Home Region:  Western Europe (Europe)

La Tene C2-D

D G SC WF HS EQ 2020  fr_la_tene_c2_d / FrTeneC

Preceding:
325 BCE 175 BCE La Tene B2-C1 (fr_la_tene_b2_c1)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
No Polity found. Add one here.

La Tene (C2-D) was an Iron Age culture in Europe named after an archaeological site at Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland that ran from approximately 175-27 BCE. [1]
The territory centered on ancient Gaul and at its height spanned areas in modern day France, Belgium, Switzerland, Austria, Southern Germany, Czechia, parts of Northern Italy, Slovenia, Hungary, and adjacent parts of the Netherlands, Slovakia, Croatia, western Romania, and western Ukraine.
Settlements during this period included fortified urban settlements, larger towns, villages and farmsteads spread throughout their territories. [2] During this period tribes became urbanised and more centralized but although they formed alliances with other tribes, they did not join together within a unified centralized polity. [3] Each tribe had their own fortified urban settlements and there was no capital city.
Production of goods at many of the larger sites included glass jewellery, leather-working, bronze-casting and coin minting. [4]
The population is estimated at around 70,000-80,000, and much of the information we have about the population (and other aspects of La Tene life during this period) comes from the time of Caesar’s invasion of Gaul. [5] [6]

[1]: (Collis 2003, 172, 217-218)

[2]: (Wells 1999, 45-47)

[3]: (Kruta 2004, 105)

[4]: (Wells 1999, 49-54

[5]: (Wells 1984:171)

[6]: (Patterson 1995, 136)

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
31 U  
Original Name:
La Tene C2-D  
Capital:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Alternative Name:
Late La Tene  
La Tene Gaul  
Celtic Gaul  
Gaul  
Iron Age Gaul  
Celtic Empire  
La Tene  
La Tene culture  
Galli  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
125 BCE  
Duration:
[175 BCE ➜ 27 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
La Tene  
Succeeding Entity:
Late Roman Republic  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Preceding:   La Tene B2-C1 (fr_la_tene_b2_c1)    [continuity]  
Degree of Centralization:
nominal  
confederated state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Celtic  
Language:
Gaulish  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[8,000 to 10,000] people  
Polity Territory:
15,000 km2 100 BCE
Polity Population:
[70,000 to 80,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[2 to 4]  
Religious Level:
[2 to 3]  
Military Level:
4  
Administrative Level:
[3 to 4]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
unknown  
Professional Priesthood:
inferred present  
Professional Military Officer:
unknown  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
unknown  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown  
Judge:
inferred absent  
Formal Legal Code:
inferred absent  
Court:
unknown  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
inferred present  
Irrigation System:
unknown  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
inferred absent  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
unknown  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
inferred present  
Script:
inferred present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
inferred present  
Nonwritten Record:
unknown  
Non Phonetic Writing:
unknown  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
inferred absent  
Sacred Text:
inferred absent  
Religious Literature:
inferred absent  
Practical Literature:
inferred absent  
Philosophy:
inferred absent  
Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown  
History:
inferred absent  
Fiction:
inferred absent  
Calendar:
inferred absent  
Information / Money
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
inferred present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
present  
  Fortified Camp:
present  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
present  
  Complex Fortification:
present  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
inferred present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
inferred present  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
inferred absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
inferred present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
unknown  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
inferred absent  
  Plate Armor:
inferred absent  
  Limb Protection:
unknown  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
inferred absent  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range La Tene C2-D (fr_la_tene_c2_d) was in:
 (174 BCE 27 BCE)   Paris Basin
Home NGA: Paris Basin

General Variables
Identity and Location


Capital:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI

No capitals. Each tribe had their own fortified urban settlements. Largest oppidum close to Paris Basin region were Sandouville (150ha) of the Veliocasses, Chatres (170ha) of the Carnutes, Saint Desir (170ha) of the Lexovii, Villeneuve-sur-Yonne (140ha) of the Senones and Alesia of the Mandubii. [1]

[1]: (http://www.oppida.org/page.php?lg=fr&rub=00&id_oppidum=168)


Alternative Name:
Late La Tene

Galli
Latin term used by Romans from the 4th Century CE. [1]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 15)

Alternative Name:
La Tene Gaul

Galli
Latin term used by Romans from the 4th Century CE. [1]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 15)

Alternative Name:
Celtic Gaul

Galli
Latin term used by Romans from the 4th Century CE. [1]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 15)

Alternative Name:
Gaul

Galli
Latin term used by Romans from the 4th Century CE. [1]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 15)

Alternative Name:
Iron Age Gaul

Galli
Latin term used by Romans from the 4th Century CE. [1]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 15)

Alternative Name:
Celtic Empire

Galli
Latin term used by Romans from the 4th Century CE. [1]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 15)

Alternative Name:
La Tene

Galli
Latin term used by Romans from the 4th Century CE. [1]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 15)

Alternative Name:
La Tene culture

Galli
Latin term used by Romans from the 4th Century CE. [1]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 15)

Alternative Name:
Galli

Galli
Latin term used by Romans from the 4th Century CE. [1]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 15)


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
125 BCE

After 200 BCE greater Roman influence in Gaul. High point perhaps 150 BCE the date when Rome sought a formal treaty with the powerful King of the Averni. [1]
By c120 BCE Rome had established the province of Gallia Narbonensis in Southern Gaul. [2] This set the stage for Gaul to be conquered by the Romans in the mid-first century.

[1]: (Collis 2003, 170)

[2]: (Wells 1999, 48)


Duration:
[175 BCE ➜ 27 BCE]



Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]

City states formed alliances with other tribes and with Rome. Rome used alliances with Gaulish tribes/city states to further its aims. Rome active in Southern Gaul from 2nd century BCE. [1]

[1]: (Wells 1999, 70-73)


Supracultural Entity:
La Tene

Succeeding Entity:
Late Roman Republic

Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

Preceding Entity:
La Tene B2-C1 [fr_la_tene_b2_c1] ---> La Tene C2-D [fr_la_tene_c2_d]

Degree of Centralization:
nominal

Urbanised and centralized with strong economic and cultural ties, but did not join together within a unified centralized polity ruled from one power-centre/capital.
Confederations of tribes joined together for battles [1] and "federal" institutions are known from one such instance - a site for war trophies. [2]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 105)

[2]: (Kruta 2004, 186)

Degree of Centralization:
confederated state

Urbanised and centralized with strong economic and cultural ties, but did not join together within a unified centralized polity ruled from one power-centre/capital.
Confederations of tribes joined together for battles [1] and "federal" institutions are known from one such instance - a site for war trophies. [2]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 105)

[2]: (Kruta 2004, 186)


Language

Language:
Gaulish

[1]

[1]: (Collis 2003, 45)


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[8,000 to 10,000] people


Bibracte, city of the Aedui at its height in the 1st Century BCE.
200 hectares Double ramparts enclosed 200 hectares. [1]
Bibracte had perhaps 10,000 inhabitants: "Some, such as Bibracte in France, Manching in Germany, and Stradonice and Stare Hradisko in the Czech Republic, have dense occupation remains showing large numbers of inhabitants, intensive industrial activity, and extensive trade. The populations of those major sites was probably in the several thousands, perhaps approaching ten thousand." [2]
Largest oppidum close to Paris Basin region were Sandouville (150ha) of the Veliocasses, Chatres (170ha) of the Carnutes, Saint Desir (170ha) of the Lexovii, Villeneuve-sur-Yonne (140ha) of the Senones and Alesia of the Mandubii. [3]
c150 BCE oppida settlements emerge in La Tene regions. Bigger than the Early Iron Age settlements. Often 50-100 hectares. Manching 380 ha, Kelheim almost 600 ha. [4]
10,000
late Iron Age. [5]
Oppida excavated Manching, Bavaria - Late Iron Age (2nd-3rd centuries BCE)
Earth wall 7 KM length enclosed 380 ha [6]
Except for 500m wide just inside enclosing wall all parts of the site showed evidence of dense human occupation [7]
Evidence from onsite battle indicates date 3rd-2nd centuries BCE. [7]
Est. 3,000-10,000 people [8]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 12)

[2]: (Wells 2002, 366-367)

[3]: (http://www.oppida.org/page.php?lg=fr&rub=00&id_oppidum=168)

[4]: (Wells 1999, 49-54)

[5]: (McIntosh 2009, 349)

[6]: (Wells 1999, 28)

[7]: (Wells 1999, 30)

[8]: (Wells 1999, 31)


Polity Territory:
15,000 km2
100 BCE

in squared kilometers Around 100 BCE, politically independent polities in the northern alpine region (which includes central France [1] ) had a radius of about 70 km, which gives an area of about 15,394 sq kilometers. [2]
[2]
In Central Gaul, there were even bigger political units. They might have had 4 tiers, and a scale going over 20,000 sq kilometers. These political units are the ones that Caesar called civitates. "En Gaule centrale, existaient des entités politiques plus vastes encore. Celles-ci semblent bien avoir possédé quatre niveaux d’intégration avec une échelle dépassant Ies 20 000 km2. Ces entités politiques sont celles que César a nommées civitates." [3]

[1]: (Brun 2007, 380)

[2]: (Brun 2007, 381)

[3]: (Brun 2007, 382)


Polity Population:
[70,000 to 80,000] people

368,000/5 = 73,600
"Diodorus Siculus estimated 50,000-200,000 persons for tribes in Gaul; Caesar’s estimates ranged from the Helvetii at 263,000 to the Latovici at 14,000." [1] [2] Caesar might have been prone to exaggeration.
Some idea for scale of tribal populations comes from Caesar at the time of his invasion of Gaul. Helvetii, Tulingi, Latobrigi, Rauraci and Boii wanted to move from Switzerland to South West Gaul. According to Caesar (c50 BCE) there were 368,000 in total. Another tribe, the Suebi numbered 120,000 people. [3]

[1]: (Wells 1984:171)

[2]: (Patterson 1995, 136)

[3]: (Collis 2003, 107)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[2 to 4]

levels.
1. Oppida fortified urban settlement
from 150 BCE [1]
Made use of strategic locations: communication routes; market places; staging posts; valley entrances; on hills; spurs; plateaus. On plains defences were entirely man-made. [2]
"Small fortified cities became common in the fourth and third centuries BC." [3]
2. HillfortSW France, Champagne [4]
or
2. TownSeveral hundred inhabitants. [5]
3. Hamlets and villagesVast majority of population in temperate Europe. 20-100 people [5]
Hamlets < 50 population [6]
4. Farmstead"Agricultural complexes inhabited by single extended families (up to perhaps fifteen people)" [5]

[1]: (Wells 1999, 49-54)

[2]: (Kruta 2004, 102)

[3]: (Brun 1995, 16)

[4]: (Collis 2003, 145)

[5]: (Wells 1999, 57)

[6]: (Wells 1999, 45)


Religious Level:
[2 to 3]

levels.
1. Supreme Druid [1]
2. DruidsIntellectual elite [2]
Did not have day-day role running the temples. [3]
Tax and military service exempt (according to Caesar) [1]
Responsible for education (according to Caesar) [1]
Judges (according to Caesar) [1]
3. PriestsThere were local priests who maintained local religions. At time of Roman conquest (c50 BCE) there was no unified Celtic religion. [4]
In the Roman era they were called gutuateres. [3]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 185)

[2]: (Kruta 2004, 16)

[3]: (Collis 2003, 215)

[4]: (Collis 2003, 214)


Military Level:
4

levels.
1. King
In battle, confederations of tribes. [1]
2. Celtic generalsbecame mercenaries for Carthage, Rome, Greece. [2]
Urban aristocrats formed and maintained a standing cavalry corps. [3] This would have had a leader.
3. Chieftainspaid in gold staters or silver pieces. [4]
Are these people the same as the "generals"?
4. Individual soldier
Military: "Deployment would probably have been by tribal contingents. Within these contingents, clans would deploy as separate bodies ... To identify each grouping in the battle line and to act as rallying points, the guardian deities of tribe and clan were carried into battle as standards topped with carved or cast figures of their animal forms." [5]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 105)

[2]: (Kruta 2004, 85)

[3]: (Kruta 2004, 110)

[4]: (Kruta 2004, 100)

[5]: (Allen 2007, 123)


Administrative Level:
[3 to 4]

levels.
1. King

2. Decision-making councilOppida fortified urban settlements from 150 BCE [1]
Caesar c50 BCE referred to the "Gaullish council" of the Parisii [2]
Magistrate had the power to issue coins
Common political and religious institutions [3]
Centralised government [4]
Effective political and administrative system that was equal to Rome [4]
3. PagiPagus (Clan) / Family group [5]
Chiefs of tribes?
Cantons (according to Caesar) [6]
4. Headmen?according to Caesar there was a sub-division below Pagi/Canton [6]
Galatians, who migrated to Asia minor 279 BCE, also provide a possible insight into Gaulish social structure as they were closely observed by the Greeks. Chieftains (called a tetrach by the Greeks) lead each of the tribes each of which were divided into clans. Supra-tribal level of cooperation: the clans of all the tribes together appointed 300 senators "to attend an annual assembly at a shrine." However they were rarely unified and eventually the chieftains became kings. The chieftains "were assisted by three military advisers and a judge." [7]

[1]: (Wells 1999, 49-54)

[2]: (Kruta 2004, 88)

[3]: (Kruta 2004)

[4]: (Kruta 2004, 115)

[5]: (Collis 2003, 195)

[6]: (Kruta 2004, 185)

[7]: (Allen 2007, 79-80)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
unknown

Professional Priesthood:
present

Druids.


Professional Military Officer:
unknown

Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Mints at oppida close to Paris Basin region: Villeneuve-Saint Germaine, Boviolles, Sainte-Germaine, and Pommiers. [1]

[1]: (http://www.oppida.org/page.php?lg=fr&rub=00&id_oppidum=168)



Full Time Bureaucrat:
unknown

Examination System:
unknown

Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown

Druids were judges (according to Caesar) [1] which suggests that this was not a full-time occupation.

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 185)


Formal Legal Code:
absent

Customary law?
Honour price was "the equivalent of the Anglo-Saxon custom of wergild, the amount payable by a third party in the event of unlawful injury or death." "The concept of honour price was fundamental to the legal system of the Celts. It dictated the conduct of all judicial cases, since the value of an individual’s oath or evidence was determined by his honour price. To bring a lawsuit against someone with a higher honour price required the intervention of a patron of higher rank, creating an environment in which the support of the richest and most influential members of the elite was constantly sought after." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 65)



Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

"The late Hallstatt hillforts were probably functionally analogous to early Irish sites, such as Tara or Tailtiu, which hosted the regional "fairs" or oenachs. These gatherings served more than the secular purpose of exchanging goods." [1]

[1]: (Arnold 1995, 47)


Irrigation System:
unknown


previous code: inferred present | primitive irrigation system known from Beaker culture. "Silo" present during this time period. [1] Does this refer to food storage? Surplus production might also indicate irrigation systems. DH: is there evidence or reason to believe Beaker irrigation, if existed, remained?

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)


Food Storage Site:
present

Polity owned? Oppida excavated Manching, Bavaria - Late Iron Age (2nd-3rd centuries BCE). Many food storage pits uncovered [1] [2] Some form of storage at Saint Desir oppida. Silos known at Vertault. [2]

[1]: (Wells 1999, 30)

[2]: (http://www.oppida.org/page.php?lg=fr&rub=00&id_oppidum=168)


Drinking Water Supply System:
absent

Transport Infrastructure

Cities organised in network of oppida (fortified urban settlements) which were linked by well-defined routes." [1] Network of streets at Vertault, and road network at Villeneuve-Saint-Germain. Paved road at Caudebec-en-Caux. [2]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 115)

[2]: (http://www.oppida.org/page.php?lg=fr&rub=00&id_oppidum=168)


Brittany had trading links to Ireland and Britain. [1] c600 BCE the Phoencians had founded trading colony/port at Massilia. [2] However, this wasn’t directly owned/controlled by the Gauls. Port at Geneva Note: was not a seaport

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 38)

[2]: (Kruta 2004, 35)



Bridge:
present

Lake Neuchatel trade-related bridge found, carbon-dated 251 BCE [1] Another bridge at found at Cornaux. [1]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 25)


Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Evidence of inscriptions from Gaulish settlements in Northern Italy. [1] "Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [2]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 30)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 100)


Script:
present

Evidence of inscriptions from Gaulish settlements in Northern Italy. [1]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 30)


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

Possible use of the Greek alphabet? "Caesar remarks that documents captured from the Helvetii were written in Greek characters, and until the conquest of Gaul all Celtic coins were inscribed in Greek, but changed to Latin script around 50 BC." [1]

[1]: (Collis 1984, 145)


Nonwritten Record:
unknown

Not mentioned by sources for this period. Stone circle known in region close to Paris Basin dating to 475-400 BCE. [1]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)


Non Phonetic Writing:
unknown

There is evidence for a script, but it is not known whether it was phonetic or non-phonetic. [1]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 30)



Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent

"Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 100)


Sacred Text:
absent

"Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 100)


Religious Literature:
absent

"Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 100)


Practical Literature:
absent

"Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 100)


Philosophy:
absent

"Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 100)


Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown

History:
absent

"Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 100)


Fiction:
absent

"Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 100)


Calendar:
absent

"Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 100)


Information / Money

Indigenous Coin:
present

Coinage universal from 3rd century BCE: "the first indigenous coins in temperate Europe were minted during the third century B.C., and the designs were based on Greek prototypes." [1] ; Idea of coinage introduced by mercenaries returning from Greece. [1] ; Original usage may have been to pay mercenaries. Cheiftains were paid in gold staters or silver pieces; Design of coin decided in each locale. Magistrates had power to issue coins. [2] ; Gold coin found - origin Mediomatrices of NW Gaul? [3] ; Gold stater from Gaulish city of Parisii [4] ; Oppida excavated Manching, Bavaria, 3rd-2nd centuries BCE, evidence of monetary economy. Minted gold, silver and bronze coins. [5] ; Each oppidum minted distinctive types of coins. [6] Present. [7]

[1]: (Wells 1999, 54)

[2]: (Kruta 2004, 100)

[3]: (Kruta 2004, 186)

[4]: (Kruta 2004, 185)

[5]: (Wells 1999, 30)

[6]: (Wells 1999, 49-54)

[7]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)


Foreign Coin:
present

Foreign coins in circulation due to payments made to Celtic mercenaries who fought for Carthage, Greece and Rome. Particularly large and diverse hoard found in Moravia. [1] Mainly Greek and Roman. [2]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 85)

[2]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)


Article:
present

Barter economy before coinage. [1] Coral was considered very high value. "Coral route" from Campania through Alps then on to Champagne or Bohemia. [2]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 100)

[2]: (Kruta 2004, 72)


Information / Postal System

General Postal Service:
unknown

Courier:
present

Level of development high enough to mint coins, likely high enough for full-time messengers.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

Present close to the Paris Basin region. [1]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown

Not until the 75-27 BCE period anywhere close to the Paris Basin region, although previously present close to this same area between 560-475 BCE. [1]

[1]: (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)


Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown

Not mentioned in the literature RA.



Modern Fortification:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature RA.



Fortified Camp:
present

Some oppida are fortified camps. cf Bibracte, in central France.


Earth Rampart:
present

[1] Oppida excavated Manching, Bavaria - Late Iron Age. Earth wall 7 KM length enclosed 380 ha [2] At Sainte-Germain: "Delimiting the citadel fortification consists of a triple system of embankments and ditches." [3] At Sandouville outer rampart almost one kilometer long, is preserved as an embankment 6 m high, preceded by a ditch 3 m deep. At Bracquemont there was a 12m high embankment wall. [3]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 102)

[2]: (Wells 1999, 28)

[3]: (http://www.oppida.org/page.php?lg=fr&rub=00&id_oppidum=168)


At Sainte-Germain: "Delimiting the citadel fortification consists of a triple system of embankments and ditches." Ditches also known at Saint-Mihiel, Vouziers, Saint-Pierre-de-Varengeville, Saint-Samson-de-la-Roque, Sandouville and Lion-devant-Dun. [1]

[1]: (http://www.oppida.org/page.php?lg=fr&rub=00&id_oppidum=168)


Complex Fortification:
present

Oppida settlement at Manching near Ingolstadt in Bavaria had double ring of dry-stone wall ramparts filled with earth. [1] At Sainte-Germain: "Delimiting the citadel fortification consists of a triple system of embankments and ditches." [2]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 102)

[2]: (http://www.oppida.org/page.php?lg=fr&rub=00&id_oppidum=168)



Military use of Metals

"The Hallstatt civilisation knew case-hardening only, but the Celts had various methods of ’steeling’ such as the false-damascening which consisted in welding harder and weaker strips together. Some of the natural steel quite free of of sulphur and phosphorus must have been difficult to forge as it was liable to form cracks." [1] "The general impression of the Celtic swords, here covering a period from roughly 650 to 100 B.C., is that the blade was normally manufactured from a single iron bar of no particularly good quality. The same material could as well have been utilized for nails. ... Common to all the Celtic swords is the extensive coldwork that has taken place. ... evidently the finishing part of the blacksmith’s usual hotwork, only that he continued hammering in the temperature range 800-600C ... Significant coldwork at room temperature must also have taken place, since the metal is work-hardened to high hardness and displays slip lines and Neumann bands. ... The 24 swords do not show any metallurgical development with time, except for one, the oldest, from Hallstatt. That one seems to be a rather mediocre sword based on an improper ore and an inexperienced blacksmith. ... three of them ... of superior quality, being pearlitic-ferritic and probably representing the famous Noric steel. If this argument, based on slag composition and structure - and an inscription on No. 510 - holds true, the manufacture of Noric steel began as early as 300 B.C." [2] "Almost all the Celtic swords here examined were of good quality and would undoubtedly have yielded good service." [3] Not sure of the reason for the contradiction between "no particularly good quality" and "of good quality" but we have the 300 BCE date for Noric steel.

[1]: (Forbes 1950, 464) Robert James Forbes. 1950. Metallurgy in Antiquity: A Notebook for Archaeologists and Technologists. E J BRILL. Leiden.

[2]: (Buchwald 2005, 122-124) Vagn Fabritius Buchwald. 2005. Iron and steel in ancient times. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab.

[3]: (Buchwald 2005, 125-127) Vagn Fabritius Buchwald. 2005. Iron and steel in ancient times. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab.


Diodorus Siculus mentions iron breastplates. [1] "In the Halstatt and early La Tene periods, helmets were made of bronze. Iron helmets first appeared in the 4th century BC and gradually replaced the softer alloy, possibly in response to the development of the long slashing sword." [2]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 115)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 119)


"In the Halstatt and early La Tene periods, helmets were made of bronze. Iron helmets first appeared in the 4th century BC and gradually replaced the softer alloy, possibly in response to the development of the long slashing sword." [1] Still present, used less often.

[1]: (Allen 2007, 119)


"In the Halstatt and early La Tene periods, helmets were made of bronze. Iron helmets first appeared in the 4th century BC and gradually replaced the softer alloy, possibly in response to the development of the long slashing sword." [1] Still present, used less often.

[1]: (Allen 2007, 119)


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature RA.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature RA.


Stockpiles of sling stones found at hillforts in Britain. Archers may have been used to defend fortified sites. [1]

[1]: (Allen 2007, 117-118)


Iron arrowheads. Quiver. [1]

[1]: (Collis 2003, 136)


[1] "The Greek writer Strabo commented that the Celtic warrior carried two types of spear: a larger, heavier one for thrusting, and a smaller, lighter javelin that could be thrown and used at close quarters." [2]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 58)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 116)


Handheld Firearm:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature RA.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature RA.


Not mentioned in the literature RA.


Composite Bow:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature RA.


Spears are described, but not spear-throwers.


Handheld weapons

Inferred from previous and subsequent (quasi)polities.


[1] Broadsword (Bohemia). [2] Long sword, curved broardsword. [3] "The basic equipment of the Celtic warrior was spear and shield. To this could be added a sword, a helmet and a mailshirt." [4]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 4)

[2]: (Kruta 2004, 38)

[3]: (Kruta 2004, 58)

[4]: (Allen 2007, 115)


[1] "The basic equipment of the Celtic warrior was spear and shield. To this could be added a sword, a helmet and a mailshirt." [2] "The Greek writer Strabo commented that the Celtic warrior carried two types of spear: a larger, heavier one for thrusting, and a smaller, lighter javelin that could be thrown and used at close quarters." [3]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 58)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 115)

[3]: (Allen 2007, 116)


Inferred from previous and subsequent (quasi)polities.


Iron dagger [1] Iron dagger "from a Halstatt tomb, mid-5th century BC" [2]

[1]: (Collis 2003, 136)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 32)



Animals used in warfare

War chariots abandoned in Gaul 200-100 BCE. [1] Cavalry replaced war-chariots from 250 BCE. [2]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 198)

[2]: (Kruta 2004, 110)


Not mentioned in the literature RA.


"There seems no trace of the use of donkeys and mules before contact with the Italian peninsula." [1] Does this source say when this contact considered to have begun? My guess of the meaning is the Roman invasion but I don’t know the context the sentence was written in.

[1]: (Ellis 1998, 109) Peter Berresford Ellis. 1998. The ancient world of the Celts. Constable.


Not mentioned in the literature RA.


Not mentioned in the literature RA.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

Wooden shield carbon dated to 229 BCE (Lake Neuchatel). [1] "Celtic shields were generally oval in shape or sometimes and elongated hexagon. They were made of thin planks of oak or lime wood covered in leather." [2]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 25)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 118)


[1] "The basic equipment of the Celtic warrior was spear and shield. To this could be added a sword, a helmet and a mailshirt." [2]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 4)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 115)


Scaled Armor:
absent

The only mention of armour is chainmail. "Diodorus also mentions that some warriors wear iron breast plates of chain mail. Seated figures of stone from the sanctuary of Roquepertuse (Fig.163) and a stone statue of a Gaul from Vachères (Basse-Alpes) (Pl. VI), dating to the late first century BC, are shown wearing chain mail, and actual examples have been found in a few burials, including that of the warrior provided with the bird-crested helmet, who was buried at Ciumesti. One of the features of Celtic warfare which impressed itself upon the Classical mind was the fact that some warriors fought naked except for the sword belt and a gold neck torc." [1]

[1]: (Cunliffe 2000, 98-99)


Plate Armor:
absent

The only mention of armour is chainmail. "Diodorus also mentions that some warriors wear iron breast plates of chain mail. Seated figures of stone from the sanctuary of Roquepertuse (Fig.163) and a stone statue of a Gaul from Vachères (Basse-Alpes) (Pl. VI), dating to the late first century BC, are shown wearing chain mail, and actual examples have been found in a few burials, including that of the warrior provided with the bird-crested helmet, who was buried at Ciumesti. One of the features of Celtic warfare which impressed itself upon the Classical mind was the fact that some warriors fought naked except for the sword belt and a gold neck torc." [1]

[1]: (Cunliffe 2000, 98-99)



Leather Cloth:
present

Glauberg, Germany c400 BCE. [1] Warrior statue from Glauburg shows armor "reminiscent of Greek or Etruscan styles." [2] The photograph shows an oval-shaped shield and what appears to be a fabric?/leather body armor.

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 60)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 20)


Laminar Armor:
absent

The only mention of armour is chainmail. "Diodorus also mentions that some warriors wear iron breast plates of chain mail. Seated figures of stone from the sanctuary of Roquepertuse (Fig.163) and a stone statue of a Gaul from Vachères (Basse-Alpes) (Pl. VI), dating to the late first century BC, are shown wearing chain mail, and actual examples have been found in a few burials, including that of the warrior provided with the bird-crested helmet, who was buried at Ciumesti. One of the features of Celtic warfare which impressed itself upon the Classical mind was the fact that some warriors fought naked except for the sword belt and a gold neck torc." [1]

[1]: (Cunliffe 2000, 98-99)


Glauberg, Germany c400 BCE. [1] "The basic equipment of the Celtic warrior was spear and shield. To this could be added a sword, a helmet and a mailshirt." [2]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 60)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 115)


Chainmail:
present

Coat of mail c100 BCE or before. [1] "The basic equipment of the Celtic warrior was spear and shield. To this could be added a sword, a helmet and a mailshirt." [2]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 110)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 115)


Breastplate:
present

Light breastplate c100 BCE or before. [1] "Bronze statuette of a warrior from Liechtenstein dated to the 5th century BC. Note the Greek/Etruscan-style cuirass." [2] Diodorus Siculus mentions iron breastplates. [3]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 110)

[2]: (Allen 2007, 24)

[3]: (Allen 2007, 115)


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown

Not mentioned in the literature RA.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

Port at Geneva [1]

[1]: (Kruta 2004, 35?)


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown

Not mentioned in the literature RA.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions
- Nothing coded yet.