Home Region:  Southern Europe (Europe)

Rome - Republic of St Peter II

D G SC WF HS PT EQ 2020  it_st_peter_rep_2 / ItPapEM

Preceding:
[continuity; Rome - Republic of St Peter I] [continuity]   Update here
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
1198 CE 1309 CE Papal States - High Medieval Period (it_papal_state_1)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

The term "Papal States" was not adopted until around 1200 CE [1] ; at this time the polity of the Papacy at Rome was called the Patrimony of St. Peter, Republic of St. Peter or Land of St. Peter. The population of Rome languished at a relative historical low of 35,000 people throughout this period, which was marked by a high degree of fragmentation and sub-regional autonomy. Various areas of the Patrimony of St. Peter were virtually independent of the Papacy or subject to central authority only in a very nominal way. [2]
Through the 904-1198 CE period the polity, with its capital at Rome, was dominated by powerful families and a powerful foreign state. The Theophylacti, a noble family from Tusculanum, were the first of a number of aristocratic families who dominated the papacy. [3] In the late eleventh and twelfth centuries, the papacy was frequently at war with the German emperors, which caused serious destabilization of political authority in the Patrimony. [4] The German Emperor Henry III, became the de facto guardian of the papacy and the Patrimony. [5]
When Henry III granted the city of Benevento to Pope Leo IX this marked the furthest extent of (nominal) papal power until Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216 CE) began consolidating what would be called the Papal States. [6] It could be argued that the peak of the polity was under the Tusculan Reform Papacy c.1012-1036 CE because of internal and external stability and socioeconomic and (even if limited) demographic expansion.

[1]: (Vauchez 2010, 356) André Vauchez ed. Roma Medievale. Rome: Editori Laterza, 2010 [2001].

[2]: (Wickham 2009, 164) Chris Wickham. Early Medieval Italy. Central Power and Local Society, 400-1000. Ann Arbor, MA: University of Michigan, 2009 [1981].

[3]: (Marazzi 2001, 64) Federico Marazzi. "Aristocrazia e società (secoli VI-XI)," in Vauchez, ed., 41-69.

[4]: (Partner 1972, 231) Peter Partner. 1972. The Lands of St. Peter: The Papal State in the Middle Ages and Early Renaissance. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972.

[5]: (Kreutz 1996, 151) Kreutz, Barbara M. Before the Normans. Southern Italy in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries. College Park, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.

[6]: (Kreutz 1996, 152) Kreutz, Barbara M. Before the Normans. Southern Italy in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries. College Park, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
33 T  
Original Name:
Rome - Republic of St Peter II  
Capital:
Rome  
Alternative Name:
Patrimony of St Peter  
The Republic of St Peter  
Papal State Early Middle Ages  
Land of St Peter  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,030 CE  
Duration:
[904 CE ➜ 1,198 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
vassalage to [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
Latin Christendom  
Succeeding Entity:
Papal State I  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
17,000,000 km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
UNCLEAR:    [continuity]  
Succeeding: Papal States - High Medieval Period (it_papal_state_1)    [continuity]  
Degree of Centralization:
loose  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
Latin  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Christianity  
Religion Family:
Catholic  
Religion:
Roman Catholic  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
35,000 people 1000 CE
35,000 people 1100 CE
Polity Territory:
14,000 km2 1000 CE
6,000 km2 1100 CE
Polity Population:
[300,000 to 1,250,000] people 1000 CE
[300,000 to 1,115,000] people 1100 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
5  
Religious Level:
6  
Military Level:
6  
Administrative Level:
6  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
present  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
inferred present  
Food Storage Site:
inferred present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
absent  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
inferred present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
absent  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Mnemonic Device:
inferred present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Token:
present  
Precious Metal:
present  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
absent  
Foreign Coin:
present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
absent  
General Postal Service:
absent  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
inferred present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
present  
  Fortified Camp:
inferred present  
  Earth Rampart:
inferred present  
  Ditch:
inferred present  
  Complex Fortification:
inferred present  
  Long Wall:
50 km  
85 km  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling:
present  
  Self Bow:
inferred present  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
inferred present  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
present  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
present  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Rome - Republic of St Peter II (it_st_peter_rep_2) was in:
 (904 CE 1197 CE)   Latium
Home NGA: Latium

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Rome - Republic of St Peter II

"The term ’Papal State’ is a modern one, hardly used by contemporaries to refer to the papal patrimony in the long period with which this book is concerned." [1] The term "Papal States" was not adopted until around 1200. [2] "It is still a matter of contention at what period the term ’papal states’ may be used to describe those areas where the pope was traditionally overlord, but certainly by the beginning of the thirteenth century popes were great feudatories in central Italy." [3] Eighth century popes called their state "The Republic of St. Peter". Terms such as "Papal States" are anachronistic when applied to the eighth and ninth centuries. Terms such as this only appear in late middle ages. [4]

[1]: (Partner 1972, xii) Peter Partner. 1972. The Lands of St Peter. The Papal State In The Middle Ages And The Early Renaissance. University of California Press. Berkeley.

[2]: Vauchez, 356

[3]: (Rist 2009) Rebecca Rist. 2009. The Papacy and Crusading In Europe, 1198-1245. Continuum. London.

[4]: (Noble 2011, xxi) T F X Noble. 2011. The Republic of St. Peter: The Birth of the Papal State, 680-825, University of Pennsylvania Press.



Alternative Name:
Patrimony of St Peter

Patrimonium Sancti Petri, Terras Sancti Petri, Respublica Sancti Petri. [1] Another common name for Rome and its hinterland was the territorium Sancti Petri [2] "The term ’Papal State’ is a modern one, hardly used by contemporaries to refer to the papal patrimony in the long period with which this book is concerned." [3] The term "Papal States" was not adopted until around 1200. [1] "It is still a matter of contention at what period the term ’papal states’ may be used to describe those areas where the pope was traditionally overlord, but certainly by the beginning of the thirteenth century popes were great feudatories in central Italy." [4] Eighth century popes called their state "The Republic of St. Peter". Terms such as "Papal States" are anachronistic when applied to the eighth and ninth centuries. Terms such as this only appear in late middle ages. [5]

[1]: Vauchez, 356

[2]: Wickham (2015), 36

[3]: (Partner 1972, xii) Peter Partner. 1972. The Lands of St Peter. The Papal State In The Middle Ages And The Early Renaissance. University of California Press. Berkeley.

[4]: (Rist 2009) Rebecca Rist. 2009. The Papacy and Crusading In Europe, 1198-1245. Continuum. London.

[5]: (Noble 2011, xxi) T F X Noble. 2011. The Republic of St. Peter: The Birth of the Papal State, 680-825, University of Pennsylvania Press.

Alternative Name:
The Republic of St Peter

Patrimonium Sancti Petri, Terras Sancti Petri, Respublica Sancti Petri. [1] Another common name for Rome and its hinterland was the territorium Sancti Petri [2] "The term ’Papal State’ is a modern one, hardly used by contemporaries to refer to the papal patrimony in the long period with which this book is concerned." [3] The term "Papal States" was not adopted until around 1200. [1] "It is still a matter of contention at what period the term ’papal states’ may be used to describe those areas where the pope was traditionally overlord, but certainly by the beginning of the thirteenth century popes were great feudatories in central Italy." [4] Eighth century popes called their state "The Republic of St. Peter". Terms such as "Papal States" are anachronistic when applied to the eighth and ninth centuries. Terms such as this only appear in late middle ages. [5]

[1]: Vauchez, 356

[2]: Wickham (2015), 36

[3]: (Partner 1972, xii) Peter Partner. 1972. The Lands of St Peter. The Papal State In The Middle Ages And The Early Renaissance. University of California Press. Berkeley.

[4]: (Rist 2009) Rebecca Rist. 2009. The Papacy and Crusading In Europe, 1198-1245. Continuum. London.

[5]: (Noble 2011, xxi) T F X Noble. 2011. The Republic of St. Peter: The Birth of the Papal State, 680-825, University of Pennsylvania Press.

Alternative Name:
Papal State Early Middle Ages

Patrimonium Sancti Petri, Terras Sancti Petri, Respublica Sancti Petri. [1] Another common name for Rome and its hinterland was the territorium Sancti Petri [2] "The term ’Papal State’ is a modern one, hardly used by contemporaries to refer to the papal patrimony in the long period with which this book is concerned." [3] The term "Papal States" was not adopted until around 1200. [1] "It is still a matter of contention at what period the term ’papal states’ may be used to describe those areas where the pope was traditionally overlord, but certainly by the beginning of the thirteenth century popes were great feudatories in central Italy." [4] Eighth century popes called their state "The Republic of St. Peter". Terms such as "Papal States" are anachronistic when applied to the eighth and ninth centuries. Terms such as this only appear in late middle ages. [5]

[1]: Vauchez, 356

[2]: Wickham (2015), 36

[3]: (Partner 1972, xii) Peter Partner. 1972. The Lands of St Peter. The Papal State In The Middle Ages And The Early Renaissance. University of California Press. Berkeley.

[4]: (Rist 2009) Rebecca Rist. 2009. The Papacy and Crusading In Europe, 1198-1245. Continuum. London.

[5]: (Noble 2011, xxi) T F X Noble. 2011. The Republic of St. Peter: The Birth of the Papal State, 680-825, University of Pennsylvania Press.

Alternative Name:
Land of St Peter

Patrimonium Sancti Petri, Terras Sancti Petri, Respublica Sancti Petri. [1] Another common name for Rome and its hinterland was the territorium Sancti Petri [2] "The term ’Papal State’ is a modern one, hardly used by contemporaries to refer to the papal patrimony in the long period with which this book is concerned." [3] The term "Papal States" was not adopted until around 1200. [1] "It is still a matter of contention at what period the term ’papal states’ may be used to describe those areas where the pope was traditionally overlord, but certainly by the beginning of the thirteenth century popes were great feudatories in central Italy." [4] Eighth century popes called their state "The Republic of St. Peter". Terms such as "Papal States" are anachronistic when applied to the eighth and ninth centuries. Terms such as this only appear in late middle ages. [5]

[1]: Vauchez, 356

[2]: Wickham (2015), 36

[3]: (Partner 1972, xii) Peter Partner. 1972. The Lands of St Peter. The Papal State In The Middle Ages And The Early Renaissance. University of California Press. Berkeley.

[4]: (Rist 2009) Rebecca Rist. 2009. The Papacy and Crusading In Europe, 1198-1245. Continuum. London.

[5]: (Noble 2011, xxi) T F X Noble. 2011. The Republic of St. Peter: The Birth of the Papal State, 680-825, University of Pennsylvania Press.


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,030 CE

{1050 CE; 1010-1030 CE} The German Emperor Henry III, de facto guardian of the papacy and the Patrimony, granted the city of Benevento to Pope Leo IX. [1] This marked the definitive end of an independent polity centered on the city of Benevento, which had threatened the Patrimony for several centuries from the south (this Lombard menace, from north and south, was the original reason for the Frankish descent into Italy and the Frankish conquest of the Lombard Kingdom of Italy). It also was the furthest extent of (nominal) papal power until Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216) began consolidating what would become the Papal States. [2] The period from 1036 to 1066 was characterized, however, by internal warfare and Salian invasions (despite the short-lived expansionist respite of 1049-1054 ending after Civitella). Thus, it could be argued that the real peak of the polity was under the Tusculan Reform Papacy c.1012-1036 CE because of internal and external stability, and socioeconomic and (even if limited) demographic expansion. For more, see EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: /browser/index.php?title=Latium:_Medieval_History_for_Demographic_Modeling,_904-1198_CE&action=edit&redlink=1 EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: /browser/index.php?title=Latium:_Medieval_Era_(500-1500_CE)_--_Meso/Regional_Scale_Productive_System_Modeling_Issues&action=edit&redlink=1

[1]: Kreutz, 151

[2]: Kreutz, 152.


Duration:
[904 CE ➜ 1,198 CE]

Beginning in 904, the Theophylacti (a noble family from Tusculanum) effectively monopolized political power in Rome, beginning a period in which the aristocratic families of Rome dominated the papacy. [1] In 1198, Lothario dei Conti dei Segni was elected pope as Innocent III. During his pontificate, the papacy began consolidating its control over Lazio and expanding its power through what would become the Papal States; simultaneously, Innocent III brought papal authority to its medieval height, initiating several crusades and presiding over the Fourth Lateran Council. [2]

[1]: Marazzi, 64

[2]: Vauchez, 356


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
vassalage to [---]

Papal relations with other polities fluctuated dramatically during this period; I coded it as "vassalage" to reflect the fact that the papacy during this period was often dominated by the German emperors.


Supracultural Entity:
Latin Christendom

Succeeding Entity:
Papal State I

Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
17,000,000 km2

km squared.


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

Preceding Entity:
Rome - Republic of St Peter I
Preceding Entity:
Rome - Republic of St Peter II [it_st_peter_rep_2] ---> Papal States - High Medieval Period [it_papal_state_1]

Degree of Centralization:
loose

In general, this period was marked by a high degree of fragmentation and sub-regional autonomy, with various areas of the Patrimony of St. Peter virtually independent of the Papacy or subject to central powers in a very nominal way. [1] Papal sovereignty over central Lazio was rarely in question, [2] yet the papacy’s ability to control subject cities and defend its territory from outside threats was often minimal, particularly in regard to territory on the fringes of papal control. [3] For example, the city of Gaeta, in the extreme south of Lazio, was de facto independent of the papacy by the early 10th century. [4] In the late eleventh and twelfth centuries, the papacy was frequently at war with the German emperors, causing serious destabilization of political authority in the Patrimony. I should emphasize, however, that it is difficult to pin down which of these terms is most accurate, since the papacy frequently entered alliances during this period, and significant parts of the Patrimony were de facto annexed by the Empire for decades at a time. [5]

[1]: Wickham (2009), 164

[2]: Marazzi, 64

[3]: Marazzi, 64-65; Kreutz, 57-60.

[4]: Skinner (1995), 2

[5]: Partner, 231


Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European

Language:
Latin

Latin remained the sole language of administration, diplomacy, liturgy, and culture throughout the period. The population of the Patrimony would have spoken regional dialects, mostly within the Romance language group. [1] These dialects would in some places have been influenced by Greek; the Lombard language had disappeared by about 700 CE. [2]

[1]: Varvaro, 197-98.

[2]: Wickham (2009), 68


Religion



Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI


Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
35,000 people
1000 CE

40,000: 900 CE; 35,000: 1000 CE; 35,000: 1100 CE; 35,000: 1200 CE [1] Rome’s population hovered around 35,000 for much of the pre-Black Death (1348) period. [2] [3]

[1]: Bairoch, Batou, Chèvre, 47

[2]: Beloch, 185

[3]: Brentano, 13

Population of the Largest Settlement:
35,000 people
1100 CE

40,000: 900 CE; 35,000: 1000 CE; 35,000: 1100 CE; 35,000: 1200 CE [1] Rome’s population hovered around 35,000 for much of the pre-Black Death (1348) period. [2] [3]

[1]: Bairoch, Batou, Chèvre, 47

[2]: Beloch, 185

[3]: Brentano, 13


Polity Territory:
14,000 km2
1000 CE

14,000: 900 CE; 14,000: 1000 CE; 6,000: 1100 CE. This is Wickham’s figure for the territorium Sancti Petri, the fundamental core of the Duchy of Rome. [1] The second figure is Wickham’s estimate for Rome’s territory after it had lost effective control of the rest of Lazio, during the crises of the late eleventh century. [2] We need to remember, however, that the claims of the papacy were far wider, extending as they did from Rome’s territory (contado) all the way up to the Po River Delta. 14,000: 1000 CE = inferred data.

[1]: Wickham (2015), 36-37, for this figure, and the large size of Rome’s territory in comparison with other Italian polities.

[2]: Wickham (2015), 36

Polity Territory:
6,000 km2
1100 CE

14,000: 900 CE; 14,000: 1000 CE; 6,000: 1100 CE. This is Wickham’s figure for the territorium Sancti Petri, the fundamental core of the Duchy of Rome. [1] The second figure is Wickham’s estimate for Rome’s territory after it had lost effective control of the rest of Lazio, during the crises of the late eleventh century. [2] We need to remember, however, that the claims of the papacy were far wider, extending as they did from Rome’s territory (contado) all the way up to the Po River Delta. 14,000: 1000 CE = inferred data.

[1]: Wickham (2015), 36-37, for this figure, and the large size of Rome’s territory in comparison with other Italian polities.

[2]: Wickham (2015), 36


Polity Population:
[300,000 to 1,250,000] people
1000 CE

Inhabitants.
ET: [1] Estimated from McEvedy and Jones "Italy" which had 5,000,000 in 1000 CE and 5,750,000 in 1100 CE. [1] Figures divided by three to roughly approximate population ruled by this polity would be 1,666,000: 1000 CE; 1,916,000: 1100 CE. The "Latium: Medieval Era (500-1500 CE)" coding page currently estimates the population of the Latium region only as: 335000: 904 CE; 110000: 1422 CE. These estimates for Latium conflict with the crude estimates based on the McEvedy and Jones figures for the whole of Italy since the latter do not drop from 850-1450 CE, they rise. Therefore I will assume the increase in population occurred outside of the region of this polity (Milan, Venice, Florence, Genoa?) and within this polity the population dropped, the initial McEverdy and Jones totals divided by 4 and 5 respectively.The population of the modern administrative region of Lazio currently stands at around 5,557,2756. This follows the massive improvement of living conditions after World War II. [2] I second the opinion expressed in the "Population" sub-section, however: there is virtually no information in the scholarship (English, French, even Italian) on the demographics of Lazio as a whole for the medieval period. Karl Julius Beloch’s Storia della Popolazione d’Italia (1937-1961; Italian trans. 1994) remains the best account of Italian demographic patterns, but the section on the Papal States does not begin until around 1500.

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 107)

[2]: http://demo.istat.it/bilmens2012gen/index.html

Polity Population:
[300,000 to 1,115,000] people
1100 CE

Inhabitants.
ET: [1] Estimated from McEvedy and Jones "Italy" which had 5,000,000 in 1000 CE and 5,750,000 in 1100 CE. [1] Figures divided by three to roughly approximate population ruled by this polity would be 1,666,000: 1000 CE; 1,916,000: 1100 CE. The "Latium: Medieval Era (500-1500 CE)" coding page currently estimates the population of the Latium region only as: 335000: 904 CE; 110000: 1422 CE. These estimates for Latium conflict with the crude estimates based on the McEvedy and Jones figures for the whole of Italy since the latter do not drop from 850-1450 CE, they rise. Therefore I will assume the increase in population occurred outside of the region of this polity (Milan, Venice, Florence, Genoa?) and within this polity the population dropped, the initial McEverdy and Jones totals divided by 4 and 5 respectively.The population of the modern administrative region of Lazio currently stands at around 5,557,2756. This follows the massive improvement of living conditions after World War II. [2] I second the opinion expressed in the "Population" sub-section, however: there is virtually no information in the scholarship (English, French, even Italian) on the demographics of Lazio as a whole for the medieval period. Karl Julius Beloch’s Storia della Popolazione d’Italia (1937-1961; Italian trans. 1994) remains the best account of Italian demographic patterns, but the section on the Papal States does not begin until around 1500.

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 107)

[2]: http://demo.istat.it/bilmens2012gen/index.html


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
5

1. Rome - capital
35,000 inhabitants or more: Rome, maybe Bologna [1]
2. Other large city - Ravenna, Viterbo, Orvieto10,0000-35,000 inhabitants: Ravenna, Viterbo, Orvieto [2]
3. Regional cityAlbano 5,000-10,000 inhabitants
4. Town100-4,000 inhabitants: Tres Tabernae or Centum Cellae. This one is a guesstimate and should be bracketed; Tres Tabernae, in the southern Campagna, was an important bishopric in late antiquity but by this period was little more than a village.
5. castelli and castra10-100 inhabitants: castelli and castra: These were nucleated settlements, surrounded by a circuit wall, that originated in 10th- and 11th-century efforts to control agricultural surpluses and peasant production, often by monasteries such as Farfa. [3] Examples from Lazio in this period include Tusculo. [4]
Although there were some fortified settlements (oppida) in Lazio before the 10th century, castles begin to appear in the documents from the 930s: Montorio was founded in 934, Bocchignano in 939. [5] Wickham stresses the degree to which these foundations required detailed planning and substantial demographic shifts, since these new foundations had to be populated from the surrounding area. [6]

[1]: Bairoch, et. al., 41

[2]: Lansing, 18, estimates the population of Orvieto and its contado, the area of the surrounding countryside under its control, at around 19,000-32,000; within the city itself, we know that there were 14,000-17,000 people

[3]: See, in general, Toubert (1977), 91-93

[4]: Toubert (1977), 196

[5]: Wickham )2015), 43

[6]: Wickham (2015), 44


Religious Level:
6

levels.
At time of Concordat of Worms (1122 CE). "Now the clergy were organized in a hierarchical line under the direction of the pope, who could trump the power of local custom, tradition, and even episcopal power. Below the pope stood the bishop. Responsible for maintaining clerical discipline and for overseeing the property of the church, he was answerable only to the pope. Only he could perform all the sacraments; he alone performed the sacrament of confirmation and by the sacrament of ordination passed on his power to others. Theoretically, canon law held that he would be elected by the clergy and people of his diocese. In practice, he was elected only by the canon priests attached to the cathedral. Considered high clergy, the canons aided the bishop in furthering his agenda, administering the diocese and performing rituals at the cathedral church. At their head was the dean, the highest officer in the diocese. A diocesian chancellor supervised the cathedral school and issued licenses allowing clerics to teach and preach in the diocese. A treasurer oversaw finances, while a precentor managed the choir and organized the cathedral’s musical program. Each diocese was divided into administrative districts, over which presided the archdeacons. Practically, these were powerful men; they were the bishop’s legates, charged with enforcing discipline among the lower clergy, and therefore they were often quite unpopular. ... The parish priests were answerable to them." [1]
1. Pope

2. Archdeacon, of a dianocal collegeArchdeacons became popes, Archpriests did not. [2] Following the 1059 decree Decretum in Nomine Domini, only cardinals could elect a new pope. [3] . Furthermore, only cardinals could become popes. Silvester IV (1105-1111), an anti-pope, was the last pope who was not a cardinal before his elevation. [4]
3. Deacons, of a dianocal collegeThere were seven regional deacons of Rome. [5]
4. Subdeacon, of a college of subdeaconsThere was a college of subdeacons. [2] Regionary sub-deacons. [6]
5. AcolytesRome’s ecclesiastical structure contained a diaconal college with seven regional deacons of Rome, possessing in turn a staff of subdeacons and acolytes. These subdeacons dealt with property and relief for poor. The number increased as responsibilities of Papacy increased. 19 by Gregory I. [5]
2. Archpriest, of a collegePapal administration was collegiate: priests formed a college, headed by the archpriest, which was less important than dianocal college headed by archdeacon. Archdeacons became popes, Archpriests did not. [2]
3. Priests, of a college
2. Metropolitan see archbishop?"Santiago was in 1120 made a metropolitan see by the pope." [7]
Metropolitan had authority over a province [8]
3. Bishops in diocese
4. Dean
5. Canon priests attached to cathedral
5. Diocesian chancellor
6. Diocesian clergy"After 2015 ... cathedral chancellors were required to furnish their diocesan clergy with some instruction in theology." [9]
5. Treasurer
5. Precenter
4. Archdeacons of administrative districts
5. Priests in ParishThere were multiple parishes in each episcopal diocese, and dozens or hundreds in larger dioceses such as the city of Rome.
"by the year 1000 it was the priest who really emerged as the religious and even educational leader of the local church." [10]
_Proprietary Churches_
"In 1000 CE ... western Europe had not yet been clearly divided into well-defined territorial parishes with resident priests chosen, ordained, and supervised by the local ordinary, who was in turn directed by the papacy. Indeed, the parish in the year 1000 was far from that ideal, ordered, hierarchical model. Instead, many different (often competing) churches, structures, and people overlapped in the organization of local religious life." [11] "Actually, the most common type of church in the year 1000 was one founded - and governed - by a local lay lord rather than a bishop. ... It is impossible to calculate precisely how many of these churches there were, but they surely numbered in the tens of thousands. Indeed, they far outnumbered the Baptismal churches controlled by the bishops (many of which had passed into the hands of lay lords). ... Because of the force exerted by the ancient, hierarchical, episcopal Roman tradition, this model, which was based on German property law, never took root in central and southern Italy. ... Proprietary churches served very small communities, encompassing perhaps a village or two." [12]

[1]: (Madigan 2015, 144-145)

[2]: (Richards 1979, 290-292)

[3]: di Carpegna Falconieri, 65

[4]: di Carpegna Falconieri, 64

[5]: (Richards 1979, 293)

[6]: (Partner 1972, 1)

[7]: (Madigan 2015, 333)

[8]: (Madigan 2015, 14)

[9]: (Madigan 2015, 310)

[10]: (Madigan 2015, 83)

[11]: (Madigan 2015, 80-81)

[12]: (Madigan 2015, 81-83)


Military Level:
6

levels.
"...men called magister militum or superista are attested off and on throughout the century; the papal militia had both military and ceremonial importance (see below, p.333), and these were its leaders. There were clearly several such leaders at anyone time, as the Liber Pontificalis makes clear in, for example, its account of the contested papal election of 855, and other senior military figures sometimes appear, such as Cesario (son of Sergio magister militum), ordinatus super exercitum in 849. A hierarchy of rank appears earlier in 855, when Daniele magister equitum accused Graziano, eminentissimus magistro militum et Romani palatii (or Romanae urbis) superista, clearly his superior, of disloyalty to the Carolingians, a charge he could not sustain. Apart from this, however, the structure of the military side of Rome’s aristocratic hierarchies is obscure to us. A set of military offices appear in a wide array of heterogeneous texts, but we cannot put them into a credible ordering. We can say, however, that it was normal to call senior military men nobiles, and Cesario di Sergio’s case shows that they had hereditary elements; we shall see in a moment how complex links between families were by 876. The terminology just outlined becomes much less common after the beginning of the tenth century, perhaps because the supreme military leaders were by now Tefilatto and his heirs; but two people are called superista under Alberico, and Otto III briefly revived the office of magister militiae. Formal military offices cease to be documented at all after that. All the same, military leadership, with or without titles, remained an important role for Rome’s aristocrats." [1]
1. The Pope
Popes during this period often accompanied troops on campaigns; for example, John X bragged that he entered the battle several times during the 915 Christian expedition against the Arabs of the Garigliano river [2] . Later popes (Leo IX, for example) were captured following their armies’ defeat on the field at the hands of the Normans, and Lucius II may have died of wounds sustained in his failed assault on the Capitoline Hill in 1144. [3]
2. Cardinals, papal legatesVarious officials in the papal curia led armies and held castles and fortresses for the papacy during this period.
The cardinals were in many ways the most important officials in the Patrimony from the late eleventh century onward; in the later Middle Ages, they are found leading armies and serving as what we would consider to be secular administrators.
3. Castellans, chamberlains, papal chaplains
2. superista
3. magister militum
4. Captain or commander
5. Captain or sergeants
6. rank and file.Typically, papal armies were composed of mercenary bands (a masnada) headed by a captain or a papally-appointed commander. 1. Mercenary leaders: Leaders of a masnada, or mercenary band. These captains would have led their contingents in papal armies. 2. Captains and sergeants: These would have served as liasons between the captain and his soldiers. 3. Foot soldiers

[1]: (Wickham 2015, 187) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: Kreutz, 78

[3]: Partner, 181


Administrative Level:
6

Note: this hierarchy is still confused.
On sources for the institutional structure of Papal government Wickham recommends: "Bresslau, Handbuch, I, pp. 192-229; Halphen, Études; Toubert, ‘Scrinium et palatium’; Noble, The Republic of St. Peter, pp. 212-55."
1. Pope
By 781 CE (Charlemagne agreement) "what had been the Dutchy of Rome was, somewhat enlarged, recognised as St. Peter’s and the Pope’s own principality." Authority over Ravenna "shared in ill-defineded tandem." [1]
Pope was head of the senate. [2]
Pope, sovereign and "universal bishop", symbolically crowned with tiara. [3]
_Central government_
2. SenatorsThe title of "senator of all the Romans" is attested from the 10th century, and often describes a person in a position to decisively influence papal elections, as well as being a powerful secular administrator. [4] It is often unclear what senators and patricians did in the way of day-to-day duties, however, and may have been an honorific granted to members of the Roman baronial families. [5] (4)
2. Palatine judges (primicerius, secundicerius, primus defensor, nomenculator, arcarius, saccellarius, and protoscriniarius) of the notariate, Papal lands, Papal charity and treasurythe primicerius, secundicerius and protoscriniarius ran the notariate or scrinium. [6]
primus defensor "the senior official among the managers of papal lands"
nomenculator "ran Papal charity"
arcarius and saccellarius "ran the treasury"
2. vestararius (to 1000 CE) then urban prefect"Slightly separate was the office of vestararius, which was again a financial office; this official was not a standard judge. On the other hand, when the vestararius appears in court proceedings, he seems often to preside over cases, whereas the palatine judges run the court under him; although here, too, we do not have enough evidence to be sure of a firm hierarchy of office, vestararii seem to be political leaders of unusual importance. There were also lands in the Agro romano attached to the office, which made it visibly remunerative. ... Vestararii, together with superistae/magistri militum, seem to have marked the highest positions lay aristocrats could reach in Rome..." [7]
"In the tenth century the importance of the vestararius, although sometimes still very great, was by now intermittent; after 1000 references to the title vanish. The new tenth-century political office that came to be of major importance was instead the revived position of urban prefect, which reappears in the middle decades of the tenth century after a long break, and it is very likely that it was Alberico who re-established the office. The prefecture was particularly central from 1000 onwards." [8]
3. Administrative subdivisionsArchives held in Lateran Palace with other paperwork. However, very important documents were kept in tomb of St Peter. [9]
High-ranking ecclesiastical officials (legates, papal representatives, etc.): The Papal state had administrative subdivisions, loosely conceived. Noble has argued that through its extensive landholding, charitable actions, and diplomatic role as a negotiator with the Lombards, the Roman Church significantly impacted most residents of Byzantine Italy. [10]
The bureaucrats attached to the papacy itself, usually based in the Lateran palace in Rome. The bureaucracy consisted of scribes, archivists, tax collectors, papal messengers, and administrators charged with the upkeep of the city. [11]
4. Head of Sub-division within an administrative subdivisionSome scholars have claimed that it was the most effective government in Western Europe by the end of the seventh century (although this isn’t saying much, given how small-scale papal administration was). [12]
Lower-ranking administrative officials: A nomenclator was probably assisted by ordinator. Vicedominus was steward of the papal Lateran palace. Vicedominus more involved in central administration than a major domus. [13]
Amoner (financial controller).
Major-domo (treasurer and controller of wardrobe).
Pilgrims to the city of Rome was a source of income for the popes. [14]
4. primicerius defensorumDefensores defended "the rights of the Roman church ... and the oppressed. The formula of appointment was vague enough to allow them to undertake virtually any duty on behalf of the church." There was a college of defensores headed by a primicerius. [9]
Officials Constantine I took with him on his 710 CE visit to Constantinople included: 2 bishops, 2 priests, a deacon, a secundicerius notariorum, the primicerius defensorum, the sacellarius, the nomenclator, the scriniarius, and two subdeacons. Archdeacon, archpriest and primicerius notariorum were left behind. Other officials, vicedominus, arcarius, ordinator and abbot. [15]
5. defensorum
4. primicerius notariorum (head of college of notaries) [9] Officials Constantine I took with him on his 710 CE visit to Constantinople included: 2 bishops, 2 priests, a deacon, a secundicerius notariorum, the primicerius defensorum, the sacellarius, the nomenclator, the scriniarius, and two subdeacons. Archdeacon, archpriest and primicerius notariorum were left behind. Other officials, vicedominus, arcarius, ordinator and abbot. [15]
5. secundicerius notariorumA college of notaries headed by primicerius, later joined by college of defensores headed by primicerius, and a college of subdeacons. Notaries were the staff of the papal chancery, career bureaucrats. [9]
Clerical officers (acolytes and guardians) [16]
6. notariorumBy this period, the popes had been caring for orphans, widows, and others as part of their pastoral duties. [10]
2. Cardinals & legatesTo a certain extent, these are simply a particular, preeminent, sub-section of the Roman curia’s bureaucracy (see below). They enjoyed prestige on an international level, however. During the pontificate of Gregory VII (1074-1085), the cardinals numbered around 74. [17] The cardinalate was composed of the bishops of the suburbicarian dioceses [18] ; twenty-eight priests of churches in the vicinity of Rome; 18 deacons, attached to either the papal palaces or urban churches of Rome; and, maybe, 21 sub-deacons (who were, essentially, part of the papal bureaucracy. [19] Legates were drawn from the cardinalate. They were sent out by the popes either on specific missions, or as ambassadors-at-large, and given papal authority to hear disputes, settle ecclesiastical trials, and even make peace between warring lords; the legate system expanded dramatically in the late eleventh century, and was fully functioning as a level of the bureaucracy by the early twelfth century. [20]
_Regional government_
2. Regional governor of a DutchyAfter 756 CE, the duchies were officially controlled from Rome through Papal government administration. Every major city had a bishop. Regional governors. Bishops in joint session with provincial magnates elected the governor of each province and helped choose city officials. [21]
The popes became increasingly involved during the late first millennium in appointing the duke for the Dutchy of Rome. [1]
On several occasions, indeed, papal authority over the imperially-appointed dukes was demonstrated when popes had to save dukes from the irate Roman mob, or were able to defy the duke or Exarch of Ravenna with the aid of militia totius Italiae, "the entire army of Italy. [22]
Regionary guardians. Regional notaries. [16]
3. Bishop of a CityEvery major city had a bishop. Bishops in joint session with provincial magnates elected the governor of each province and helped choose city officials. [21]
Under the Lombards, a system of episcopal immunities emerged that made the bishops virtually local temporal sovereigns and enabled them to preserve the local spirit of municipal independence and organization (e.g., consuls, guilds). The urban population was free, and the town walls (often built by the bishops) were refuges. [23]
The Roman bishop administered lands of the Church and lands of Roman basilicas, classified as tituli. [24]
4. Rectors of the Patrimony (in a Diaconate?)Ecclesiastical government contained other important regional officials. Rectors of the Patrimony were appointed for each major territory. These were drawn from subordinate Roman officials: sub-deacons or notaries and guardians, among them whom could be laymen. [25]
Diaconates were established to store and distribute grain, and be centers of social welfare. [26] 5. Granary worker
5. Town / village leaderA more informal, often ad hoc, stratum but probably the most important on a day-to-day level. They included local landholders in particular. The aristocratic, land-holding stratum of Byzantine Italy emerged following Justinian’s 6th-century reconquests. [27]
By the late seventh century, many sources speaks of this stratum, which Noble has described as forming "the key social class in late Byzantine Italy." [28] These landholders, often of eastern origin, acquired land through leasing them from bishops contractually. [28]

[1]: (Daly 1986)

[2]: (Trevor, 1869, 113)

[3]: (Noble 2011, xx)

[4]: Partner, 105

[5]: Marazzi, 58

[6]: (Wickham 2015, 187) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[7]: (Wickham 2015, 187-188) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[8]: (Wickham 2015, 188) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[9]: (Richards 1979, 290-292)

[10]: Noble, 1984, 10

[11]: Carocci and Vendittelli, 74-75

[12]: (Partner 1972, 9

[13]: (Richards 1979, 298)

[14]: (Trevor 1869, 115)

[15]: (Richards 1979, 275)

[16]: (Partner 1972, 1)

[17]: Southern, 143

[18]: The suburbicarian dioceses are the seven dioceses closest to Rome, and which provided the bishop-cardinals of the early Middle Ages. Today, they are: Ostia, Porto-Santa Rufina, Frascati/Tusculum, Palestrina, Albano, and Sabina-Poggio Mirteto.

[19]: Southern, 143-44

[20]: Southern, 147-52, provides an excellent case-study of how these legates worked.

[21]: (Woods 1921, 48)

[22]: Noble, 1984, 18

[23]: (Stearns 2001 173)

[24]: (Partner 1972, 6)

[25]: (Partner 1972, 8)

[26]: (Partner 1972, 9)

[27]: Noble, 5-6

[28]: Noble, 1984, 7


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

Professional soldiers were present, usually as mercenaries, but the Patrimony did not have a full-time, standing army during this period.


Professional Priesthood:
present

The pope himself was, of course, a priest. The city of Rome possessed dozens of parish churches for each neighborhood, while the territory of the Patrimony, mirroring that of Latin Christendom as a whole, possessed a similar array of professional priests.


Professional Military Officer:
present

There are references to what appear to be full-time military officials from the mid-10th century: the magister militum, a prefect of the navy, and a protospatharios ("sword-bearer"). [1] During the late eleventh and twelfth centuries, papal armies would have been commanded by full-time mercenary captains.

[1]: Partner, 97


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Papal palace complexes, in particular the Lateran palace, doubled as administrative centers; the papal curia was usually based in the Lateran.


Merit Promotion:
present

While individual popes often staffed the papal bureaucracy and administration with their relatives, [1] foreigners and non-nobles could rise within the Church hierarchy based on merit.

[1]: On this, see in general Carocci, "Il Nepotismo nel medioevo."


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

The papal curia possessed professional notaries and a series of other professional offices straight through the period. For example, Theophylact, who dominated papal politics in the first decades of the tenth century, is referred to as magister militum et vestararius. [1] This bureaucracy would expand tremendously in the eleventh and twelfth centuries.

[1]: Partner, 79


Examination System:
absent

The Papacy did not use anything like the Chinese exam system for recruitment to the bureaucracy.


Law
Professional Lawyer:
present

"The point about these placita was thus that they were standardized occasions, run by high-status legal experts, the palatine judges, and legitimated more widely by Rome’s aristocracy. The whole of the city’s political society came together regularly and frequently to run justice, that is to say, and the choreography of each case, while it was on one level unique every time because every case was different, on another level had considerable regularities as well." [1]
Lawyers became an increasingly important part of the papal curia in the eleventh and twelfth centuries; the future pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216) was a lawyer. Bologna, technically a part of the Patrimony, was the major center for legal scholarship in western Europe from the twelfth century onwards.

[1]: (Wickham 2015, 388) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


"The classic placitum romanum (a convenient modern phrase; our sources just say placitum) consisted of a court president, who was the ruler of Rome or his delegate; some or all of the palatine judges, assisted by dativi iudices who were chosen case by case; a variable number of named Roman nobiles, who could make up a high percentage of the city’s ‘old aristocracy’ in major cases; and numerous other unnamed adstantes, who might sometimes have been non-aristocratic." [1]
The pope himself heard legal cases - in particular disputes over church lands and ecclesiastical rights-from all over Latin Christian Europe, and the cardinals and legates (see "Administrative levels") served as judges as well. Judges were appointed in the provinces of the Patrimony for more humdrum legal work later in the period.

[1]: (Wickham 2015, 387) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Formal Legal Code:
present

Codex Iustinianus, canon law. “In 1357, Albornoz promulgated a set of laws for the lands he had conquered that was later known as the Constitutiones aegidianae. This became the basic legal code of the papal states and was not superseded under the Napoleonic era.” [1]
Canon law mentioned. [1]
Papal bulls in the 1200s mentioned. [1]
1730s: “...the papal states remained in fact a collection of provinces and cities rather than an organic political unit.” (263) [2]

[1]: Kleinhenz, Christopher, ed. 2017. Routledge Revivals: Medieval Italy (2004): An Encyclopedia- Volume I. Routledge.

[2]: Wright, A.D. 2014. The Early Modern Papacy. London: Routledge.


Public court known as placita. "Pierre Toubert definitively analysed the structure of the Roman placitum up to 1080, taking the story on in less detail up to 1200, in a hundred pages of Les structures du Latium médiéval." [1]
"This sort of assembly politics was typical of early medieval Europe, and was regularized by the Carolingians; it was doubtless indeed the Carolingians who extended it to Rome, for Roman practices are so close to those of Carolingian northern Italy. By the eleventh century, such placita were rare in the Frankish world, but south of the Alps they were regular in most regions until the second half of the century. Rome fits this Italian pattern, then, although, as already noted, there are indications that placita were held even more often in Rome than they were in each county further north. It was clearly easy for Roman judges and aristocrats to come together frequently, and the more often they did so the more solid their political aggregation." [2]
It is unclear when it developed, but by long-standing custom, popes held a council in Rome itself during Lent to settle any ecclesiastical business (land disputes, lawsuits over rights, quarrels between bishops and their parish churches, etc.). In the late eleventh century, this system was expanded with another seasonal council held in November for the same purpose. [3]

[1]: (Wickham 2015, 386-387) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Wickham 2015, 388-389) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: Southern, 145-47


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

"The Porticus was ... the location for nearly all Rome’s documented ergasteria or shops in our period." [1] Civitas Leoniana was a market area. "What was being sold in the Civitas Leoniana? Food and drink, for sure; sex, doubtless, though it is not documented; lead and tin seals with portraits of the apostles Peter and Paul by 1199 at the latest, and so presumably the same array of religious trinkets that one can buy in and around piazza S. Pietro today. Our documents mention several negotientes, as actors or witnesses, as one would expect; a cambiator or money changer in 1083; and several food sellers of different types. Only a few artisans appear: workers in metal and cloth. This was, then, a commercial suburb, more than a productive one. The basilica gained the right not only to sell seals in 1199 but to have them made..." [2] Wickham’s map of "Classical and secular buildings" also shows basilicas in the forum area. [3] These may indicate market areas.

[1]: (Wickham 2015, 135) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Wickham 2015, 140) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Wickham 2015 xxvii) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Irrigation System:
present

Commercialization of rural hinterland began 1050-1100 CE. "This was the date of similar signs of agrarian development in eastern Lombardy, too, the hinterlands of Bergamo, Brescia, and Cremona. Here, François Menant points to the late eleventh and twelfth centuries as the moment of take-off for systematic irrigation, the development of vineyards on cleared land, the development of transhumant pastoralism, and, later in the twelfth century in the Cremonese, linen." [1]

[1]: (Wickham 2015, 107-108) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Food Storage Site:
present

Domuscultae from the eighth century was excavated and showed "a church and a substantial set of outbuildings, presumably largely for the storage of products." [1] "Rome, always a large city, needed to be fed, principally with grain; and it was fed from its hinterland from the eighth century at the latest into the late Middle Ages." [2]

[1]: (Wickham 2015, 80) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Wickham 2015, 36) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Drinking Water Supply System:
present

The papacy restored and maintained aqueducts (from c800), among other buildings, which at the time "certainly attest to the very great wealth of the papacy in the early Carolingian period, and to the preparedness of popes to spend that wealth very ambitiously." [1] Buildings and restorations mostly occurred in the early 9th century. After this time the code would be for the maintenance of these systems.

[1]: (Wickham 2015, 155) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Transport Infrastructure

Roads had existed and been maintained since Roman times.


"Ripa was the name of the Tiber port area; to be exact, the east side was the Ripa Graeca, called Marmorata at its southern end under the Aventino, and the west side, in Trastevere, was the Ripa Romea." [1]

[1]: (Wickham 2015, 127) Wickham, C. 2015. Medieval Rome: Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


There is no mention of the papacy or other powers undertaking canal works during this period; Roman-era canals had, by this point, most likely silted up.


Bridge:
present

The popes maintained bridges across the Tiber; in other cities, such as Ravenna, the local bishops or secular officials did the same.


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

small quarries for stone?


Information / Writing System


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

Mnemonic Device:
present

use of mnemonic devices in Latin instruction in the late Middle Ages.


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Some texts written by ancient writers would have been in circulation within the Papal States.


Sacred Text:
present

The Catholic Church possessed the Bible, in addition to the writings of the Fathers, canon law, and a massive corpus of other material.


Religious Literature:
present

Saints’ lives were probably the most common form of religious litterature.


Practical Literature:
present


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Compiled starting in 1192 by Cencius. Cardinal Cencius, later elected pope as Honorius III, compiled the Liber Censuum, a tabulation of the lands and fiscal rights of the papacy, beginning in 1192. [1] (2)

[1]: Partner, 224-25


History:
present

The Liber pontificalis, a series of biographical entries on each pope, is one of the most important sources for the history of the early medieval papacy.


Fiction:
present

The Mirabilia, a 12th-/13th-century collection of legends and myths surrounding the most important buildings of the city and their history, can be considered fiction.


Calendar:
present

E.g. Christian calendar.


Information / Money

I’m coding this as a debatable-yet-present factum because, although metal coinage remained in circulation throughout this period, on a day-to-day level these coins probably had a symbolic value as opposed to a strict, one-to-one exchange value in our sense. Thus, the coins coined by later Carolingians of the Regnum Italicum would have varied in value depending on what region of the peninsula one was in. [1]

[1]: See Wickham, 2001, 112-113, for this issue


Precious Metal:
present

There were specialised units of measurement for precious gems, gold and silver. [1]

[1]: (Kleinhenz 2004, 1162) Kleinhenz, C. 2004. Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia, 2004. Routledge)



Indigenous Coin:
absent

Between ca. 980 and 1180, Rome possessed no native currency. [1] Beginning in the 1180s, however, the Roman Senate began minting coins again; also, cities such as Bologna began minting coins in the 12th century. [2]

[1]: Spufford, 67

[2]: Spufford, 68


Foreign Coin:
present

Coins of various origins were used throughout the period for payments and bribes; in 1193, the transaction in which Civitavecchia was handed back to the papacy involved a payment of 300 pounds of gold, or 200 pounds Pavese pence. [1]

[1]: Partner, 225


Article:
present

Some feudatories of the papacy paid dues in kind, or with ceremonial feasts in place of strict cash payments. [1]

[1]: Partner, 225


Information / Postal System

General Postal Service:
absent

Courier:
present

The papacy had its own specialist couriers [1]

[1]: (Richards 1979, 291)


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

General reference for Western Europe 11th and 12th centuries CE: fortifications typically consisted of earth ramparts and timber palisades which were generally surrounded by dry ditches (rather than water-filled for a moat). In the early 12th century CE stone began to replace earth-and-timber defences for walls and for castles (previously often wooden). [1]

[1]: (Jones 1999, 171-172) Richard L C Jones. Fortifications and Sieges in Western Europe, c.800-1450. Maurice Keen. ed. 1999. Medieval Warfare: A History. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present

The Leonine Walls, built starting in 848, are a good example.


Stone Walls Mortared:
present

Many of these would have been Roman-era survivals, however. The most notable example is Aurelian’s Wall at Rome, which remained the main wall circuit for Rome up to 1870. (These walls may have required some maintenance?).


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present




Earth Rampart:
present

General reference for Western Europe 11th and 12th centuries CE: fortifications typically consisted of earth ramparts and timber palisades which were generally surrounded by dry ditches (rather than water-filled for a moat). In the early 12th century CE stone began to replace earth-and-timber defences for walls and for castles (previously often wooden). [1]

[1]: (Jones 1999, 171-172) Richard L C Jones. Fortifications and Sieges in Western Europe, c.800-1450. Maurice Keen. ed. 1999. Medieval Warfare: A History. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


General reference for Western Europe 11th and 12th centuries CE: fortifications typically consisted of earth ramparts and timber palisades which were generally surrounded by dry ditches (rather than water-filled for a moat). In the early 12th century CE stone began to replace earth-and-timber defences for walls and for castles (previously often wooden). [1]

[1]: (Jones 1999, 171-172) Richard L C Jones. Fortifications and Sieges in Western Europe, c.800-1450. Maurice Keen. ed. 1999. Medieval Warfare: A History. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Complex Fortification:
present

Examples needed.



Military use of Metals

Increased demand for iron and steel from rising nation states in late 15th century. (164-65) [1]

[1]: Hodgett, J. and Augustus, G. 2005. A Social and Economic History of Medieval Europe. Taylor & Francis.


Guns cast in bronze, then by mid-fifteenth century cannons made of cast iron, with other cast iron objects becoming common. Move from the bloomery process to forging; “Italy and France were also in the forefront of improvements in iron manufacture.” (164-65) [1]

[1]: Hodgett, J. and Augustus, G. 2005. A Social and Economic History of Medieval Europe. Taylor & Francis.


Inferred from presence of bronze.


Bronze sculptures held important significance in this period as a link with rulership; “contemporary rulers could associate themselves with their predecessors through the commissioning of bronze objects.” (11) [1]

[1]: Weinryb, I. 2016. The Bronze Object in the Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

Catapults could be used to throw fire, diseased men or animals over walls. Don’t have access to enough of the following reference to know if the Papal States did this but certainly the technology was still available for use in some offensive capacity. [1] The German Emperor Henry IV used catapults and other siege engines in his 1084 siege of Rome. [2]

[1]: Michael Mallett (2009) Mercenaries and their Masters: Warfare in Renaissance Italy. Pen & Sword Military. Barnsley.

[2]: Partner, 135


Sling Siege Engine:
present

There are no sources on the use of sling siege engines within the Patrimony, but they were in use by Western European armies by 1198.



Waley writes of composite bow and crossbowmen during this period. [1]

[1]: Waley, D.P (1957) Papal Armies of the Thirteen Century, Vol. 72, No. 282, The English Historical Review, Jan pp 1-30.




Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

The Papal States often used foreign mercenaries who may have had access to the crossbow. Certainly being used in the 15th CE (inferred for this time?): “In the Papal States Spoleto had developed a considerable arms industry and supplied crossbow bolts, shields and lances to the army.” [1] Waley writes of composite bow and crossbowmen during this period. [2]

[1]: Michael Mallett (2009) Mercenaries and their Masters: Warfare in Renaissance Italy. Pen & Sword Military. Barnsley.

[2]: Waley, D.P (1957) Papal Armies of the Thirteen Century, Vol. 72, No. 282, The English Historical Review, Jan pp 1-30.


Composite Bow:
present

Waley writes of composite bow and crossbowmen during this period. [1]

[1]: Waley, D.P (1957) Papal Armies of the Thirteen Century, Vol. 72, No. 282, The English Historical Review, Jan pp 1-30.



Handheld weapons

French mercenaries were often employed who would bring their own weapons. These included the battle axe, sword, dagger, spear or lance. Mace, club and flail would begin their rise to prominence at the end of this period. [1] [2]

[1]: Boulton in Kilber, W W. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press.

[2]: Nicolle, D and McBride, A. 1991. French Medieval Armies 1000-1300. Osprey Publishing Ltd. London.


French mercenaries were often employed who would bring their own weapons. These included the battle axe, sword, dagger, spear or lance. Mace, club and flail would begin their rise to prominence at the end of this period. [1] [2]

[1]: Boulton in Kilber, W W. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press.

[2]: Nicolle, D and McBride, A. 1991. French Medieval Armies 1000-1300. Osprey Publishing Ltd. London.


French mercenaries were often employed who would bring their own weapons. These included the battle axe, sword, dagger, spear or lance. Mace, club and flail would begin their rise to prominence at the end of this period. [1] [2]

[1]: Boulton in Kilber, W W. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press.

[2]: Nicolle, D and McBride, A. 1991. French Medieval Armies 1000-1300. Osprey Publishing Ltd. London.


French mercenaries were often employed who would bring their own weapons. These included the battle axe, sword, dagger, spear or lance. Mace, club and flail would begin their rise to prominence at the end of this period. [1] [2]

[1]: Boulton in Kilber, W W. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press.

[2]: Nicolle, D and McBride, A. 1991. French Medieval Armies 1000-1300. Osprey Publishing Ltd. London.


Battle Axe:
present

French mercenaries were often employed who would bring their own weapons. These included the battle axe, sword, dagger, spear or lance. Mace, club and flail would begin their rise to prominence at the end of this period. [1] [2]

[1]: Boulton in Kilber, W W. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press.

[2]: Nicolle, D and McBride, A. 1991. French Medieval Armies 1000-1300. Osprey Publishing Ltd. London.


Armor

On the basis of armour worn by French soldiers of the 12th-13th centuries we would expect helmet and shield, leather and quilted armour as well as metal breastplate, limb protection and chainmail. [1] [2]

[1]: Boulton in Kilber, W W. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press.

[2]: Nicolle, D and McBride, A. 1991. French Medieval Armies 1000-1300. Osprey Publishing Ltd. London.


Scaled Armor:
unknown

The Papacy did not maintain arsenals or arms workshops during this period, and equipment most likely would have been furnished by troops.


Plate Armor:
absent

The Papacy did not maintain arsenals or arms workshops during this period, and equipment most likely would have been furnished by troops.


Limb Protection:
present

On the basis of armour worn by French soldiers of the 12th-13th centuries we would expect helmet and shield, leather and quilted armour as well as metal breastplate, limb protection and chainmail. [1] [2]

[1]: Boulton in Kilber, W W. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press.

[2]: Nicolle, D and McBride, A. 1991. French Medieval Armies 1000-1300. Osprey Publishing Ltd. London.


Leather Cloth:
present

On the basis of armour worn by French soldiers of the 12th-13th centuries we would expect helmet and shield, leather and quilted armour as well as metal breastplate, limb protection and chainmail. [1] [2]

[1]: Boulton in Kilber, W W. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press.

[2]: Nicolle, D and McBride, A. 1991. French Medieval Armies 1000-1300. Osprey Publishing Ltd. London.


Laminar Armor:
unknown

The Papacy did not maintain arsenals or arms workshops during this period, and equipment most likely would have been furnished by troops.


On the basis of armour worn by French soldiers of the 12th-13th centuries we would expect helmet and shield, leather and quilted armour as well as metal breastplate, limb protection and chainmail. [1] [2]

[1]: Boulton in Kilber, W W. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press.

[2]: Nicolle, D and McBride, A. 1991. French Medieval Armies 1000-1300. Osprey Publishing Ltd. London.


Chainmail:
present

On the basis of armour worn by French soldiers of the 12th-13th centuries we would expect helmet and shield, leather and quilted armour as well as metal breastplate, limb protection and chainmail. [1] [2]

[1]: Boulton in Kilber, W W. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press.

[2]: Nicolle, D and McBride, A. 1991. French Medieval Armies 1000-1300. Osprey Publishing Ltd. London.


Breastplate:
present

On the basis of armour worn by French soldiers of the 12th-13th centuries we would expect helmet and shield, leather and quilted armour as well as metal breastplate, limb protection and chainmail. [1] [2]

[1]: Boulton in Kilber, W W. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press.

[2]: Nicolle, D and McBride, A. 1991. French Medieval Armies 1000-1300. Osprey Publishing Ltd. London.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

The papacy was capable of organizing naval expeditions occasionally from at least 849, when a papal flotilla under Caesar of Naples defeated a fleet of Arab raiders at Ostia, Rome’s port on the Tyrrhenian Sea. [1]

[1]: Kreutz, 59


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
present


Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions