Home Region:  Mexico (North America)

Monte Alban V

EQ 2020  mx_monte_alban_5 / MxAlb5*

The Monte Alban V period is generally known for the balkianisation of polities in the valley. [1] The length assigned to the Monte Albán V phase is due to the consistency of ceramic style throughout the period, and lack of evidence for major changes in other archaeological remains. There may have been many changes over these centuries, but it has been argued that the conservatism of ceramics suggests a time of relative political stability. [2] The primary evidence for this period comes from the accounts written by the Spanish after they arrived in the 1520s. This means that there is much more information than previous periods for certain aspects of life for the inhabitants of Oaxaca, such as the name for the head of the ruling class (the coquitao or “great lord”) and full-time priests (bigaña), [3] but less information in other respects as there were no longer any monumental buildings or large settlements being constructed. The unified valley under the Zapotec state had gone by this period, replaced by around 15-20 smaller polities [4] [5] which were often fighting one another (as suggested by the widespread use of fortifications and descriptions in the ethnohistoric records), [6] but the overall population of the valley continued to increase to the highest number yet reached in the valley. [4] In addition, craft work and specialisation became more widespread, with more finely decorated ceramics being produced throughout the valley and were not just concentrated in the main settlements as before. [7]

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York. p217

[2]: Blanton, Kowalewski, Feinman, Appel (1982) Monte Alban’s Hinterland, Part I: The Prehispanic settlement patterns of the Central and Southern Parts of the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico. Prehistory and human ecology of the Valley of Oaxaca, Vol. 7. p115

[3]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1976). "Formative Oaxaca and Zapotec Cosmos." American Scientist 64(4): 374-383, p376

[4]: Blanton, R. E., et al. (1979). "Regional evolution in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico." Journal of Field Archaeology 6(4): 369-390. p385

[5]: Feinman, G. M., et al. (1985). "Long-term demographic change: A perspective from the valley of Oaxaca, Mexico." Journal of Field Archaeology 12(3): 333-362. p359-61

[6]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People. New York. p217

[7]: Blanton, R. E., et al. (1979). "Regional evolution in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico." Journal of Field Archaeology 6(4): 369-390. p387

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
14 Q  
Original Name:
Monte Alban V  
Capital:
none  
Alternative Name:
Early and Late Postclassic  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[900 CE ➜ 1,520 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
personal union with [---]  
none  
Succeeding Entity:
Spanish colonial rule  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Monte Alban IIIB and IV  
Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Otomanguean  
Language:
Zapotec  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[4,236 to 10,590] people  
Polity Population:
[8,127 to 10,836] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[2 to 3]  
Religious Level:
3  
Military Level:
2  
Administrative Level:
[2 to 3]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
inferred absent  
Law
Court:
inferred absent  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Food Storage Site:
inferred absent  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
absent  
Port:
absent  
Canal:
inferred absent  
Bridge:
inferred absent  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
absent  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
inferred present  
Script:
inferred present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Mnemonic Device:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent  
Sacred Text:
absent  
Religious Literature:
absent  
Practical Literature:
absent  
Philosophy:
absent  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
absent  
Fiction:
absent  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Token:
absent  
Precious Metal:
absent  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
absent  
Foreign Coin:
absent  
Article:
absent  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
absent  
General Postal Service:
absent  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
absent  
  Fortified Camp:
absent  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
absent  
  Complex Fortification:
inferred present  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
absent  
  Copper:
absent  
  Bronze:
absent  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
present  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
absent  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
absent  
  Atlatl:
present  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
absent  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
absent  
  Dagger:
absent  
  Battle Axe:
absent  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
absent  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
absent  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
absent  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
absent  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
absent  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
absent  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
absent  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
absent  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Monte Alban V (mx_monte_alban_5) was in:
 (900 CE 1520 CE)   Valley of Oaxaca
Home NGA: Valley of Oaxaca

General Variables
Identity and Location


There was no single capital in the valley. Instead there were a series of smaller polities, each with a head town and other smaller settlements. [1]

[1]: Blanton, R. E., et al. (1979). "Regional evolution in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico." Journal of Field Archaeology 6(4): 369-390. p385


Alternative Name:
Early and Late Postclassic

Temporal Bounds

Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
personal union with [---]

Marriage alliances between the elite of the Zapotec and Mixtec societies during this period were recorded by the relaciones (16th century Spanish writers). Alliances were created for many possible reasons, including political gain, status and increased access to farmland and resources. [1] No permanent unions between polities; these alliances seem between individuals.

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York. p220-221

Suprapolity Relations:
none

Marriage alliances between the elite of the Zapotec and Mixtec societies during this period were recorded by the relaciones (16th century Spanish writers). Alliances were created for many possible reasons, including political gain, status and increased access to farmland and resources. [1] No permanent unions between polities; these alliances seem between individuals.

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York. p220-221


Succeeding Entity:
Spanish colonial rule

Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

The process of political balkanisation which started at the end of the MA IIIA period continued into this period until the Spanish invasion. Separate kingdoms formed, with Monte Alban still occupied but with a much reduced population. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Preceding Entity:
Monte Alban IIIB and IV

Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity

The Zapotec state fragmented into numerous competing polities after the end of the IIIA period, each politically independent of the others. [1] [2]

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York. p183

[2]: Caso, et al, 1967 and Acosta, 1965, cited in Balkansky, A. K. (1998). "Origin and collapse of complex societies in Oaxaca, Mexico: Evaluating the era from 1965 to the present." Journal of World Prehistory 12(4): 451-493.


Language

Language:
Zapotec

[1]

[1]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London, p4. 27


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[4,236 to 10,590] people

Inhabitants. This is the population estimate for the largest settlement in the valley at this time (in the Tlacolula subvalley). Although much reduced, Monte Albán was still a substantial settlement relative to other settlements during this period with a population estimate of 2774-5549 people. [1]
"Table 11.3. Population in the largest centers, by phase, in Oaxaca and Ejutla." [2]
Valley of Oaxaca population (Largest center in Oaxaca): Monte Alban V: 166467 (13831). [2]

[1]: Kowalewski, S. A., Feiman, G.M., Finsten, L., Blanton, R. E. and Nicholas, L. M. Monte Albán’s Hinterland, Part II: the prehispanic settlement patterns in Tlacoula, Etla and Ocotlán, the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Number 23. Ann Arbor

[2]: (Feinman and Nicholas 2013, 183) Gary M Feinman. Linda M Nicholas. 2013. Settlement Patterns of the Ejutla Valley, Oaxaca, Mexico: A Diachronic Macroscale Perspective. Fieldiana Anthropology, 43(1):1-330. 2013. Field Museum of Natural History. URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.3158/0071-4739-43.00.1


Polity Population:
[8,127 to 10,836] people

The overall population of the valley increased during this period, but was divided into numerous (15-20) smaller political entities. [1] The population of the whole valley (based on the total of settlement population estimates) would have been 95,523-229,581 people. [2] A very coarse estimate of the average polity population is taken as the average between the higher and lower population estimates for the whole valley (162,552 people) divided by 15 and 20 to give a higher and lower range of polity size (10,836 and 8,127 people respectively). The precise numbers for the polity population estimates should not be taken as accurate predictions of polity population size.
"Table 7.1. Monte Alban V sites in Valley of Oaxaca subareas." [3]
Etla: 15404; Central: 20,839; N Valle Grande: 24938; S Valle Grande 23919; W Tlacolula: 41255; E Tlacolula: 40119; Ejutla: 19970; Albarradas: 5416; Sola: 9168.
Total: 201,028
"Table 10.1. Population of Late Postclassic polities in the Central Valleys of Oaxaca." [4]
Population ’shatter zone’: Coatecas: 3500; Coyotepec: 4600; Eastern Etla: 9900; Ejutla: 4300; El Choco: 4200; El Vergel: 4100; Huitzo: 3500; Ixlahuaca: 5900. Jalieza: 8800; Macuilxochitl: 23400; Matatlan: 3100; Mitla: 23000; Quialana: 5700; Sa’a Yucu: 18800; San Luis Beltran: 3000; San Miguel de Valle: 4200. San Pedro Martir: 16600; Taniche: 5000; Teitipac: 9300; Tlalixtac: 9200; Tlapacoyan: 3300; Tule: 2500; Yagul/Tlacolula: 8300. Zautla/Tejalapan: 2400. Mean size: 7,700. [4] Don’t understand why in the list below this one in the same table for ’Centers/Ethnhnohistory’ many of these polities have different, larger populations. There is also a "Table 10.2. Population of other Late Postclassic polities in highland Oaxaca" which has an even longer list. [5]
"Table 11.3. Population in the largest centers, by phase, in Oaxaca and Ejutla." [6]
Valley of Oaxaca population (Largest center in Oaxaca): Tierras Largas: 327 (128); San Jose: 1942 (1384); Guadalupe: 1788 (774); Rosario: 1835 (564); Early I: 14652 (5250); Late I: 51339 (17242); Monte Alban II: 41927 (14492); Monte Alban IIIA: 120121 (16507); Monte Alban IIIB: 78930 (24189); Monte Alban IV: 77612 (16117); Monte Alban V: 166467 (13831). [6]

[1]: Feinman, G. M., et al. (1985). "Long-term demographic change: A perspective from the valley of Oaxaca, Mexico." Journal of Field Archaeology 12(3): 333-362. p359-61

[2]: Kowalewski, S. A., Feiman, G.M., Finsten, L., Blanton, R. E. and Nicholas, L. M. Monte Albán’s Hinterland, Part II: the prehispanic settlement patterns in Tlacoula, Etla and Ocotlán, the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Number 23. Ann Arbor

[3]: (Feinman and Nicholas 2017, 99) Gary M Feinman. Linda M Nicholas. 2017. Settlement Patterns in the Albarradas Area of Highland Oaxaca, Mexico: Frontiers, Boundaries, and Interaction. Fieldiana Anthropology, 46(1):1-162. Publication 1572. Field Museum of Natural History. URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.3158/0071-4739-46.1.1

[4]: (Feinman and Nicholas 2013, 158) Gary M Feinman. Linda M Nicholas. 2013. Settlement Patterns of the Ejutla Valley, Oaxaca, Mexico: A Diachronic Macroscale Perspective. Fieldiana Anthropology, 43(1):1-330. 2013. Field Museum of Natural History. URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.3158/0071-4739-43.00.1

[5]: (Feinman and Nicholas 2013, 159) Gary M Feinman. Linda M Nicholas. 2013. Settlement Patterns of the Ejutla Valley, Oaxaca, Mexico: A Diachronic Macroscale Perspective. Fieldiana Anthropology, 43(1):1-330. 2013. Field Museum of Natural History. URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.3158/0071-4739-43.00.1

[6]: (Feinman and Nicholas 2013, 183) Gary M Feinman. Linda M Nicholas. 2013. Settlement Patterns of the Ejutla Valley, Oaxaca, Mexico: A Diachronic Macroscale Perspective. Fieldiana Anthropology, 43(1):1-330. 2013. Field Museum of Natural History. URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.3158/0071-4739-43.00.1


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[2 to 3]

levels. For each of the 15-20 smaller polities, there was a head town with supporting villages and hamlets. [1] By 900 CE, Monte Alban was no longer a primary center, although it continued to be occupied. [2]
1. Main town of the polity
2. Village3. Hamlet
"Table 10.9. Monte Alban V population hierarchy in Oaxaca and Ejutla." [3]
Valley of Oaxaca: Level I: 11504-13831; II: 6324-6649; III: 1192-3430; IV: 736-953; V: 486-665; VI: 308-545; VII: 204-297; No rank: 8-199. [3]

[1]: Blanton, R. E., et al. (1979). "Regional evolution in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico." Journal of Field Archaeology 6(4): 369-390. p385

[2]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. p234

[3]: (Feinman and Nicholas 2013, 172) Gary M Feinman. Linda M Nicholas. 2013. Settlement Patterns of the Ejutla Valley, Oaxaca, Mexico: A Diachronic Macroscale Perspective. Fieldiana Anthropology, 43(1):1-330. 2013. Field Museum of Natural History. URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.3158/0071-4739-43.00.1


Religious Level:
3

levels. Ethnohistoric records written by the Spanish after 1520 describe the presence of full-time priests, or bigaña, during this period. [1] The bigaña were ranked beneath the uija-táo (or great seer) and above the ueza-eche, huetete colanij (sacrifice or diviner), [2] although the extent to which these ranks can be inferred back to the whole period are not known.
1. First rank-uija-táo-“great seer”
2. Second rank-vuijatáo copa pitáo bigaña-“priest”/ bigaña-“young priest” or “student priest”3. Third rank-ueza-eche, huetete colanij-“sacrifice” or “diviner”

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1976). "Formative Oaxaca and Zapotec Cosmos." American Scientist 64(4): 374-383, p376

[2]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People. New York. p350


Military Level:
2

levels. Spanish written records describe the presence of military officers and soldiers (civilian conscripts) during this period. [1]
1. Military officers
2. Individual soldier

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1976). "Formative Oaxaca and Zapotec Cosmos." American Scientist 64(4): 374-383, p376


Administrative Level:
[2 to 3]

levels. Ethnohistoric records written by the Spanish after 1520 describe the coqui or noblemen who oversaw the villages, as well as the golaba, or “lord’s solicitor” who oversaw the collection of goods and services from the villages. [1] The levels of organisation are supported by the archaeological evidence which suggests that there was a head town in each of the polities, with supporting villages and hamlets. [2]

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1976). "Formative Oaxaca and Zapotec Cosmos." American Scientist 64(4): 374-383, p376

[2]: Blanton, R. E., et al. (1979). "Regional evolution in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico." Journal of Field Archaeology 6(4): 369-390. p385


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

Inferred present from the descriptions of military officers and armies in the Spanish relaciones. [1] [2]

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1976). "Formative Oaxaca and Zapotec Cosmos." American Scientist 64(4): 374-383, p376

[2]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York. p217-8


Professional Priesthood:
present

Spanish written records describe the presence of full-time priests (bigaña) who lived in temples and were the sons of the Zapotec nobility. A profesional priesthood is therefore inferred to be present, although the extent to which this information can be extended back to the entire period is not known. [1] [2]

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1976). "Formative Oaxaca and Zapotec Cosmos." American Scientist 64(4): 374-383, p376

[2]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People. New York. p350


Professional Military Officer:
present

Descriptions in the Spanish relaciones (Spanish written documents from the time of the Spanish conquest) provide evidence for the presence of military officers in charge of competing armies at the end of this period. Their presence in the centuries before the Spanish conquest is inferred. [1] [2]

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1976). "Formative Oaxaca and Zapotec Cosmos." American Scientist 64(4): 374-383, p376

[2]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York. p217-8


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown

unknown. Evidence for bureaucracy during this period is mainly limited to the documents written after the Spanish invasion. [1] Our understanding of precolonial Zapotec administrative structures (both in terms of official positions and built architecture) is limited, and Gary Feinman commented that ’My own view is that 16th century governance was rather different from that at Monte Albán in that the 16th century governance was centered more expressly on palaces, while earlier Monte Albán phase governance was less so’. [2] If this was the case for this period, administrative buildings may not have existed independently of elite residences.

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.

[2]: Gary Feinman, pers. comm., January 2018.


Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent

Spanish written records refer to bureaucratic positions, such as the positions of tribute collector, ward boss and golaba, or “lord’s solicitor” who collected goods and services from surrounding villages. [1] [2] However, the evidence we have does not shed any light on whether these were full-time specialists. [3] Charles Spencer commented: ’In the Zapotec case, we have a few 16th-century sources, but they are far from ideal in terms of providing details about Zapotec governance in the 16th century, let alone the time of the early Monte Alban state (ca. 300 B.C. through A.D. 800). Flannery and Marcus have done a fine job of pulling together what can be gleaned from the 16th century sources (e.g., Flannery 1983 "The Legacy of the Early Urban Period: An Ethnohistoric Approach" in The Cloud People). Taking a broad view of administration [...] one can identify several governing specialists in the 16th sources, for example: coquitao (king), coquihualao (prince), xoana (minor noble), golaba (lord’s solicitor or barrio head), uija-tao (high priest), bigaña (lower-ranking priests). There may have been even more specialists in the 16th century, but [...] the ethnohistoric sources don’t provide adequate documentation’. [4]

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1976). "Formative Oaxaca and Zapotec Cosmos." American Scientist 64(4): 374-383, p376

[2]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York. p217

[3]: Gary Feinman, pers. comm., January 2018.

[4]: Charles Spencer, pers. comm., January 2018.


Law

There is no evidence for a formal legal system during this period. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Food Storage Site:
absent

It is assumed that the lack of state-owned storage sites continued into the phases after the decline of the Zapotec state. [1] [2]

[1]: Feinman, G. M. and Nicholas, L. M (2012) The Late Prehispanic economy of the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico: weaving threads from data, theory, and subsequent history. Political Economy, Neoliberalism, and the Prehistoric Economies of Latin America. Vol 32: 225-258. p235

[2]: Blanton, R. E., et al. (1982). The Prehispanic Settlement Patterns of the Central and Southern Parts of the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico, Regents of the University of Michigan, the Museum of Anthropology, p55


Transport Infrastructure

Only limited evidence for roads has been found (in earlier phases at Monte Alban), and these appear to have been restricted to within settlements. We asked Gary Feinman about roads in Oaxacan polities and he said: "It depends on what you mean by roads. There are definite roads/accessways within sites. Blanton defines some at Monte Albán and Linda [Nicholas] and I defined some at El Palmillo. These likely were not paved, but they may have been banked and were cleared. Between sites there are known 16th century trails, which were likely used for a long, long time. Again, they likely were not paved, but there were no beasts of burden." [1] Coded absent: we do not count accessways within settlements or paths and trails not constructed deliberately as roads.

[1]: Gary Feinman, personal communication to Peter Turchin and Jenny Reddish, March 2020.


The Valley of Oaxaca is landlocked.


Although canals were present, they would not have been large enough to use as transport. [1]

[1]: Kirkby, A. (1973). "The use of land and water resources in past and present Valley of Oaxaca. Museum of Anthropology, Memoirs No. 5." Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.


Bridge:
absent

There is no evidence for bridges in prehispanic Valley of Oaxaca. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
absent

Settlements were primarily residential. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Zapotec writing and counting systems were recorded by the Spanish after the invasion. [1] Mesoamerican civilizations, including the Maya, Aztec, Mixtec and Zapotec all possessed "a true form of writing: a series of hieroglyphs arranged in vertical columns and in many instances combined with numerals. The glyphs were at least indirectly related to a spoken language." Zapotec and Mixtec belong to the Otomanguean language family while the Aztec and and Maya belong to the Utoaztecan and Macro-Mayan, respectively. Zapotec writing system is considered the oldest (from c600 BCE). Zapotec inscriptions are considered true writing, since the inscriptions had verbs. [2]

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York. p92-3

[2]: Joyce Marcus. February 1980. Zapotec Writing. Scientific American. Vol 242. No 2. Scientific American, Nature America, Inc. pp.50-67. URL: http://www.jstor.rg/stable/24966257


Script:
present

Zapotec writing and counting systems were recorded by the Spanish after the invasion. [1] Detailed documentation was written in Spanish after the end of this period. [2]

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York. p92-3

[2]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent

Detailed documentation was written in Spanish after the end of this period. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Mnemonic Device:
absent

Detailed documentation was written in Spanish after the end of this period. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent

Detailed documentation of life in the Valley of Oaxaca were written only after the Spanish conquest in the 1520s. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Sacred Text:
absent

Detailed documentation of life in the Valley of Oaxaca were written only after the Spanish conquest in the 1520s. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Religious Literature:
absent

Detailed documentation of life in the Valley of Oaxaca were written only after the Spanish conquest in the 1520s. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Practical Literature:
absent

Detailed documentation of life in the Valley of Oaxaca were written only after the Spanish conquest in the 1520s. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Philosophy:
absent

Detailed documentation of life in the Valley of Oaxaca were written only after the Spanish conquest in the 1520s. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Genealogical registers were recorded in the previous periods (IIIB-IV), [1] and lists assumed to have continued in existence during this period.

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York. p184


History:
absent

Detailed documentation of life in the Valley of Oaxaca were written only after the Spanish conquest in the 1520s. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Fiction:
absent

Detailed documentation of life in the Valley of Oaxaca were written only after the Spanish conquest in the 1520s. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Calendar:
present

Spanish written records refer to the Zapotec calendars, one 365 day calendar and one 260 day ‘ritual’ calendar called ‘pije/ piye’, which links to the Zapotec word ‘pé’ for life). [1]

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1976). "Formative Oaxaca and Zapotec Cosmos." American Scientist 64(4): 374-383, p376


Information / Money

Monetary items have not been found dating to this period. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Precious Metal:
absent

Monetary items have not been found dating to this period. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Paper Currency:
absent

Monetary items have not been found dating to this period. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Indigenous Coin:
absent

Monetary items have not been found dating to this period. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Foreign Coin:
absent

Monetary items have not been found dating to this period. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Article:
absent

Monetary items have not been found dating to this period. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
absent

There is no evidence for a postal system during this period. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


General Postal Service:
absent

There is no evidence for a postal system during this period. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
unknown

Monte Albán was built with a 3km defensive wall along the shallower slopes of the hill, and wooden palisades may have been present. [1]

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (2003). "The origin of war: New C-14 dates from ancient Mexico." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100(20): 11801-11805, p11804


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present

Many settlements show evidence for fortifications from this period, for example: “…the rocky summit of the Yagul hill [Tlacolula region] was fortified during Period V with the same kind of dry-laid stone masonry walls used at the Mitla Fortress.” [1]

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People. New York. p292


Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown

Many settlements show evidence for fortifications from this period, for example: “…the rocky summit of the Yagul hill [Tlacolula region] was fortified during Period V with the same kind of dry-laid stone masonry walls used at the Mitla Fortress.” [1]

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People. New York. p292


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

Many settlements continued to be located on hilltops during this period. [1]

[1]: Kowalewski, S. A., Feiman, G.M., Finsten, L., Blanton, R. E. and Nicholas, L. M. Monte Albán’s Hinterland, Part II: the prehispanic settlement patterns in Tlacoula, Etla and Ocotlán, the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Number 23. Ann Arbor


Modern Fortification:
absent

Modern fortifications were not present in prehispanic times. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


There is no evidence for a moat at Monte Alban or other settlements. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Fortified Camp:
absent

Evidence for fortified camps has not been found for this period. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Earth Rampart:
present

The defensive wall around Monte Alban was made of earth and stone. [1] [2]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. p150

[2]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (2003). "The origin of war: New C-14 dates from ancient Mexico." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100(20): 11801-11805, p11804


The presence of a ditch has not been recorded. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Complex Fortification:
present

The fortifications along the northern sector of Monte Alban consisted of an inner and outer wall, although the outer wall may have been much older (constructed in the Late I or II phases). [1]

[1]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London, p151


Military use of Metals

Metalworking was not widely used in Mesoamerica, with metal products consisting mainly of small beads and ornaments. [1] [2]

[1]: Coe, M. D., Koontz, R. (2013) Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs (7th ed.) Thames and Hudson, London, p157

[2]: Kowalewski, S. A., Feinman, G. M., Finten, L., Blanton, R. E., Nicholas, L. M. (1989) Monte Albán’s Hinterland, Part II: Prehispanic settlement patterns in Tlacolula, Etla, and Ocotlan, The Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico, Volume II. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Number 23. Ann Arbor.


Metalworking was not widely used in Mesoamerica, with metal products consisting mainly of small beads and ornaments. [1] [2]

[1]: Coe, M. D., Koontz, R. (2013) Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs (7th ed.) Thames and Hudson, London, p157

[2]: Kowalewski, S. A., Feinman, G. M., Finten, L., Blanton, R. E., Nicholas, L. M. (1989) Monte Albán’s Hinterland, Part II: Prehispanic settlement patterns in Tlacolula, Etla, and Ocotlan, The Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico, Volume II. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Number 23. Ann Arbor.


Metalworking was not widely used in Mesoamerica, with metal products consisting mainly of small beads and ornaments. [1] [2]

[1]: Coe, M. D., Koontz, R. (2013) Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs (7th ed.) Thames and Hudson, London, p157

[2]: Kowalewski, S. A., Feinman, G. M., Finten, L., Blanton, R. E., Nicholas, L. M. (1989) Monte Albán’s Hinterland, Part II: Prehispanic settlement patterns in Tlacolula, Etla, and Ocotlan, The Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico, Volume II. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Number 23. Ann Arbor.


Metalworking was not widely used in Mesoamerica, with metal products consisting mainly of small beads and ornaments. [1] [2]

[1]: Coe, M. D., Koontz, R. (2013) Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs (7th ed.) Thames and Hudson, London, p157

[2]: Kowalewski, S. A., Feinman, G. M., Finten, L., Blanton, R. E., Nicholas, L. M. (1989) Monte Albán’s Hinterland, Part II: Prehispanic settlement patterns in Tlacolula, Etla, and Ocotlan, The Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico, Volume II. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Number 23. Ann Arbor.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

Complex military technology was not present in the Valley of Oaxaca until after the Spanish conquest in the 1520s. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

Complex military technology was not present in the Valley of Oaxaca until after the Spanish conquest in the 1520s. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Weaponry for military at this time included wooden broadswords edged with obsidian blades, bows and arrows, slings, atlatls. [1]

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People. New York. p217-8


Self Bow:
present

Weaponry for military at this time included wooden broadswords edged with obsidian blades, bows and arrows, slings, atlatls. [1]

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People. New York. p217-8


Javelin:
absent

Weapons other than obsidian swords, bows and arrows, slings, spears and atlatls are not known for this period. [1]

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

Complex military technology was not present in the Valley of Oaxaca until after the Spanish conquest in the 1520s. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Complex military technology was not present in the Valley of Oaxaca until after the Spanish conquest in the 1520s. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Crossbow:
absent

Weapons other than obsidian swords, bows and arrows, slings, spears and atlatls are not known for this period. [1]

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Composite Bow:
absent

Weapons other than obsidian swords, bows and arrows, slings, spears and atlatls are not known for this period. [1]

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Atlatl:
present

Weaponry for military at this time included wooden broadswords edged with obsidian blades, bows and arrows, slings, atlatls. [1]

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People. New York. p217-8


Handheld weapons
War Club:
absent

Weapons other than obsidian swords, bows and arrows, slings, spears and atlatls are not known for this period. [1]

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Weaponry for military at this time included wooden broadswords edged with obsidian blades, bows and arrows, slings, atlatls. [1]

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People. New York. p217-8


Present in the valley of Oaxaca since preceramic times (the Proto-Otomangueans) for hunting. [1]

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York, p36


Polearm:
absent

Weapons other than obsidian swords, bows and arrows, slings, spears and atlatls are not known for this period. [1]

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Weapons other than obsidian swords, bows and arrows, slings, spears and atlatls are not known for this period. [1]

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Battle Axe:
absent

Weapons other than obsidian swords, bows and arrows, slings, spears and atlatls are not known for this period. [1]

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Animals used in warfare

Species was not present at this time in the American continents. [1] [2]

[1]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London.

[2]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York, p36


Elephant:
absent

Species was not present at this time in the American continents. [1] [2]

[1]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London.

[2]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York, p36


Species was not present at this time in the American continents. [1] [2]

[1]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London.

[2]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York, p36


Domestic dogs were present during this period, but were eaten and may not have been used in raiding warfare. [1] [2]

[1]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London.

[2]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York, p36


Species was not present at this time in the American continents. [1] [2]

[1]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London.

[2]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York, p36


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
absent

There is little evidence for armor other than cotton armor and shields, as recorded by the Spanish at the end of this period. [1]

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Shield:
present

Written evidence from the Spanish written documents at the end of this period record the use of wooden or cane shields by military officers. [1]

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People. New York. p217-8


Scaled Armor:
absent

Metalworking was not widely used in Mesoamerica, with metal products consisting mainly of small beads and ornaments. [1] [2]

[1]: Coe, M. D., Koontz, R. (2013) Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs (7th ed.) Thames and Hudson, London, p157

[2]: Kowalewski, S. A., Feinman, G. M., Finten, L., Blanton, R. E., Nicholas, L. M. (1989) Monte Albán’s Hinterland, Part II: Prehispanic settlement patterns in Tlacolula, Etla, and Ocotlan, The Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico, Volume II. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Number 23. Ann Arbor.


Plate Armor:
absent

Metalworking was not widely used in Mesoamerica, with metal products consisting mainly of small beads and ornaments. [1] [2]

[1]: Coe, M. D., Koontz, R. (2013) Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs (7th ed.) Thames and Hudson, London, p157

[2]: Kowalewski, S. A., Feinman, G. M., Finten, L., Blanton, R. E., Nicholas, L. M. (1989) Monte Albán’s Hinterland, Part II: Prehispanic settlement patterns in Tlacolula, Etla, and Ocotlan, The Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico, Volume II. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Number 23. Ann Arbor.


Limb Protection:
absent

There is little evidence for armor other than cotton armor and shields, as recorded by the Spanish at the end of this period. [1]

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Leather Cloth:
present

Written evidence from the Spanish written documents at the end of this period record the use of cotton armor by military officers. [1]

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People. New York. p217-8


Laminar Armor:
absent

Metalworking was not widely used in Mesoamerica, with metal products consisting mainly of small beads and ornaments. [1] [2]

[1]: Coe, M. D., Koontz, R. (2013) Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs (7th ed.) Thames and Hudson, London, p157

[2]: Kowalewski, S. A., Feinman, G. M., Finten, L., Blanton, R. E., Nicholas, L. M. (1989) Monte Albán’s Hinterland, Part II: Prehispanic settlement patterns in Tlacolula, Etla, and Ocotlan, The Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico, Volume II. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Number 23. Ann Arbor.


There is little evidence for armor other than cotton armor and shields, as recorded by the Spanish at the end of this period. [1]

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Chainmail:
absent

Metalworking was not widely used in Mesoamerica, with metal products consisting mainly of small beads and ornaments. [1] [2]

[1]: Coe, M. D., Koontz, R. (2013) Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs (7th ed.) Thames and Hudson, London, p157

[2]: Kowalewski, S. A., Feinman, G. M., Finten, L., Blanton, R. E., Nicholas, L. M. (1989) Monte Albán’s Hinterland, Part II: Prehispanic settlement patterns in Tlacolula, Etla, and Ocotlan, The Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico, Volume II. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Number 23. Ann Arbor.


Breastplate:
absent

There is little evidence for armor other than cotton armor and shields, as recorded by the Spanish at the end of this period. [1]

[1]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

The Valley of Oaxaca is landlocked.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
absent

The Valley of Oaxaca is landlocked.


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent

The Valley of Oaxaca is landlocked.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.