostile to" the Kidarites. [8]
Many instances when the Hephthalites were allies with the Sassanians against the Kidarites. Hephthalites also sided with Hormizd faction in dispute for Sassanian kingship. [9]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 128) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[3]: (Zeimal 1996, 136) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[4]: (Grenet 2005) Grenet, Frantz. 2005. KIDARITES. Iranicaonline. www.iranicaonline.org/articles/kidarites

[5]: (Zeimal 1996, 132) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[6]: (Zeimal 1996, 132-134) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[7]: (Zeimal 1996, 135) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[8]: (Zeimal 1996, 129) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[9]: (Zeimal 1996, 130) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

Clan and tribal organizations traditional to nomadic peoples were likely "reflected in the administrative structure of the state and in the organization of the army". [1] Presumably a military aristocracy. inferred present for full-time and trained.

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 136) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Professional Priesthood:
present

There was "a local variety of Zoroastrianism (Mazdaism) in Tokharistan, various expressions of Buddhism and Hinduism in the territory of Gandhara and also, probably, the official Sasanian doctrine." [1]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 137) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Professional Military Officer:
present

Clan and tribal organizations traditional to nomadic peoples were likely "reflected in the administrative structure of the state and in the organization of the army". [1] Presumably a military aristocracy. inferred present for full-time and trained.

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 136) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Mints for coinage in all regions. [1]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 132-133) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

"It is tempting to draw an analogy with the vast state of the Kushans. This is not only because the Kidarites claimed to be the successors ... ; a no less important factor is that the former nomadic invaders came into possession of vast territories inhabited by settled agricultural peoples with a culture and traditions dating back many centuries, just as had been the case with the Tokharians ... who created the Kushan Empire. It seems likely that the administrative and government structure created by the Kushans was left largely intact under the Kidarites." [1]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 132) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Law
Judge:
present

"the former nomadic invaders came into possession of vast territories inhabited by settled agricultural peoples with a culture and traditions dating back many centuries, just as had been the case with the Tokharians ... who created the Kushan Empire. It seems likely that the administrative and government structure created by the Kushans was left largely intact under the Kidarites." [1]
We know from the Kushan period there were such things as legal documents and land transfer deeds written in Kharoshthi. [2]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 132) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Samad 2011, 89) Samad, R. U. 2011. The Grandeur of Gandhara: The Ancient Buddhist Civilization of the Swat, Peshawar, Kabul and Indus Valleys. Angora Publishing.


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Kidarite rule "coincided with ... the foundation of new cities such as Panjikent and Kushaniya. (The name of the latter probably indicates a Kidarite royal foundation, as neither the Great Kushans nor the Kushano-Sasanians had exerted control over that region.)" [1] We could infer that the new cities were built with market infrastructure. Economy was advanced enough that copper coinage was minted in quantities that implied it was used as ’small change’. [2] The Kidarite monetary system "created favourable conditions for maintaining the established traditions in local trades. ... flourishing international trade networks and wide trading links between various regions of the Kidarite state." [3]

[1]: (Grenet 2005) Grenet, Frantz. 2005. KIDARITES. Iranicaonline. www.iranicaonline.org/articles/kidarites

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 135) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[3]: (Zeimal 1996, 136) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Irrigation System:
present

During the Kushan period irrigation canals were constructed on large scale: "As a result of the extensive development of irrigation networks, practically all the main provinces of Central Asia were brought under cultivation during this period and the establishment of the major crop-growing oases was completed." [1] At least some of the irrigation infrastructure would have been maintained into the Kidarite period.

[1]: (Mukhamedjanov 1994, 257) Mukhamedjanov, A R in Harmatta J, Puri B N and Etemadi G F eds. 1994. History of civilizations of Central Asia. Volume II. UNESCO.


Food Storage Site:
present

Kidarite rule "coincided with ... the foundation of new cities such as Panjikent and Kushaniya. (The name of the latter probably indicates a Kidarite royal foundation, as neither the Great Kushans nor the Kushano-Sasanians had exerted control over that region.)" [1]

[1]: (Grenet 2005) Grenet, Frantz. 2005. KIDARITES. Iranicaonline. www.iranicaonline.org/articles/kidarites


Drinking Water Supply System:
absent

During the Kushan period wells feature in literary descriptions of cities. [1]

[1]: B.A. Litvinsky, ’Cities and Urban Life under The Kushans’ in J. Harmatta ed., History of Civilisations of Central Asia pp.303-304.


Transport Infrastructure

"the former nomadic invaders came into possession of vast territories inhabited by settled agricultural peoples with a culture and traditions dating back many centuries, just as had been the case with the Tokharians ... who created the Kushan Empire. It seems likely that the administrative and government structure created by the Kushans was left largely intact under the Kidarites." [1]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 132) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Landlocked. However, Amu Darya river presumably used for trade. Were there any large ports on this river in Bactria? Potentially so: "According to the report of Aristobulos (quoted by Strabo XI.7.3), the Oxus river was navigable and many Indian goods were transported on it as far as the Hyrcanian Sea, and from there to Albania and the Pontic region." [1]

[1]: (Harmatta et al. 1994, 310) Harmatta, J. Puri, B. N. Lelekov, L. Humayun, S. Sircar, D. C. Religions in the Kushan Empire. in Harmatta, Janos. Puri, B. N. Etemadi, G. F. eds. 1994. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume II. The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations 700 B.C. to A.D. 250. UNESCO Publishing.


Bridge:
present

Across the waterways in Bactria.


Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

"The Bactrian script and language were used for a long time after the Kushan age but only small fragments of Bactrian literary works have been discovered so far." [1]

[1]: (Harmatta 1994, 424) Harmatta, J. Languages and literature in the Kushan Empire. in Harmatta, Janos. Puri, B. N. Etemadi, G. F. eds. 1994. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume II. The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations 700 B.C. to A.D. 250. UNESCO Publishing.


Script:
present

"We do not know what language the Kidarites spoke". [1] Coinage had "inscriptions in Sogdian, Bactrian, Middle Persian and Brahmi." [2] "The Bactrian script and language were used for a long time after the Kushan age but only small fragments of Bactrian literary works have been discovered so far." [3] During the Kushan period there was: Bactrian Greek; Kharosthi script; Brahmi and Kharosthi and several literary languages of Sanskrit and different Prakrits. [4]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 136) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 136-137) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[3]: (Harmatta 1994, 424) Harmatta, J. Languages and literature in the Kushan Empire. in Harmatta, Janos. Puri, B. N. Etemadi, G. F. eds. 1994. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume II. The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations 700 B.C. to A.D. 250. UNESCO Publishing.

[4]: History of Civilisations of Central Asia pp. 424-427


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

During the Kushan period there was: Bactrian Greek; Kharosthi script; Brahmi and Kharosthi and several literary languages of Sanskrit and different Prakrits. [1]

[1]: History of Civilisations of Central Asia pp. 424-427


Nonwritten Record:
present

"The Bactrian script and language were used for a long time after the Kushan age but only small fragments of Bactrian literary works have been discovered so far." [1]

[1]: (Harmatta 1994, 424) Harmatta, J. Languages and literature in the Kushan Empire. in Harmatta, Janos. Puri, B. N. Etemadi, G. F. eds. 1994. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume II. The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations 700 B.C. to A.D. 250. UNESCO Publishing.


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

During the Kushan period there were texts on health, medicine, astronomy, astrology and mathematics. [1]

[1]: (Bivar 2009) Bivar, A. D. H. 2009. KUSHAN DYNASTY i. Dynastic History. IranicaOnline. Site accessed: www.iranicaonline.org/articles/kushan-dynasty-i-history


Sacred Text:
present

During the Kushan period Buddhist, Hindi, and Zoroastrian religious texts were present [1] and these were all present in this period.

[1]: Liu, Xinru. "A note on Buddhism and urban culture in Kushan India." Indian Economic & Social History Review 27, no. 3 (1990): 351-358.


Religious Literature:
present

During the Kushan period Buddhist, Hindi, and Zoroastrian religious texts were present [1] and these were all present in this period.

[1]: Liu, Xinru. "A note on Buddhism and urban culture in Kushan India." Indian Economic & Social History Review 27, no. 3 (1990): 351-358.


Practical Literature:
present

"the former nomadic invaders came into possession of vast territories inhabited by settled agricultural peoples with a culture and traditions dating back many centuries, just as had been the case with the Tokharians ... who created the Kushan Empire. It seems likely that the administrative and government structure created by the Kushans was left largely intact under the Kidarites." [1]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 132) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

"the former nomadic invaders came into possession of vast territories inhabited by settled agricultural peoples with a culture and traditions dating back many centuries, just as had been the case with the Tokharians ... who created the Kushan Empire. It seems likely that the administrative and government structure created by the Kushans was left largely intact under the Kidarites." [1]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 132) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Calendar:
present

"the former nomadic invaders came into possession of vast territories inhabited by settled agricultural peoples with a culture and traditions dating back many centuries, just as had been the case with the Tokharians ... who created the Kushan Empire. It seems likely that the administrative and government structure created by the Kushans was left largely intact under the Kidarites." [1]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 132) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Information / Money

Indigenous Coin:
present

The economy was advanced enough that copper coinage was minted in quantities that implied it was used as ’small change’. [1] Accordng to the Chinese chronicle, the Pei-shih (Annals of the Wei Dynasty) "the Kidarites, whom it refers to as the Ta Yueh-chih (Lesser Yueh-chih), ’have money made of gold and silver’. This information is confirmed by the evidence of their coins. [2] Gold, silver, copper coins. [2] "On Gandharan coins bearing their name the ruler is always clean-shaven, a fashion more typical of Altaic people than of Iranians." [3]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 135) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[2]: (Zeimal 1996, 132) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf

[3]: (Grenet 2005) Grenet, Frantz. 2005. KIDARITES. Iranicaonline. www.iranicaonline.org/articles/kidarites


Foreign Coin:
present

The Kidarite monetary system "created favourable conditions for maintaining the established traditions in local trades. ... flourishing international trade networks and wide trading links between various regions of the Kidarite state." [1]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 136) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Article:
present

The Kidarite monetary system "created favourable conditions for maintaining the established traditions in local trades. ... flourishing international trade networks and wide trading links between various regions of the Kidarite state." [1]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996, 136) Zeimal, E. V. The Kidarite Kingdom In Central Asia. in Litvinsky, B. A. ed. and Iskender-Mochiri, I. ed. 1996. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. pp.123-137. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf


Information / Postal System

Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Stone Walls Mortared:
present

Kidarite rule "coincided with the building of new fortifications" (Samarkand, Paykent). [1]

[1]: (Grenet 2005) Grenet, Frantz. 2005. KIDARITES. Iranicaonline. www.iranicaonline.org/articles/kidarites


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

Kidarite rule "coincided with the building of new fortifications" (Samarkand, Paykent). [1]

[1]: (Grenet 2005) Grenet, Frantz. 2005. KIDARITES. Iranicaonline. www.iranicaonline.org/articles/kidarites


Modern Fortification:
absent

absent before the gunpowder era


Earth Rampart:
present

Kidarite rule "coincided with the building of new fortifications" (Samarkand, Paykent). [1]

[1]: (Grenet 2005) Grenet, Frantz. 2005. KIDARITES. Iranicaonline. www.iranicaonline.org/articles/kidarites



Military use of Metals

At this time in Central Asia if high-quality steel was used it would have been imported. The following sources suggest later dates for fine steel. However we code present because the Kidarites occupied northern India (a location repeatedly associated with fine steel) which as early as 1st CE was exporting iron and steel as far as East Africa. [1] Reference for high quality of the steel (no beginning date provided): “In the context of this work, it is important to note that crucible steel of fine quality was made at Herat, in Bukhara and in northern India.” [2] Reference for high quality of the steel (this one dates from 900 CE): "Further east from Merv along the Silk Road is a region praised for its iron and steel production by Greek, Islamic, and Chinese writers. The Sogdian state of Ustrushana, a mountainous region east of Samarkand, and the Ferghana basin ... material related to the medieval iron and steel industry has been uncovered here. Most relevant ... is a workshop excavated at a city-site of the +9th-13th centuries in Feghana, at Eski Achsy, Uzbekistan. ..” Crucible fragments ”The excavators consider that the process used here was direct production of steel from ore, just as He Tangkun argues for the Luoyang crucibles. It is quite possible, however, that they were (also) used in co-fusion steel production as suggested by the Merv excavators." [3] Fine steel swords may have been produced at an earlier time than 900 CE with the technology coming from northern India or from this region via Persia: In Tibet c700 CE "steel swords were certainly available through trade with Sogdia and Fergana ... and many steel blades are known from Central Asia from the late first millennium until the arrival of Genghis Khan in the early thirteenth century." [4] "The Sogdian cities of Samarqand and Bukhara probably also manufactured iron and steel weapons that were exported to Tibet. We know that by the early eighth century, the Sogdians, having probably borrowed the technology from the Sasanians, were manufacturing mail armor and offered suits of the material as gifts to the Tang court in 718. ... The Sasasnians may themselves have developed knowledge of steelmaking from contacts with northern India." [5] "The principal centres for the manufacture of steel weapons in Central Asia were Khwarazm, Ferghana and northern India.” [2]

[1]: (Hatke 2013) Hatke, George. 2013. Aksum and Nubia: Warfare, Commerce, and Political Fictions in Ancient Northeast Africa. New York University Press.

[2]: (Hill 2000, 270) D R Hill. Physics and mechanics. Civil and hydraulic engineering. Industrial processes and manufacturing, and craft activities. C E Bosworth. M S Asimov. eds. 2000. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. The age of achievement: A.D. 750 to the end of the fifteenth century. UNESCO. Paris.

[3]: (Wagner and Needham 2008, 265) Donald B Wagner. Joseph Needham. 2008. Science and Civilisation in China. Volume V. Chemistry and Chemical Technology. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[4]: (Clarke 2006, 22) John Clarke. A History of Ironworking in Tibet: Centers of Production, Styles, and Techniques. Donald J LaRocca. ed. 2006. Warriors of the Himalayas: Rediscovering the Arms and Armor of Tibet. Yale University Press. New Haven.

[5]: (Clarke 2006, 21) John Clarke. A History of Ironworking in Tibet: Centers of Production, Styles, and Techniques. Donald J LaRocca. ed. 2006. Warriors of the Himalayas: Rediscovering the Arms and Armor of Tibet. Yale University Press. New Haven.


Iron had been used in by the steppe nomads from 330 BCE - 200 BCE. [1]

[1]: Grousset, Rene. The empire of the steppes: a history of Central Asia. Rutgers University Press, 1970 p. 17



Bronze had been used on the central steppes from 1500 BCE. [1]

[1]: Grousset, Rene. The empire of the steppes: a history of Central Asia. Rutgers University Press, 1970. p. 4


Projectiles

Sling Siege Engine:
absent

First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon. [1]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.



"The only corroboration of the presence of the Kidarites in Sogdiana is provided by early Sogdian coins (see also pages 128 et seq.) with the image of an archer on the reverse and the word kydr (Kidara) in the obverse legend." [1]

[1]: (Zeimal 1996: 125) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/M2SDP5ZM/q/zeimal.


"There are a number of artistic depictions, from different eras, that show steppe warriors on horseback and armed with a javelin". [1] ET: Whilst searching for data for the Hephthalites I found this late 19th century quote from an encyclopaedia. I cannot confirm it refers to the Hephthalites but it mentions horsemen. Did the horse backed warriors also carry a javelin? Bone-tipped javelins are less likely to leave finds for archaeologists. "Like the Mongols they were a race of horsemen. They fought with bone-tipped javelins, with sabers, and with slings or lassoes. They ate herbs and half- raw meat, which they first used as saddles ; and they clothed themselves with the skins of wild animals”.

[1]: Karasulas, Antony. Mounted archers of the steppe 600 BC-AD 1300. Vol. 120. Osprey Publishing, 2004, p.28.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

absent before the gunpowder era


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

absent before the gunpowder era


Present in previous and subsequent polities.



New World weapon.


Handheld weapons




"Among the steppe riders a dagger was typically carried in all periods, and a number of dagger designs are encountered in the archaeological and artistic record." [1]

[1]: (Karasulas 2004, 28)



Animals used in warfare


"Bactrian camels began to be used for cavalry between 500 and 100 BC." [1]

[1]: (Mayor 2014, 290) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

Landlocked polity.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

Extremely unlikely they would not use river boats.


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent

Landlocked polity.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions
- Nothing coded yet.