Section: General Variables
Subsection: Temporal Bounds

Polity Peak Years

The peak years of a polity.  
Contributors: Jenny, Majid, Peter

Variable Definition
Polity The Seshat Polity Name
Year(s) The years for which we have the data. [negative = BCE]
Confidence Inferred : The value is inferred.
Suspected : The value is suspected (Expert Check Needed).
Evidenced : The value is backed up by sufficient evidence.
Disputed? No : No disagreement among scholars.
Yes : There is disagreement among scholars.
Expert? : Not yet Checked by a Seshat Expert.
: Checked and accepted by a Seshat Expert (or RA).

Variable Definition
peak_year_from The beginning of the peak years for a polity.
peak_year_to The end of the peak years for a polity.

# Polity   Year(s)   Peak Year from Peak Year to   Confidence     Disputed?     Expert?   Edit
1
Kingdom of Bohemia - Přemyslid Dynasty
1253 CE 1278 CE
1253
1278
Confident No Edit
2
State of the Teutonic Order
1351 CE 1400 CE
1352
1382
Confident No Edit
3
Akan - Pre-Ashanti
-
1650
1701
Confident No Edit
4
Ashanti Empire
-
1800
1824
Confident No Edit
5
Archaic Crete
-
-650
-650
Confident No Edit
6
Classical Crete
-
-350
-350
Confident No Edit
7
The Emirate of Crete
-
824
961
Confident No Edit
8
Final Postpalatial Crete
-
-1200
-1100
Confident No Edit
9
Geometric Crete
-
-800
-800
Confident No Edit
10
Hellenistic Crete
-
-250
-250
Confident No Edit
11
Monopalatial Crete
-
-1390
-1300
Confident No Edit
12
New Palace Crete
-
-1500
-1450
Confident No Edit
13
The Old Palace Crete
-
-1800
-1700
Confident No Edit
14
Postpalatial Crete
-
-1300
-1200
Confident No Edit
15
Prepalatial Crete
-
-2300
-1900
Confident No Edit
16
Java - Buni Culture
-
100
100
Confident No Edit
17
Majapahit Kingdom
-
1389
1389
Confident No Edit
18
Gupta Empire
-
400
400
Confident No Edit
19
Hoysala Kingdom
-
1225
1225
Confident No Edit
20
Magadha - Maurya Empire
-
-269
-232
Confident No Edit
21
Cahokia - Lohman-Stirling
-
1100
1100
Confident No Edit
22
Funj Sultanate
-
1644
1680
Confident No Edit
23
Mughal Empire
-
1630
1707
Confident No Edit
24
Akkadian Empire
-
-2190
-2154
Confident No Edit
25
Amorite Babylonia
-
-1792
-1750
Confident No Edit
26
Neo-Babylonian Empire
-
-604
-562
Confident No Edit
27
Kachi Plain - Urban Period II
-
-1800
-1300
Confident No Edit
28
Elam - Kidinuid Period
-
-1158
-1158
Confident No Edit
29
Parthian Empire II
-
50
100
Confident No Edit
30
Sasanid Empire II
-
570
570
Confident No Edit
31
Elam - Early Sukkalmah
-
-1900
-1800
Confident No Edit
32
Exarchate of Ravenna
-
640
640
Confident No Edit
33
Late Roman Republic
-
-49
-49
Confident No Edit
34
Middle Roman Republic
-
-133
-133
Confident No Edit
35
Roman Empire - Principate
-
117
117
Confident No Edit
36
Roman Kingdom
-
-535
-535
Confident No Edit
37
Republic of Venice IV
-
1565
1565
Confident No Edit
38
Warring States Japan
-
1568
1568
Confident No Edit
39
Tokugawa Shogunate
-
1688
1704
Confident No Edit
40
Early Angkor
-
900
900
Confident No Edit
41
Funan II
-
450
650
Confident No Edit
42
Jenne-jeno II
-
399
399
Confident No Edit
43
Mongol Empire
-
1251
1259
Confident No Edit
44
Early Mongols
-
1206
1206
Confident No Edit
45
Monte Alban Late I
-
-100
-100
Confident No Edit
46
Oaxaca - Tierras Largas
-
-1400
-1150
Confident No Edit
47
Cuzco - Early Intermediate II
-
600
600
Confident No Edit
48
Cuzco - Late Intermediate I
-
1250
1250
Confident No Edit
49
Cuzco - Late Intermediate II
-
1400
1400
Confident No Edit
50
Cuzco - Late Formative
-
200
200
Confident No Edit
51
Orokaiva - Colonial
-
1921
1942
Confident No Edit
52
Indo-Greek Kingdom
-
-155
-130
Confident No Edit
53
Egypt - Kushite Period
-
-663
-663
Confident No Edit
54
Umayyad Caliphate
-
724
724
Confident No Edit
55
Kingdom of Kaffa
-
1798
1821
Confident No Edit
56
Futa Jallon
-
1800
1896
Confident No Edit
57
Emirate of Harar
-
1680
1790
Confident No Edit
58
Konya Plain - Late Bronze Age II
-
-1450
-1450
Confident No Edit
59
Ilú-ọba Ọ̀yọ́
-
1730
1790
Confident No Edit
60
Carolingian Empire II
-
840
840
Confident No Edit
61
Hallstatt A-B1
-
-900
-900
Confident No Edit
62
Proto-Carolingian
-
751
751
Confident No Edit
63
La Tene A-B1
-
-450
-450
Confident No Edit
64
French Kingdom - Early Valois
-
1364
1380
Confident No Edit
65
Erlitou
-
-1700
-1530
Confident No Edit
66
Late Qing
-
1850
1850
Confident No Edit
67
Sui Dynasty
-
609
609
Confident No Edit
68
Tang Dynasty II
-
820
820
Confident No Edit
69
Great Yuan
-
1310
1310
Confident No Edit
70
Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate II
-
1348
1348
Confident No Edit
71
Egypt - New Kingdom Ramesside Period
-
-1250
-1250
Confident No Edit
72
Egypt - New Kingdom Thutmosid Period
-
-1300
-1300
Confident No Edit
73
Egypt - Classic Old Kingdom
-
-2400
-2400
Confident No Edit
74
Egypt - Late Old Kingdom
-
-2300
-2300
Confident No Edit
75
Egypt - Period of the Regions
-
-2063
-2063
Confident No Edit
76
Egypt - Thebes-Hyksos Period
-
-1555
-1555
Confident No Edit
77
French Kingdom - Early Bourbon
-
1611
1611
Confident No Edit
78
Carolingian Empire I
-
811
811
Confident No Edit
79
Byzantine Empire III
-
1180
1180
Confident No Edit
80
Lysimachus Kingdom
-
-306
-281
Confident No Edit
81
Ottoman Empire I
-
1517
1517
Confident No Edit
82
Ottoman Empire II
-
1520
1566
Confident No Edit
83
Timurid Empire
-
1449
1449
Confident No Edit
84
Himyar I
-
300
300
Confident No Edit
85
Cahokia - Early Woodland
-
150
150
Confident No Edit
86
Cahokia - Late Woodland II
-
600
600
Confident No Edit
87
Cahokia - Middle Woodland
-
300
300
Confident No Edit
88
Cahokia - Late Woodland III
-
750
750
Confident No Edit
89
Cahokia - Late Woodland I
-
450
450
Confident No Edit
90
Cahokia - Emergent Mississippian I
-
900
900
Confident No Edit
91
Durrani Empire
-
1761
1761
Confident No Edit
92
Ghur Principality
-
1200
1200
Confident No Edit
93
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
-
-180
-180
Confident No Edit
94
Hephthalites
-
509
522
Confident No Edit
95
Kidarite Kingdom
-
420
440
Confident No Edit
96
Kushan Empire
-
229
229
Confident No Edit
97
Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate III
-
1495
1495
Confident No Edit
98
Ottoman Empire III
-
1683
1683
Confident No Edit
99
Cahokia - Moorehead
-
1200
1200
Confident No Edit
100
Haudenosaunee Confederacy - Early
-
1650
1701
Confident No Edit
101
Cahokia - Emergent Mississippian II
-
1050
1050
Confident No Edit
102
Eastern Han Empire
-
88
88
Confident No Edit
103
Western Jin
-
280
300
Confident No Edit
104
Erligang
-
-1500
-1450
Confident No Edit
105
Hmong - Late Qing
-
1790
1790
Confident No Edit
106
Great Ming
-
1450
1480
Confident No Edit
107
Northern Song
-
1050
1050
Confident No Edit
108
Northern Wei
-
439
439
Confident No Edit
109
Middle Merovingian
-
584
629
Confident No Edit
110
Egypt - Middle Kingdom
-
-1850
-1850
Confident No Edit
111
Early Qing
-
1796
1796
Confident No Edit
112
Late Shang
-
-1200
-1200
Confident No Edit
113
Tang Dynasty I
-
740
740
Confident No Edit
114
Early Wei Dynasty
-
-353
-353
Confident No Edit
115
Western Han Empire
-
-100
-100
Confident No Edit
116
Western Zhou
-
-950
-925
Confident No Edit
117
Ayyubid Sultanate
-
1193
1193
Confident No Edit
118
Badarian
-
-4400
-4000
Confident No Edit
119
Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate I
-
1341
1341
Confident No Edit
120
Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate III
-
1425
1425
Confident No Edit
121
Egypt - Dynasty 0
-
-3300
-3200
Confident No Edit
122
Ptolemaic Kingdom I
-
-300
-300
Confident No Edit
123
Egypt - Saite Period
-
-550
-550
Confident No Edit
124
Egypt - Thebes-Libyan Period
-
-924
-924
Confident No Edit
125
Egypt - Tulunid-Ikhshidid Period
-
895
895
Confident No Edit
126
Spanish Empire I
-
1556
1598
Confident No Edit
127
Axum I
-
250
250
Confident No Edit
128
French Kingdom - Late Bourbon
-
1723
1743
Confident No Edit
129
Proto-French Kingdom
-
1150
1150
Confident No Edit
130
French Kingdom - Late Capetian
-
1285
1314
Confident No Edit
131
Early Merovingian
-
543
543
Confident No Edit
132
La Tene B2-C1
-
-200
-200
Confident No Edit
133
La Tene C2-D
-
-125
-125
Confident No Edit
134
French Kingdom - Late Valois
-
1515
1515
Confident No Edit
135
British Empire II
-
1815
1815
Confident No Edit
136
Neolithic Crete
-
-4500
-3000
Confident No Edit
137
Hawaii I
-
1200
1200
Confident No Edit
138
Hawaii II
-
1580
1580
Confident No Edit
139
Iban - Brooke Raj and Colonial
-
1900
1946
Confident No Edit
140
Medang Kingdom
-
850
850
Confident No Edit
141
Canaan
-
-1550
-1550
Confident No Edit
142
Yehuda
-
-105
-105
Confident No Edit
143
Yisrael
-
-855
-855
Confident No Edit
144
Chalukyas of Badami
-
609
643
Confident No Edit
145
Chalukyas of Kalyani
-
1076
1126
Confident No Edit
146
Kassite Babylonia
-
-1359
-1333
Confident No Edit
147
Second Turk Khaganate
-
691
716
Confident No Edit
148
Songhai Empire - Askiya Dynasty
-
1550
1550
Confident No Edit
149
Delhi Sultanate
-
1296
1316
Confident No Edit
150
Late A'chik
-
1867
1900
Confident No Edit
151
Kadamba Empire
-
435
455
Confident No Edit
152
Rashtrakuta Empire
-
814
878
Confident No Edit
153
Satavahana Empire
-
106
130
Confident No Edit
154
Vakataka Kingdom
-
510
510
Confident No Edit
155
Vijayanagara Empire
-
1505
1542
Confident No Edit
156
Abbasid Caliphate I
-
809
809
Confident No Edit
157
Abbasid Caliphate II
-
1226
1226
Confident No Edit
158
Bazi Dynasty
-
-1005
-989
Confident No Edit
159
Second Dynasty of Isin
-
-1119
-1098
Confident No Edit
160
Neo-Assyrian Empire
-
-668
-668
Confident No Edit
161
Ubaid
-
-5000
-4000
Confident No Edit
162
Ur - Dynasty III
-
-2097
-2038
Confident No Edit
163
Uruk
-
-3200
-3050
Confident No Edit
164
Achaemenid Empire
-
-500
-500
Confident No Edit
165
Ak Koyunlu
-
1453
1478
Confident No Edit
166
Buyid Confederation
-
983
983
Confident No Edit
167
Elymais II
-
100
100
Confident No Edit
168
Republic of St Peter I
-
850
900
Confident No Edit
169
Ilkhanate
-
1316
1316
Confident No Edit
170
Elam - Igihalkid Period
-
-1300
-1300
Confident No Edit
171
Elam - Shutrukid Period
-
-1158
-1158
Confident No Edit
172
Elam II
-
-743
-717
Confident No Edit
173
Parthian Empire I
-
-120
-120
Confident No Edit
174
Qajar
-
1900
1900
Confident No Edit
175
Republic of Venice III
-
1481
1550
Confident No Edit
176
Safavid Empire
-
1629
1629
Confident No Edit
177
Sasanid Empire I
-
309
379
Confident No Edit
178
Seleucids
-
-281
-281
Confident No Edit
179
Seleucids
-
-190
-190
Confident No Edit
180
Seljuk Sultanate
-
1092
1092
Confident No Edit
181
Ostrogothic Kingdom
-
525
525
Confident No Edit
182
Rome - Republic of St Peter II
-
1030
1030
Confident No Edit
183
Papal States - High Medieval Period
-
1240
1240
Confident No Edit
184
Papal States - Medieval Period I
-
1571
1571
Confident No Edit
185
Papal States - Medieval Period II
-
1750
1750
Confident No Edit
186
Papal States - Renaissance Period
-
1506
1506
Confident No Edit
187
Early Roman Republic
-
-287
-287
Confident No Edit
188
Western Roman Empire - Late Antiquity
-
439
439
Confident No Edit
189
Rouran Khaganate
-
402
429
Confident No Edit
190
Ashikaga Shogunate
-
1368
1394
Confident No Edit
191
Heian
-
794
930
Confident No Edit
192
Kamakura Shogunate
-
1225
1225
Confident No Edit
193
Nara Kingdom
-
781
794
Confident No Edit
194
Kansai - Yayoi Period
-
125
125
Confident No Edit
195
Kara-Khanids
-
1068
1068
Confident No Edit
196
Classical Angkor
-
1150
1220
Confident No Edit
197
Late Angkor
-
1220
1353
Confident No Edit
198
Khmer Kingdom
-
1400
1400
Confident No Edit
199
Chenla
-
650
650
Confident No Edit
200
Funan I
-
250
514
Confident No Edit
201
Phoenician Empire
-
-570
-570
Confident No Edit
202
Saadi Sultanate
-
1578
1603
Confident No Edit
203
Bamana kingdom
-
1800
1800
Confident No Edit
204
Jenne-jeno I
-
49
49
Confident No Edit
205
Jenne-jeno III
-
899
899
Confident No Edit
206
Jenne-jeno IV
-
1100
1100
Confident No Edit
207
Mali Empire
-
1312
1337
Confident No Edit
208
Segou Kingdom
-
1650
1680
Confident No Edit
209
Xianbei Confederation
-
155
155
Confident No Edit
210
Zungharian Empire
-
1679
1745
Confident No Edit
211
Middle Wagadu Empire
-
1025
1050
Confident No Edit
212
Monte Alban II
-
-200
-200
Confident No Edit
213
Late Formative Basin of Mexico
-
-200
-200
Confident No Edit
214
Middle Formative Basin of Mexico
-
-650
-650
Confident No Edit
215
Oaxaca - San Jose
-
-1150
-850
Confident No Edit
216
Inca Empire
-
1525
1525
Confident No Edit
217
Wari Empire
-
800
800
Confident No Edit
218
Sind - Abbasid-Fatimid Period
-
985
985
Confident No Edit
219
Sind - Samma Dynasty
-
1486
1486
Confident No Edit
220
Sakha - Late
-
1850
1900
Confident No Edit
221
Ayutthaya
-
1733
1758
Confident No Edit
222
Rattanakosin
-
1793
1810
Confident No Edit
223
Fatimid Caliphate
-
996
996
Confident No Edit
224
Fatimid Caliphate
-
1058
1058
Confident No Edit
225
Phrygian Kingdom
-
-738
-696
Confident No Edit
226
Ottoman Emirate
-
1402
1402
Confident No Edit
227
Middle Bronze Age in Central Anatolia
-
-1850
-1750
Confident No Edit
228
Byzantine Empire I
-
741
775
Confident No Edit
229
Byzantine Empire II
-
1025
1025
Confident No Edit
230
Late Cappadocia
-
-302
-95
Confident No Edit
231
East Roman Empire
-
527
542
Confident No Edit
232
Hatti - New Kingdom
-
-1240
-1240
Confident No Edit
233
Kingdom of Lydia
-
-560
-560
Confident No Edit
234
Roman Empire - Dominate
-
394
394
Confident No Edit
235
Rum Sultanate
-
1220
1237
Confident No Edit
236
Haudenosaunee Confederacy - Late
-
1714
1765
Confident No Edit
237
Kingdom of Hawaii - Kamehameha Period
-
1810
1810
Confident No Edit
238
Samanid Empire
-
942
942
Confident No Edit
239
Sogdiana - City-States Period
-
700
700
Confident No Edit
240
Himyar II
-
378
378
Confident No Edit
241
Rasulid Dynasty
-
1300
1350
Confident No Edit
242
Yemen - Era of Warlords
-
1067
1091
Confident No Edit
243
Yemen Ziyad Dynasty
-
1000
1000
Confident No Edit
244
Middle and Late Nok
-
-1500
-901
Confident No Edit
245
Kanem
-
1080
1300
Confident No Edit
246
Middle and Late Nok
-
-900
-400
Confident No Edit
247
Toutswe
-
900
900
Confident No Edit
248
Great Zimbabwe
-
1300
1400
Confident No Edit
249
Majeerteen Sultanate
-
1800
1860
Confident No Edit
250
Holy Roman Empire - Ottonian-Salian Dynasty
-
1050
1050
Confident No Edit
251
Torwa-Rozvi
-
1684
1696
Confident No Edit
252
Mutapa
-
1500
1693
Confident No Edit
253
Pandya Empire
-
1250
1272
Confident No Edit
254
Polonnaruwa
-
1187
1196
Confident No Edit
255
Kingdom of Jimma
-
1830
1855
Confident No Edit
256
Adal Sultanate
-
1400
1543
Confident No Edit
257
Ajuran Sultanate
-
1550
1650
Confident No Edit
258
Sultanate of Geledi
-
1789
1848
Confident No Edit
259
Early Sultanate of Aussa
-
1700
1780
Confident No Edit
260
Kwararafa
-
1600
1600
Confident No Edit
261
Allada
-
1500
1700
Confident No Edit
262
Whydah
-
1671
1700
Confident No Edit
263
Igala
-
1799
1799
Confident No Edit
264
Sokoto Caliphate
-
1860
1860
Confident No Edit
265
Electorate of Bavaria
-
1745
1777
Confident No Edit
266
Ọ̀ràézè Ǹrì
-
1100
1400
Confident No Edit
267
Hausa bakwai
-
1349
1600
Confident No Edit
268
Kanem-Borno
-
1571
1583
Confident No Edit
269
Foys
-
1818
1858
Confident No Edit
270
Jolof Empire
-
1400
1499
Confident No Edit
271
Burundi
-
1796
1850
Confident No Edit
272
Nkore
-
1800
1901
Confident No Edit
273
Nayaks of Thanjavur
-
1600
1634
Confident No Edit
274
Classical Ife
-
1000
1200
Confident Yes Edit
275
Classical Ife
-
1250
1350
Confident Yes Edit
276
Benin Empire
-
1480
1590
Confident No Edit
277
Kingdom of the Huns
-
434
434
Confident No Edit
278
Kingdom of Bohemia - Luxembourgian and Jagiellonian Dynasty
-
1390
1390
Confident No Edit
279
Us Reconstruction-Progressive
-
1933
1933
Confident No Edit
280
Chaco Canyon - Late Bonito phase
-
1050
1125
Confident No Edit
281
Antebellum US
-
1865
1865
Confident No Edit
282
Late Classic Tikal
-
734
746
Confident No Edit
283
Tudor and Early Stuart England
-
1580
1610
Confident No Edit
284
Austria - Habsburg Dynasty II
-
1780
1790
Confident No Edit
285
Hohokam Culture
-
1100
1400
Confident No Edit
286
Alaouite Dynasty I
-
1666
1672
Confident No Edit
287
Austria - Habsburg Dynasty I
-
1553
1553
Confident No Edit
288
Armenian Kingdom
-
-95
-55
Confident No Edit
289
Oirats
-
1452
1455
Confident No Edit
290
Golden Horde
-
1312
1341
Confident No Edit
291
Saffarid Caliphate
-
861
879
Confident No Edit
292
British Empire IIIIIIIIII
-
1921
1925
Confident No Edit
293
Qasimid Dynasty XXXXXXX
-
1644
1679
Confident No Edit
294
Brandenburg-Prussia
-
1740
1786
Confident No Edit
295
Russian Empire, Romanov Dynasty I
-
1682
1725
Confident No Edit
296
Russian Empire, Romanov Dynasty II
-
1801
1825
Confident No Edit
297
Soviet Union
-
1957
1979
Confident No Edit
298
Polish Kingdom - Piast Dynasty Fragmented Period
-
1333
1370
Confident No Edit
299
Jin Dynasty
-
1207
1207
Confident No Edit
300
East Francia
-
887
899
Confident No Edit
301
Kachi Plain - Urban Period I
-
-2500
-2100
Confident No Edit