Home Region:  Turkestan (Central and Northern Eurasia)

Khanate of Bukhara

EQ 2020  uz_janid_dyn / UzJanid

"Under their rule the city and khanate crystallized into an almost classical pattern of a Muslim polity of its time, cherishing and even enhancing traditional values while ignoring or rejecting the vertiginous changes initiated by the Europeans but now reaching other parts of the world. Most khans, especially the virtuous Abdalaziz (ruled 1645-81), were devout Muslims who favored the religious establishment and adorned Bukhara with still more mosques and madrasas." [1]
"(g) Janids or Ashtarkhanids (or Toqay-Timurids: descendants of Toqay-Timur, Juchi’s 13th son); Bukhara, 1599-1785; Bosworth, pp. 290-1)x. Yar Muhammad1. Jani Muhammad (1599-1603)2. Baqi Muhammad (1603-1606), his son, 2nd generation3. Vali Muhammad (1606-12), Baqi Muhammad’s brother4. Imam Quli (1612-42), their nephew, 3rd generation5. Nazr Muhammad (1642-45), his brother6. Abd al-Aziz (1645-81), Nazr Muhammad’s son, 4th generation 7. Subhan Quli (1681-1702), Abd al-Aziz’s brother8. Ubaydallah I (1702-11), Subhan Quli’s son, 5th generation9. Abu l-Fayz (1711-47), Ubaydallah’s brother10. Abd al-Mu’min (1747), his son,6th generation11. Ubaydallah II (1747-53), Abd al-Mu’min’s brotherx. [Muhammad Rahim the Manghit, in the absence of Janid incum- bency]12. Abu l-Ghazi (1758-85), from a lateral branchEnd of Genghisid rule in Transoxania" [2]

[1]: (Soucek 2000, 177)

[2]: (Soucek 2000, 325-326)

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
41 S  
Original Name:
Khanate of Bukhara  
Capital:
Bukhara  
Alternative Name:
Janid Dynasty  
Astrakhanids  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[1,599 CE ➜ 1,747 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
Succeeding Entity:
Manghits  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Shaybanid Kingdom  
Degree of Centralization:
nominal  
Language
Linguistic Family:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Language:
Persian  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[150,000 to 300,000] km2  
Polity Population:
[500,000 to 1,200,000] people 1600 CE
[600,000 to 1,400,000] people 1700 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
5  
Religious Level:
[2 to 3]  
Military Level:
[5 to 7]  
Administrative Level:
[5 to 7]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
unknown  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
unknown  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
absent 1599 CE 1702 CE
inferred absent 1702 CE 1747 CE
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
inferred absent  
Law
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
unknown  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
unknown  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
unknown  
Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Precious Metal:
unknown  
Paper Currency:
unknown  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
unknown  
Article:
unknown  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
inferred present  
General Postal Service:
inferred absent  
Courier:
inferred present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown  
  Modern Fortification:
unknown  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
unknown  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
unknown  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
inferred present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
inferred present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
unknown  
  Sling Siege Engine:
unknown  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
unknown  
  Javelin:
inferred present  
  Handheld Firearm:
inferred present  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
unknown  
  Crossbow:
unknown  
  Composite Bow:
inferred present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
inferred present  
  Spear:
inferred present  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
inferred present  
  Battle Axe:
inferred present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
unknown  
  Donkey:
unknown  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
unknown  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
inferred present  
  Shield:
inferred present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
inferred present  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
inferred present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
inferred present  
  Chainmail:
inferred present  
  Breastplate:
inferred present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
inferred absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
inferred absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Khanate of Bukhara (uz_janid_dyn) was in:
 (1599 CE 1747 CE)   Sogdiana
Home NGA: Sogdiana

General Variables
Identity and Location


Capital:
Bukhara

"Samarkand was not neglected either, but the center of political and religious activities had definitively shifted to Bukhara, so much so that the outside world came to think of Central Asia as Bukhara; to the Russians, Central Asian merchants who began to frequent their empire were known as “Bukharans,” and even Sinkiang received the nickname of “Little Bukhara." [1]

[1]: (Soucek 2000, 177-178)


Alternative Name:
Janid Dynasty

"Jani Muhammad married the Uzbek khan’s sister, and he acceded to the vacated throne in Bukhara as the first ruler of a dynasty called Janid or Ashtarkhanid; the Janids too were Juchids, but not through Shiban but through Tuqay Timur, one of Juchi’s other sons (in fact, his thirteenth son), so that some historians prefer the name “Tuqay-Timurids” to the genealogically less revealing appellations Janids or Ashtarkhanids." [1]

[1]: (Soucek 2000, 177)

Alternative Name:
Astrakhanids

"Jani Muhammad married the Uzbek khan’s sister, and he acceded to the vacated throne in Bukhara as the first ruler of a dynasty called Janid or Ashtarkhanid; the Janids too were Juchids, but not through Shiban but through Tuqay Timur, one of Juchi’s other sons (in fact, his thirteenth son), so that some historians prefer the name “Tuqay-Timurids” to the genealogically less revealing appellations Janids or Ashtarkhanids." [1]

[1]: (Soucek 2000, 177)


Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[1,599 CE ➜ 1,747 CE]

Political and Cultural Relations


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

"What Abdallah did not do, however, was to eliminate his brother-in-law Jani Muhammad, whose father Yar Muhammad had taken refuge with the Shaybanids of Bukhara after the conquest of the khanate of Astrakhan by the Russians in 1556. Jani Muhammad married the Uzbek khan’s sister, and he acceded to the vacated throne in Bukhara as the first ruler of a dynasty called Janid or Ashtarkhanid; the Janids too were Juchids, but not through Shiban but through Tuqay Timur, one of Juchi’s other sons (in fact, his thirteenth son), so that some historians prefer the name “Tuqay-Timurids” to the genealogically less revealing appellations Janids or Ashtarkhanids." [1]

[1]: (Soucek 2000, 177)



Degree of Centralization:
nominal

"Under their rule the city and khanate crystallized into an almost classical pattern of a Muslim polity of its time, cherishing and even enhancing traditional values while ignoring or rejecting the vertiginous changes initiated by the Europeans but now reaching other parts of the world." [1] "During his long reign (1611-41) Imam Quli maintained a fairly stable government at Bukhara. Generally, he let the Uzbek chiefs govern their appanages as they wished. His brother, Nadr Muhammad, enjoyed a semi-independent status at Balkh." [2]

[1]: (Soucek 2000, 177)

[2]: (Mukminova 2003, 47)


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[150,000 to 300,000] km2

in squared kilometers
219282.13 square km based on an estimate generated on Google Maps Area Calculator. The area was drawn based on the indications of the map referenced above [1] which looks as follows:

[1]: (Adle and Habib 2003, 818)


Polity Population:
[500,000 to 1,200,000] people
1600 CE

People.
Populations of Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tadzikhistan, Kirghizstan [1] :
1600 CE: 4 million people
1700 CE: 4.5 million people
AD: The Khanate of Bukhara would only represent a small portion of that estimate, perhaps 1/5th of the population.Considering that this is an estimate based on an estimate (!) it should be double-checked by an expert.However a rough population number for the Bukhara Khanate could be comprised between 500,000 and 1.2 million people in 1600 CE and between 600,000 and 1.4 million people in 1700 CE. (arbitrary estimates, RA’s guess!)

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 164)

Polity Population:
[600,000 to 1,400,000] people
1700 CE

People.
Populations of Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tadzikhistan, Kirghizstan [1] :
1600 CE: 4 million people
1700 CE: 4.5 million people
AD: The Khanate of Bukhara would only represent a small portion of that estimate, perhaps 1/5th of the population.Considering that this is an estimate based on an estimate (!) it should be double-checked by an expert.However a rough population number for the Bukhara Khanate could be comprised between 500,000 and 1.2 million people in 1600 CE and between 600,000 and 1.4 million people in 1700 CE. (arbitrary estimates, RA’s guess!)

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 164)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
5

levels.
1. Capital. Bukhara
2. Secondary town/provincial capital. Eg. Samarkand3. Town4. Village5. Hamlet


Religious Level:
[2 to 3]

levels.
(1. Khan?)
2. Ulama (high clergy)
3. Imams
"The ruling class included members of the ulama, (high clergy). Some of these were considered the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad, which allowed them to claim the honorary title of sayyid and seek a high status accordingly. Another group of privileged individuals, calling themselves khwa ̄ja, claimed to be descended from one of the four immediate successors of Muhammad." [1]

[1]: (Mukminova 2003, 53)


Military Level:
[5 to 7]

levels. The quote below denotes a very hierarchical system without detailing the types of military ranks. Therefore, they have been coded as a range.
1. Khan
2. General
3. Captains
4.
5. Individual soldiers
"Individuals belonging to the official hierarchy also participated actively in military campaigns. At government meetings and receptions, each official occupied a set place, according to his rank. Some sat and others stood; some were permitted to leave the palace on horseback, while others had to leave on foot. [1]

[1]: (Mukminova 2003, 53)


Administrative Level:
[5 to 7]

levels. Complex administrative hierarchy
1. Khan
_Territorial hierarchy_
2. Provinces (wilayat) headed by hakim (governor)
3. Tuman
_Central government_
2. Grand emir
3. Ataliqs - experienced emirs
2. Diwan begi - head of state chancellery and treasury.
3. Diwan - state chancellery

"The Bukhara khanate was divided into wilayats (provinces), each headed by a ha ̄kim (governor). The wilayats were in turn divided into tumans. If a canal was dug from a river, and the water irrigated 100,000 tanabs (1 tana ̄b = approx. 40 m) of land, such land was known as a tuman. District offices were subordinate to heads of departments in the capital. To the name of the official governing the territories of an influential tribe was added the name of that tribe.At the head of the state was the khan, who in theory had unlimited power, although it was assumed that any intended measures should first be discussed with his chief nobles and ministers. In practice, many Janid khans were completely dependent on their grand emirs, who possessed their own troops. While the eldest member of the ruling house was traditionally chosen as khan, in practice it was the individual with the strongest support among the nobles who came to power. Usually the election of the khan was accompanied by a ceremony in which the successful candidate was raised up on a white felt blanket, the four corners of which were held by four influential members of the ruling house, nobility and clergy.A decisive role in the Janid state was played by the ataliqs, who received their pay in the form of an appanage. In theory, the title ataliq was conferred upon a respected, experienced and elderly emir, a ‘knowledgeable, loyal and well-informed person’. In practice, in the second half of the seventeenth and the first half of the eighteenth century, the office of grand ataliq, which was considered a mainstay of the state, was claimed by the most powerful emirs.The next highest office of state was that of the diwan-begi, who was head of the diwan (state chancellery) and treasury. A significant role in state affairs was also played variously by the kukeldash (kukuldash), lit. ‘foster brother’, who gathered information from all over the empire and was also in charge of hunting accessories, ‘such as various hunting birds, hounds, and so on’ (later, under the Manghits, the role of the qush-begi, lit. ‘chief of birds’, ‘commander of falconers’, grew substantially); the mushrif (supervisor), whose duties included noting all grants made by the sovereign and maintaining records of khara ̄j (land tax) receipts in daftars (tax registers); the m ̄ır-shab (chief of night duty); the da ̄dkhwa ̄h, in charge of receiving complaints from the population; the m ̄ır-a ̄khur, or master of the stables; the dasta ̄rkhwa ̄nch ̄ı (court official, lit. ‘spreader of the banquet cloth’); the munsh ̄ı (chancery secretary), and others. Individuals belonging to the official hierarchy also participated actively in military campaigns. At government meetings and receptions, each official occupied a set place, according to his rank. Some sat and others stood; some were permitted to leave the palace on horseback, while others had to leave on foot.The ruling class included members of the ulama ̄’ (high clergy). Some of these were considered the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad, which allowed them to claim the honorary title of sayyid and seek a high status accordingly. Another group of privileged individuals, calling themselves khwa ̄ja, claimed to be descended from one of the four immediate successors of Muhammad. Beginning in the sixteenth century, a decisive role was played by the Juyba ̄r ̄ı shaykhs, some of the richest individuals in the country. It was usually from among their number that the guardian of the law, or shaykh al-isla ̄m, was chosen.The waqfs were managed by sadrs (‘eminences’), whose task was to supervise the activ- ities of the mutawall ̄ıs, the managers of waqf institutions. Justice was in the hands of qa ̄z ̄ıs (judges). From amongst the jurists a muft ̄ı was appointed, whose duties included ruling on religious and legal questions. An important place in the administration was occupied by the muhtasib (market inspector), whose task it was to ensure order in the market, to check the accuracy of weights and measures in the bazaar, to guarantee the quality and standard of goods, and also to ensure that the inhabitants observed practices enjoined by Muslim law." [1]

[1]: (Mukminova 2003, 52-53)


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

mints.


Merit Promotion:
absent
1599 CE 1702 CE

"Ubaydullah Khan sought to make some departure from the established conventions: rather than confine his choice to members of the distinguished, old-fashioned nobility, he began to recruit to his service the sons of craftsmen and merchants; as his contemporary Mir Muhammad Amin Bukhari noted in his Ubaydullah-nama [The History of Ubaydullah], people ‘of humble origin’ were promoted by him. ‘The son of a slave was made a court official,’ grumbles the indignant historian. Ubaydullah Khan offered ’the little man the places of great men’, made him ‘a ruler of state, a leading emir, and the ornament of the military caste, thereby deviating from the course of previous rulers and from the decisions and habits of his forefathers.’" [1] Coded as inferred absent from Ubaydullah’s reign because no regular, institutional procedures are mentioned. AD

[1]: (Mukminova 2003, 51)

Merit Promotion:
absent
1702 CE 1747 CE

"Ubaydullah Khan sought to make some departure from the established conventions: rather than confine his choice to members of the distinguished, old-fashioned nobility, he began to recruit to his service the sons of craftsmen and merchants; as his contemporary Mir Muhammad Amin Bukhari noted in his Ubaydullah-nama [The History of Ubaydullah], people ‘of humble origin’ were promoted by him. ‘The son of a slave was made a court official,’ grumbles the indignant historian. Ubaydullah Khan offered ’the little man the places of great men’, made him ‘a ruler of state, a leading emir, and the ornament of the military caste, thereby deviating from the course of previous rulers and from the decisions and habits of his forefathers.’" [1] Coded as inferred absent from Ubaydullah’s reign because no regular, institutional procedures are mentioned. AD

[1]: (Mukminova 2003, 51)



Examination System:
absent

"Ubaydullah Khan sought to make some departure from the established conventions: rather than confine his choice to members of the distinguished, old-fashioned nobility, he began to recruit to his service the sons of craftsmen and merchants; as his contemporary Mir Muhammad Amin Bukhari noted in his Ubaydullah-nama [The History of Ubaydullah], people ‘of humble origin’ were promoted by him. ‘The son of a slave was made a court official,’ grumbles the indignant historian. Ubaydullah Khan offered ’the little man the places of great men’, made him ‘a ruler of state, a leading emir, and the ornament of the military caste, thereby deviating from the course of previous rulers and from the decisions and habits of his forefathers.’" [1] Even when promotion is not limited to nobles, no examination system is mentioned.

[1]: (Mukminova 2003, 51)


Law

"Justice was in the hands of qazis (judges). From amongst the jurists a mufti was appointed, whose duties included ruling on religious and legal questions." [1]

[1]: (Mukminova 2003, 53)


Formal Legal Code:
present

"An important place in the administration was occupied by the muhtasib (market inspector), whose task it was to ensure order in the market, to check the accuracy of weights and measures in the bazaar, to guarantee the quality and standard of goods, and also to ensure that the inhabitants observed practices enjoined by Muslim law." [1]

[1]: (Mukminova 2003, 53)


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

"Of great economic importance were trade relations with neighbouring nomads, who drove their flocks to the outskirts of the settled oases. In Bukhara there was a special bazaar for the sale of horses brought from what are today Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan. Also brought to Bukhara for sale were the distinctive craft items produced by semi-nomads." [1]

[1]: (Mukminova 2003, 54)


Irrigation System:
present

"Yet by his generally mild policies Imam Quli Khan acquired a considerable reputation for bringing peace to Transoxania. He had irrigation canals broadened and repaired, and undertook a number of other projects which helped to revive agriculture in some parts of the Bukhara khanate." [1]

[1]: (Mukminova 2003, 49)


Transport Infrastructure

"Trade was carried on for the most part along heavily travelled land routes, but also along waterways, especially the Amu Darya. For instance, ‘from the Kelif quayside at Termez, where the corn grows well and ripens early’, boats left laden with corn for Khwarazm. As the Bukhara khanate split up into semi- independent principalities, trade was hindered by numerous toll stations on roads, bridges and ferries." [1]

[1]: (Mukminova 2003, 53)


"Trade was carried on for the most part along heavily travelled land routes, but also along waterways, especially the Amu Darya. For instance, ‘from the Kelif quayside at Termez, where the corn grows well and ripens early’, boats left laden with corn for Khwarazm. As the Bukhara khanate split up into semi- independent principalities, trade was hindered by numerous toll stations on roads, bridges and ferries." [1]

[1]: (Mukminova 2003, 53)


Bridge:
present

"Trade was carried on for the most part along heavily travelled land routes, but also along waterways, especially the Amu Darya. For instance, ‘from the Kelif quayside at Termez, where the corn grows well and ripens early’, boats left laden with corn for Khwarazm. As the Bukhara khanate split up into semi- independent principalities, trade was hindered by numerous toll stations on roads, bridges and ferries." [1]

[1]: (Mukminova 2003, 53)


Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System





Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

"Subhan Quli reigned at Bukhara from 1680 to 1702, and by and large, kept the inherited dominions under his authority. He was able to resist an invasion by Anusha Khan of Khiva in 1685. Himself the author of a large work on medicine, he built a hospital (dar al-shifa’) at Balkh after he had become the khan of Bukhara." [1]

[1]: (Mukminova 2003, 50)



Religious Literature:
present

"Abdul Aziz was a patron of theologians and was himself a mufti (jurist) qualified to give theological opinions." [1]

[1]: (Mukminova 2003, 50)





History:
present

"One example is a history which Mahmud ibn Vali, a member of the Uzbek aristocracy, began to write in 1634 and which he called Bahr al-Asrar fi Manaqib al-Akhyar (“Ocean of Secrets about the Legends of the Best Ones”); it was commissioned at Balkh by the future khan Nadhr Muhammad (1641-45). This compendium is in line with the historiographic school that began with Rashid al-Din in Mongol Iran and flowered under the Timurids with such works as Hafiz Abru’s Zafername and Sharaf al-Din Yazdi’s book of the same title, or again with several biographies of Shaybanid khans such as the aforementioned Sharafname-i Shahi, a history of the rule of Abdallah II by Hafiz Tanish Bukhari." [1]

[1]: (Soucek 2000, 178)


Fiction:
present

"Belletristic and musical culture is documented by tezkere books (biographical dictionaries) compiled by Qadi Badi-i Samarqandi and Mir Muhammad Amin-i Bukhari." [1]

[1]: (Soucek 2000, 178)



Information / Money


Indigenous Coin:
present

"The documentary (wasiqa and waqfnama) descriptions of tangas can be divided into two groups. Nine wasiqas from the reigns of the Janid khans Wali Muhammad (1605-11), Imam Quli (1611-41), Nadr Muhammad (1641-5) and cAbdu’l cAz ̄ız (1645-80) dating from 1606 to the last quarter of the seventeenth century refer to the tanga as equal to 30 copper dinars. In other words, the tanga exchange rate was equal to that of the ‘new’ tanga of the last of the Shaybanids. The words ‘new’ and ‘pure’ crop up only rarely in the descriptions, however. It is interesting that the mints had stopped issuing copper dinars by that stage (they had turned into units of account). As units of account these were not subject to the exchange-rate fluctuations of real copper coins, and so were a more stable peg against which to fix the exchange rate for silver coins." [1]

[1]: (Davidovich 2003, 443)




Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present

Present in Timurid times, perhaps maintained in succeeding khaganates.


General Postal Service:
absent

Absent in Timurid times.


Courier:
present

Present in Timurid times, perhaps maintained in succeeding khaganates.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Military use of Metals
Steel:
present

Present in previous polities.


"Between 1510 and 1540, the Ottomans aided the Uzbeks in manufacturing hand-held firearms that shot copper and iron balls. The Ottomans’ strategy was to arm the Uzbeks as a counterweight to the Safavids." [1]

[1]: (Roy 2014, 47) Kaushik Roy. 2014. Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750: Cavalry, Guns, Government and Ships. Bloomsbury Academic. London.


Copper:
present

"Between 1510 and 1540, the Ottomans aided the Uzbeks in manufacturing hand-held firearms that shot copper and iron balls. The Ottomans’ strategy was to arm the Uzbeks as a counterweight to the Safavids." [1]

[1]: (Roy 2014, 47) Kaushik Roy. 2014. Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750: Cavalry, Guns, Government and Ships. Bloomsbury Academic. London.


Bronze:
present

Present in previous polities.


Projectiles



Self Bow:
unknown

The eighteenth century Durrani Empire used Uzbeks and other tribal groups who were still equipped with spears, battle axe and bow and arrow. [1]

[1]: J. Hanway, An Historical Account of the British Trade over the Caspian Sea, 4 vols., London, 1753 p. 252-4


Javelin:
present

"The Janid dynasty, which had fled from Astrakhan (for this reason also known as Astrakhanids), rose to power in the Bukhara khanate in 1599, and reigned until 1785." [1] The Janid Dynasty were considered to be "vassal amirs or khans of the Persian Empire." [2] "The Uzbeks were nomadic Turkic-Mongol tribes who invaded Transoxania from Siberia beginning in the late fifteenth century ... Tajik referred to nontribal sedentary peoples of the area, whether Iranian or Turkic speaking. During the history of the khanate, Uzbeks were the ruling nobility, and Tajiks made up the bureaucracy and merchant class." [3] Hazara infantry and Uzbek cavalry used against Mughals in the mid-seventeenth century. [4] "Since gunpowder weapons were not very useful against the dispersed, fast-moving Uzbek cavalry, which posed the principal threat to the Safavids, the latter did not have a strong incentive to create a firepower-rich, albeit lumbering, army." [5] At least in the early to mid-16th century "The Ottomans’ strategy was to arm the Uzbeks as a counterweight to the Safavids." [6] These references suggest: the Janid dynasty was Uzbek origin; its army was predominantly cavalry in the nomadic traditions of this ruling class; for infantry they may have had to employ non-Uzbeks (e.g. the Hazara); the idea of a cavalry heavy army supported by the army of the Safavid Persians which was specialised to meet the Uzbek threat; Safavid MilTech codes may provide the best proxy for the weapons/armour used by the infantry employed by the Uzbek rulers and also for the Uzbek cavalry. The Safavids had ’combat spears’ which were designed to be thrown in battle. [7]

[1]: (Capisani 2000, 105) Giampaolo R Capisani. 2000. The handbook of central Asia: a comprehensive survey of the new republics. I.B. Tauris.

[2]: (Mojtahed-Zadeh 2004, 20) Pirouz Mojtahed-Zadeh. 2004. The Small Players of the Great Game: The Settlement of Iran’s Eastern Borderlands and the Creation of Afghanistan. Routledge. London.

[3]: (Stanley 2007, 97) Bruce Stanley. Bukhara. Michael Dumper. Bruce E. Stanley. eds. 2007. Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. Santa Barbara.

[4]: (Roy 2014, 111-112) Kaushik Roy. 2014. Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750: Cavalry, Guns, Government and Ships. Bloomsbury Academic. London.

[5]: (Roy 2014, 46) Kaushik Roy. 2014. Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750: Cavalry, Guns, Government and Ships. Bloomsbury Academic. London.

[6]: (Roy 2014, 47) Kaushik Roy. 2014. Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750: Cavalry, Guns, Government and Ships. Bloomsbury Academic. London.

[7]: Farrokh, Kaveh. Iran at War, 1500-1988. Oxford : Osprey Publishing, 2011. chapter three.


Handheld Firearm:
present

"Probably as a result of defeat at the hands of the Safavids, the Uzbek chiefs acquired technicians who could cast guns. Between 1510 and 1540, the Ottomans aided the Uzbeks in manufacturing hand-held firearms that shot copper and iron balls. The Ottomans’ strategy was to arm the Uzbeks as a counterweight to the Safavids." [1] Cavalry lacked firearms (but perhaps only cavalry is being referred too - other units may have had them?): "lacking handheld firearms, the Uzbek cavalry was unable to defeat a well-armed adversary (especially the infantry) taking advantage of terrain and field fortifications." [2] Does Roy (2014) mean to include the Hazara infantry they used in this battle with his statement? If he does then the Hazara fought with some other weapons. [2]

[1]: (Roy 2014, 47) Kaushik Roy. 2014. Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750: Cavalry, Guns, Government and Ships. Bloomsbury Academic. London.

[2]: (Roy 2014, 111-112) Kaushik Roy. 2014. Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750: Cavalry, Guns, Government and Ships. Bloomsbury Academic. London.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
unknown

"Probably as a result of defeat at the hands of the Safavids, the Uzbek chiefs acquired technicians who could cast guns. Between 1510 and 1540, the Ottomans aided the Uzbeks in manufacturing hand-held firearms that shot copper and iron balls. The Ottomans’ strategy was to arm the Uzbeks as a counterweight to the Safavids." [1]

[1]: (Roy 2014, 47) Kaushik Roy. 2014. Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750: Cavalry, Guns, Government and Ships. Bloomsbury Academic. London.



Composite Bow:
present

Uzbek cavalry archers were the "masters of mobile battle" who used "Parthian tactics". [1]

[1]: (Roy 2014, 111) Kaushik Roy. 2014. Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750: Cavalry, Guns, Government and Ships. Bloomsbury Academic. London.


New World weapon.


Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

Hazara infantry used against the Mughals in the mid-seventeenth century. [1] - what weapons did they use? The cavalry may have carried a mace as a secondary weapon?

[1]: (Roy 2014, 111-112) Kaushik Roy. 2014. Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750: Cavalry, Guns, Government and Ships. Bloomsbury Academic. London.


Sword:
present

Hazara infantry used against the Mughals in the mid-seventeenth century. [1] - what weapons did they use? At Panipat 1761 CE the Afghans and Mahrattas "fought on both sides with spears, swords, battle-axes, and even daggers". [2]

[1]: (Roy 2014, 111-112) Kaushik Roy. 2014. Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750: Cavalry, Guns, Government and Ships. Bloomsbury Academic. London.

[2]: (Egerton 2002, 28-29) Lord Egerton of Tatton. 2002 (1896). Indian and Oriental Arms and Armour. Dover Publications, Inc. Mineola.


Spear:
present

Hazara infantry used against the Mughals in the mid-seventeenth century. [1] - what weapons did they use? The eighteenth century Durrani Empire used Uzbeks and other tribal groups who were still equipped with spears, battle axe and bow and arrow. [2] Was this an infantry spear and was it a thrown weapon? The Uzbek cavalry are typically referred to as archers but did they also use the lance, as some of the Safavid cavalry did?

[1]: (Roy 2014, 111-112) Kaushik Roy. 2014. Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750: Cavalry, Guns, Government and Ships. Bloomsbury Academic. London.

[2]: J. Hanway, An Historical Account of the British Trade over the Caspian Sea, 4 vols., London, 1753 p. 252-4


Polearm:
unknown

Hazara infantry used against the Mughals in the mid-seventeenth century. [1] - what weapons did they use?

[1]: (Roy 2014, 111-112) Kaushik Roy. 2014. Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750: Cavalry, Guns, Government and Ships. Bloomsbury Academic. London.


Dagger:
present

Hazara infantry used against the Mughals in the mid-seventeenth century. [1] - what weapons did they use? At Panipat 1761 CE the Afghans and Mahrattas "fought on both sides with spears, swords, battle-axes, and even daggers". [2]

[1]: (Roy 2014, 111-112) Kaushik Roy. 2014. Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750: Cavalry, Guns, Government and Ships. Bloomsbury Academic. London.

[2]: (Egerton 2002, 28-29) Lord Egerton of Tatton. 2002 (1896). Indian and Oriental Arms and Armour. Dover Publications, Inc. Mineola.


Battle Axe:
present

Hazara infantry used against the Mughals in the mid-seventeenth century. [1] - what weapons did they use? The eighteenth century Durrani Empire used Uzbeks and other tribal groups who were still equipped with spears, battle axe and bow and arrow. [2]

[1]: (Roy 2014, 111-112) Kaushik Roy. 2014. Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750: Cavalry, Guns, Government and Ships. Bloomsbury Academic. London.

[2]: J. Hanway, An Historical Account of the British Trade over the Caspian Sea, 4 vols., London, 1753 p. 252-4


Animals used in warfare

Uzbek cavalry archers were the "masters of mobile battle" who used "Parthian tactics". [1]

[1]: (Roy 2014, 111) Kaushik Roy. 2014. Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750: Cavalry, Guns, Government and Ships. Bloomsbury Academic. London.






Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

Probably for shields?


Shield:
present

Safavid and Mughal cavalry armour of the period included mail, cuirass (four breast-pieces, back and side plates), arm guards, circular shield, helmet. [1]

[1]: (Roy 2014, 47) Kaushik Roy. 2014. Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750: Cavalry, Guns, Government and Ships. Bloomsbury Academic. London.



Plate Armor:
present

Safavid and Mughal cavalry armour of the period included mail, cuirass (four breast-pieces, back and side plates), arm guards, circular shield, helmet. [1]

[1]: (Roy 2014, 47) Kaushik Roy. 2014. Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750: Cavalry, Guns, Government and Ships. Bloomsbury Academic. London.


Limb Protection:
present

Safavid and Mughal cavalry armour of the period included mail, cuirass (four breast-pieces, back and side plates), arm guards, circular shield, helmet. [1]

[1]: (Roy 2014, 47) Kaushik Roy. 2014. Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750: Cavalry, Guns, Government and Ships. Bloomsbury Academic. London.


Leather Cloth:
present

Probably for shields and body armour?



Helmet:
present

Safavid and Mughal cavalry armour of the period included mail, cuirass (four breast-pieces, back and side plates), arm guards, circular shield, helmet. [1]

[1]: (Roy 2014, 47) Kaushik Roy. 2014. Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750: Cavalry, Guns, Government and Ships. Bloomsbury Academic. London.


Chainmail:
present

Safavid and Mughal cavalry armour of the period included mail, cuirass (four breast-pieces, back and side plates), arm guards, circular shield, helmet. [1]

[1]: (Roy 2014, 47) Kaushik Roy. 2014. Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750: Cavalry, Guns, Government and Ships. Bloomsbury Academic. London.


Breastplate:
present

Safavid and Mughal cavalry armour of the period included mail, cuirass (four breast-pieces, back and side plates), arm guards, circular shield, helmet. [1]

[1]: (Roy 2014, 47) Kaushik Roy. 2014. Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750: Cavalry, Guns, Government and Ships. Bloomsbury Academic. London.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

Landlocked state, nomadic cavalry-based army.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown

Possibly used for transport?


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent

Landlocked state, nomadic cavalry-based army.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.