Home Region:  Eastern Europe (Europe)

Russian Empire, Romanov Dynasty II

G SC CC PT
EQ 2020  ru_romanov_dyn_2

No General Descriptions provided.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
36 V  
Original Name:
Russian Empire, Romanov Dynasty II  
Capital:
Saint Petersburg  
Alternative Name:
Российская Империя  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,801 CE ➜ 1,825 CE]  
Duration:
[1,776 CE ➜ 1,917 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Succeeding Entity:
Soviet Untion  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
Russian  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Christianity  
Religion Family:
Orthodox  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[336,000 to 485,000] people 1800 CE 1850 CE
[485,000 to 667,000] people 1850 CE 1870 CE
[667,000 to 1,003,000] people 1870 CE 1890 CE
[1,003,000 to 1,962,000] people 1890 CE 1910 CE
Polity Territory:
[17,000,000 to 21,000,000] km2 1800 CE 1850 CE
[21,000,000 to 22,000,000] km2 1850 CE 1900 CE
Polity Population:
[35,500,000 to 74,100,000] people 1800 CE 1860 CE
[74,100,000 to 125,640,021] people 1860 CE 1897 CE
[125,640,021 to 170,100,000] people 1897 CE 1913 CE
Largest Communication Distance:
9600  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
8  
Religious Level:
6  
Military Level:
16  
Administrative Level:
16  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Source Of Support:
state salary  
enoblement  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent 1776 CE 1864 CE
present 1864 CE 1917 CE
Judge:
absent 1776 CE 1864 CE
present 1864 CE 1917 CE
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
present  
Communal Building:
present  
Symbolic Building:
present  
Knowledge Or Information Building:
present  
Entertainment Building:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Trading Emporia:
present  
Ceremonial Site:
present  
Burial Site:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Mnemonic Device:
present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Paper Currency:
present  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Article:
present  
Store Of Wealth:
present  
Debt And Credit Structure:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present  
General Postal Service:
present  
Courier:
present  
Fastest Individual Communication:
[30 to 40] 1776 CE 1853 CE
0 1853 CE 1917 CE
Information / Measurement System
Weight Measurement System:
present  
Volume Measurement System:
present  
Time Measurement System:
present  
Length Measurement System:
present  
Area Measurement System:
present  
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Military use of Metals
Projectiles
Handheld weapons
Animals used in warfare
Armor
Naval technology
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Russian Empire, Romanov Dynasty II (ru_romanov_dyn_2) was in:
Home NGA: None

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Russian Empire, Romanov Dynasty II

Capital:
Saint Petersburg

In 1728 Peter II of Russia moved the capital back to Moscow, but four years later, in 1732, St. Petersburg again became the capital of Russia and remained the seat of the government for about two centuries. [1]

[1]: W. Bruce Lincoln, Sunlight at Midnight: St. Petersburg and the Rise of Modern Russia, 1. ed., [Nachdr.]. (Boulder, Colo: Basic Books, 2002). Zotero link: DDLKKQBH


Alternative Name:
Российская Империя

Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,801 CE ➜ 1,825 CE]

This period saw Russia’s significant military victories, most notably during the Napoleonic Wars. Russia’s pivotal role in defeating Napoleon, especially after the invasion of Russia in 1812.
The post-Napoleonic era, especially the Congress of Vienna in 1815, marked the height of Russian diplomatic influence in Europe. Alexander I played a key role in the negotiations, shaping a new European order that recognized Russia’s expanded territories and status as a great power. [1]

[1]: Alan Warwick Palmer, Alan Warwick Palmer, and Alan Warwick Palmer, Alexander I: Gegenspieler Napoleons, trans. Irmingard Bechtle (Esslingen: Bechtle, 1982). Zotero link: WPWL5UJP


Duration:
[1,776 CE ➜ 1,917 CE]

Political and Cultural Relations

Degree of Centralization:
unitary state

Russian empire during the Romanov period was a highly centralized state. [1]

[1]: “A History of Russia by Kluchevsky V. O.: Fine Hardcover (1911)“A History of Russia by Kluchevsky V. O.: Fine Hardcover (1911) Zotero link: L3XAFANG



Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[336,000 to 485,000] people
1800 CE 1850 CE

The largest settlement was Saint Petersburg from 1800 to 1910. [1]

[1]: B. R. Mitchell, “Population and Vital Statistics,” in International Historical Statistics: Europe 1750–1993, ed. B. R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics (London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 1998), 1–142. Zotero link: 8DTTVHAF

Population of the Largest Settlement:
[485,000 to 667,000] people
1850 CE 1870 CE
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[667,000 to 1,003,000] people
1870 CE 1890 CE
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[1,003,000 to 1,962,000] people
1890 CE 1910 CE

The largest settlement was Sankt Petersburg from 1800 to 1910. [1]

[1]: B. R. Mitchell, “Population and Vital Statistics,” in International Historical Statistics: Europe 1750–1993, ed. B. R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics (London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 1998), 1–142. Zotero link: 8DTTVHAF


Polity Territory:
[17,000,000 to 21,000,000] km2
1800 CE 1850 CE

Territory 1776 [1]


Muscovy, Russia, and Siberia

Baltic Region

Eastern Europe

Central Asia

Caucasus

Territory 1800 [2]


Expansion into Central Asia

Incorporation of Eastern Poland

Acquisition of Crimea

Alaska

Territory 1850 [3]

Expansion into Central Asia

Further Expansion in the Caucasus

Additional Areas in Eastern Europe

Territory 1900 [4]



Complete Control of Central Asia

Consolidation in the Caucasus

Polish and Finnish Territories

[1]: “Russia 1776 - David Rumsey Historical Map Collection.” Accessed December 2, 2023. Zotero link: IMFRZU2C

[2]: Rein Taagepera, “Size and Duration of Empires: Systematics of Size,” Social Science Research 7, no. 2 (June 1, 1978). Zotero link: EI7GRCPX

[3]: “Russia in the 19th Century Map,” accessed December 2, 2023. Zotero link: XPETX686

[4]: Ivan D. Sytin (1851-1934), “Ethnographic Map of the Russian Empire, 1914.”Accessed December 2, 2023. Zotero link: UIJCX4S6

Polity Territory:
[21,000,000 to 22,000,000] km2
1850 CE 1900 CE

Polity Population:
[35,500,000 to 74,100,000] people
1800 CE 1860 CE

The first and only comprehensive census of the Russian Empire was conducted in 1897. [1]


The census recorded demographic data such as social class, native language, religion, and profession, providing insights into the Empire’s composition.


Estimates for the years: 1800, 1860, 1913 [2]

[1]: “Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник Статистических Показателей.,” accessed December 2. Zotero link: 8582PW6D

[2]: M. E. Falkus, The Industrialisation of Russia, 1700–1914 (London: Macmillan Education UK, 1972). Zotero link: ZGJVXPBV

Polity Population:
[74,100,000 to 125,640,021] people
1860 CE 1897 CE

The first and only comprehensive census of the Russian Empire was conducted in 1897. [1]


The census recorded demographic data such as social class, native language, religion, and profession, providing insights into the Empire’s composition.


Estimates for the years: 1800, 1860, 1913 [2]

[1]: “Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник Статистических Показателей.,” accessed December 2. Zotero link: 8582PW6D

[2]: M. E. Falkus, The Industrialisation of Russia, 1700–1914 (London: Macmillan Education UK, 1972). Zotero link: ZGJVXPBV

Polity Population:
[125,640,021 to 170,100,000] people
1897 CE 1913 CE

Largest Communication Distance:
9600

From Saint Petersburg to Vladivostok the distance was approximately 9,600 kilometers . [1]

[1]: Simon Franklin and Katherine Bowers, eds., Information and Empire: Mechanisms of Communication in Russia, 1600-1850 (Cambridge: Open Book Publishers, 2017). Zotero link: Z6FKYETN


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
8

1. Capital Cities (Столичные города) - Over 500,000 inhabitants.

2. ’Official’ Cities (Официальные города) - 10,000s to 100,000s inhabitants.

3. ’Statutory’ Cities (’Штатные’ города)
- Provincial and Military Cities (Губернские и войсковой города) - 50,000 to 100,000 inhabitants.
- District Cities (Уездные города) - 10,000 to 50,000 inhabitants.

4. ’Non-Statutory’ Cities (’Внештатные’ города) - 10,000 to 50,000 inhabitants.

5. ’Extra-Statutory’ and ’Without District’ Cities (Заштатные и безуездные города) - 5,000 to 20,000 inhabitants.

6. Intermediary Type (Промежуточный тип)
- Various ’Small Towns’ (Различные ’городки’) - Below 5,000 inhabitants.
- Slobodas (Слободы) - 2,000 to 10,000 inhabitants.
- Colony Centers (Центр колонии) - 1,000 to 5,000 inhabitants.

7. Specialized Cities and Urban Settlements (Специализированные города и городские поселения)
- Small Towns (Местечки) - Below 5,000 inhabitants.
- Industrial Settlements (Промышленные поселения при крупных заводах и рудниках) - 3,000 to 10,000 inhabitants.
- Ports and Harbors (Порты и пристани) - 5,000 to 20,000 inhabitants.
- Cities-Fortresses as District Centers (Города-крепости, являющиеся центрами уездов) - 10,000 to 20,000 inhabitants.

8. Fortifications with Urban Functions (Укрепления, имеющие городские функции)
- Fortresses (Крепости) - A few hundred to a few thousand inhabitants.
- Siberian Ostrogs (Остроги Сибири) - Below 1,000 inhabitants.







[1]

[1]: Белов Алексей Викторович, “Сеть Городов и Городских Поселений Российской Империи При Павле I,” Труды Исторического факультета Санкт-Петербургского университета, no. 11 (2012): 35–44. Zotero link: 3JZDNFD8


Religious Level:
6

From 1776 to 1910, the hierarchy of the Russian Orthodox Church, after the establishment of the Holy Synod in 1721, remained relatively consistent in its structure:

The Holy Synod (governing body in place of the Patriarch).
Metropolitan (senior bishops overseeing large regions).
Archbishop (overseeing archdioceses).
Bishop (in charge of dioceses or eparchies).
Priest (serving individual parishes).
Deacon [1]

[1]: Kallistos, The Orthodox Church, New ed. (London, England ; New York, N.Y: Penguin Books, 1993). Zotero link: LIM65SMM


Military Level:
16

1. Tsar (Царь)

- The supreme ruler and commander-in-chief of the Russian Empire’s armed forces.

2. General-Feldmarshal (Генерал-фельдмаршал) / General-Admiral (Генерал-адмирал)

- The highest military rank in the army and navy.

3. General of the Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery, Engineers (Генерал от инфантерии, генерал от кавалерии, генерал от артиллерии, инженер-генерал) / Admiral (Адмирал)

- Senior generals commanding specific military branches.

4. Lieutenant General (Генерал-лейтенант) / Vice-Admiral (Вице-адмирал)

- A high-ranking officer in the army and navy.

5. Major General (Генерал-майор) / Schoutbynacht (Шаутбенахт) (before 1732/33), Counter-Admiral (Контр-адмирал) (from 1732/33)

- Officers commanding a division in the army and navy.

6. Brigadier (Бригадир) (before 1797) / Captain-Commander (Капитан-командор) (various periods)

- Army rank before 1797 and corresponding navy rank.

7. Colonel (Полковник) / Captain 1st Rank (Капитан 1 ранга) (various periods)

- Commanders of regiments in the army and captains in the navy.

8. Lieutenant Colonel (Подполковник) / Captain 2nd Rank (Капитан 2 ранга) (various periods)

- A high-ranking officer below the rank of colonel.

9. Major (Майор) / Captain 3rd Rank (Капитан 3 ранга) (various periods)

- Commanders of battalions in the army and equivalent naval rank.

10. Captain, Rotmistr (Капитан, ротмистр) / Senior Lieutenant (Старший лейтенант) (from 1911)

- Company commanders in the army and a senior naval rank.

11. Staff-Captain, Staff-Rotmistr (Штабс-капитан, штабс-ротмистр) / Lieutenant (Лейтенант) (various periods)

- Intermediate officer ranks in the army and navy.

12. Fendrik (Фендрик) (before 1730), Cornet (Корнет) (1725–1884), Praporshik (Прапорщик) (1730–1884), Chorunzhiy (Хорунжий) (1798–1884) / Gardemarin (Гардемарин) (1860–82; depending on the examination)

- Junior officer or non-commissioned officer ranks in the army and navy.


Non-Officer (Enlisted) Ranks

13. Sergeant Major (Старшина)
14. Sergeant (Сержант)
15. Corporal (Ефрейтор)
16. Private (Рядовой)

[1]

[1]: Леонид Ефимович Шепелев, Титулы, Мундиры, Ордена в Российской Империи (Центрполиграф, 2005). Zotero link: 8VTCGAIQ


Administrative Level:
16

1. Tsar (Царь)
- The supreme ruler of the Russian Empire.

2. Chancellor (Канцлер)
- The highest civilian official, often involved in high-level state affairs.

3. Actual Privy Councillor 1st class (Действительный тайный советник 1-го класса)
- A top-ranking position in the civil service.

4. Actual Privy Councillor (Действительный тайный советник)
- A senior rank in the civil administration.

5. Privy Councillor (Тайный советник)
- A high-level civil administrator.

6. Actual State Councillor (Действительный статский советник)
- A senior administrative rank in the state bureaucracy.

7. State Councillor (Статский советник)
- A mid-level administrative rank.

8. Collegiate Councillor (Коллежский советник)
- An established rank within the civil service.

9. Court Councillor (Надворный советник)
- A position associated with the royal court or higher civil administration.

10. Court Councillor (Надворный советник), Collegiate Assessor (Коллежский асессор)
- An administrative rank in the civil service.

11. Titular Councillor (Титулярный советник)
- A lower rank in the civil bureaucracy.

12. Collegiate Secretary (Коллежский секретарь)
- A bureaucratic position within the civil service.

13. Ship’s Secretary (1764–1834) (Корабельный секретарь)
- A role related to naval administration.

14. Gubernatorial Secretary (Губернский секретарь)
- A position within regional governance.

15. Provincial Secretary (Провинциальный секретарь), Senate Registrar (Сенатский регистратор), Synodal Registrar (Синодский регистратор)
- Roles associated with provincial administration and religious governance.

16. Collegiate Registrar (Коллежский регистратор)
- A clerical or record-keeping position in the civil service. [1]

[1]: O. G. Ageeva, Imperatorskiĭ Dvor Rossii, 1700-1796 Gody (Moskva: Nauka, 2008). Zotero link: VPQTS5HJ


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

Under the rule of Peter I, a significant transformation in the Russian military was initiated, leading to the establishment of a modern, regular army modeled after the German system. A key feature of this new military structure was the implementation of conscription, a system of compulsory enlistment drawing predominantly from the peasant and townspeople populations. The conscription system was organized based on quotas determined by the number of households or population figures within settlements and districts. This approach marked a departure from traditional military recruitment and played a pivotal role in shaping the composition and size of the Russian army during this period. [1]

[1]: Jerome Blum, Lord and Peasant in Russia from the Ninth to the Nineteenth Century, Paperback ed., 2. print. (Princeton, N.J: Princeton Univ. Press, 1972). Zotero link: G9K39WS5


Professional Priesthood:
present

The Russian Orthodox Church, with its well-established hierarchy and structure, had a full-time professional clergy that included bishops, priests, and monks during this era. These clergy members were engaged in religious duties as their primary occupation. [1]

[1]: Kent, Neil. A Concise History of the Russian Orthodox Church. Washington: Academica Press, 2021. Zotero link: YC6JFSXF


Professional Military Officer:
present

The period saw significant efforts to restructure officer-enlisted relations and recruit officers in tune with changing political and societal contexts. There were large-scale purges of officers post-1906 for various reasons, including age and perceived incompetence. Despite attempts to base promotions on merit, these were often resisted or poorly implemented. The officer corps was influenced by political and nationalistic considerations, with a range of political views among the officers. Younger officers and rising generals advocated for military reforms, emphasizing education, equal treatment, and merit-based promotions. [1]

[1]: Roger R. Reese, The Imperial Russian Army in Peace, War, and Revolution, 1856-1917, Modern war studies (Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2019). Zotero link: WS82YGDU


Source Of Support:
state salary
Source Of Support:
enoblement

Peter I introduced a modern regular army built on the German model, but with a new aspect: officers were not necessarily drawn solely from the nobility, but included talented commoners. This new class of officers might eventually be given a noble title upon attaining a certain rank. [1]


The reign of Peter the Great (1672-1725) was a pivotal period for the Russian bureaucracy. He worked to modernize the Russian state along European lines, creating a European-style army, navy, and bureaucracy. His reforms included efforts to pay officials in money rather than allowing them to live off the land, a practice he banned in 1714. [2]

[1]: Jerome Blum, Lord and Peasant in Russia from the Ninth to the Nineteenth Century, Paperback ed., 2. print. (Princeton, N.J: Princeton Univ. Press, 1972). Zotero link: G9K39WS5

[2]: Pipes, Richard. Russia under the Old Regime. 2nd ed, Penguin Books, 1995. Zotero link: LEIXLKAP


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

The Twelve Colleges

The building, which is over 400 meters long, was commissioned by Peter in 1718 to house the new structures of government - the Senate, the Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church, and the nine Colleges or Collegia, which served the function of modern ministries. The original architect of the project was Domenico Trezzini, who had also designed the Peter and Paul Fortress, and building began 1722. It took 20 years to complete the building, during which time construction was supervised by Theodor Schwertfeger, Mikhail Zemtsov, and Domenico Trezzini’s nephew (and son-in-law) Giuseppe Trezzini. [1]

[1]: “Twelve Collegia - Peter The Great Way,” accessed December 11, 2023, http://eng.petersway.org/monuments/russia/saint-petersburg/twelve_collegia/. Zotero link: C78KHQD7


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

In 1713 Peter the Great established Landrats in each of the governorates, staffed by between eight and twelve professional civil servants, who assisted a royally-appointed governor. [1]

[1]: Marc Raeff, Peter the Great Changes Russia (Heath, 1972). Zotero link: ETGA4BHM


Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent
1776 CE 1864 CE

Prior to the judicial reforms of 1864, the legal profession in the Russian Empire was not as formally structured or professionalized as it later became.
The administration of justice was primarily carried out by local authorities and the nobility, with a less distinct separation between the roles of administrators and legal professionals.

The period from 1864 to 1917 is known as "The Golden Age" of Russian law and the legal profession, primarily due to judicial reforms and the establishment of the "Advokatura", a professional society of legal professionals representing litigants​​.
These reforms were a culmination of earlier efforts towards the professionalization of the Russian civil service under Alexander I and the establishment of law faculties in urban centers, leading to a cadre of Russian jurists in administrative, judicial, and academic roles​​.
The reforms initiated under Alexander II in 1864 marked a significant shift, creating a more formal and professional legal environment and contributing to the evolution towards a constitutional monarchy by 1906​​. [1]

[1]: Peter H. Solomon, ed., Reforming Justice in Russia, 1864-1996: Power, Culture, and the Limits of Legal Order (Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY: Routledge, 2015). Zotero link: 6F93JTAI

Professional Lawyer:
present
1864 CE 1917 CE

Judge:
absent
1776 CE 1864 CE

The Russian judicial system until 1864 was based on "Estates-of-the-realm" courts serving different social estates.
This system, largely intact since Catherine II’s reign, lacked modern professional judges.


Judicial reforms started on November 20, 1864, under Tsar Alexander II, introducing a unified judicial system.
Professional judges were nominated by the Minister of Justice and appointed by the Tsar, with specific qualifications required.
Introduction of jury trials with professional judges in the judicial system marked a significant change. [1]

[1]: Peter H. Solomon, ed., Reforming Justice in Russia, 1864-1996: Power, Culture, and the Limits of Legal Order (Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY: Routledge, 2015). Zotero link: 6F93JTAI

Judge:
present
1864 CE 1917 CE

Formal Legal Code:
present

The Sobornoe Ulozhenie (Соборное уложение) was a comprehensive legal code enacted during the reign of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. It was the first consolidated set of laws in Russia and remained in effect until the modernization reforms of the 19th century. [1]

[1]: Gregory Freeze, Russia: A History (Oxford University Press, 1998). Zotero link: 4PTARV3W


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Gostiny Dvor, one of the world’s oldest shopping arcades, is a historic market complex in the heart of Saint Petersburg. Its construction started in the 18th century and continued into the 19th century.
The first plan for a Gostiny Dvor (effectively, a large scale trading market) on Nevsky Prospect was developed in the late 1750s by the architect A. Rinaldi (never carried out). In 1757, the project for a two-storied Gostiny Dvor, was developed by the architect F. Rastrelli, this was approved and the construction started. [1]

[1]: “Saint Petersburg Encyclopaedia.” Accessed December 13, 2023. http://www.encspb.ru/object/2804002210?lc=en. Zotero link: 8WJQBXTT


Food Storage Site:
present

Many Russian Orthodox monasteries, which date back to well before the establishment of the Russian Empire in the 18th century, operated their own granaries. These granaries were essential for storing surplus grain and other foodstuffs, not only for the monks’ use but also for the surrounding communities, especially during times of famine or hardship. [1]

[1]: Seppel, Marten. “Communal Granaries in the Russian Empire: Conception, Implementation, and Failures in the Baltic Provinces.” Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas 67, no. 2 (2019) Zotero link: XGXRT789


Drinking Water Supply System:
present

Moscow water pipes out of lead were dated by the 15th century. Stone water pipe was created in
the Trinity-Sergius Monastery in the XVI century, where water flowed into the monastery pipes. Then,
in one of the Solovetsky Monastery wells, water was supplied by gravity from a dug up Holy Lake
through underground pipe, then it was lifted using a hand pump (pump) and distributed through gutters
to neighboring rooms - to the kitchen and to the brewery. There was a large water economy in the
Solovetsky Monastery. [1]

[1]: E. Ketova and J. Nizhegorodtseva, “Main Factors of Water Supply Systems Industrialization in Russia,” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 953, no. 1 (November 2020). Zotero link: RCBB958J


Communal Building:
present

The traditional Russian "banya" or bathhouse. These communal bathhouses played a significant role in Russian society, especially in rural areas, and date back to well before 1776.

The key aspects of a traditional Russian banya are:

Social Gathering Space: Banyas were not just places for washing; they were significant social centers where people of all classes mingled. It was common for villagers to gather in the banya to relax, discuss community matters, and engage in social activities.

Health and Hygiene: Banyas were critical for the hygiene and health of the population, particularly in times when private bathing facilities were rare.

Cultural Importance: The banya has deep cultural roots in Russian tradition, often associated with various rituals and customs. [1]

[1]: “История Сандунов,” accessed December 13, 2023, https://msk.sanduny.ru/ru/about/history. Zotero link: PPUFD8ZV


Symbolic Building:
present

Saint Basil’s Cathedral: Officially known as the Cathedral of the Intercession of the Most Holy Theotokos on the Moat, this iconic church is located in the Red Square in Moscow. It was built from 1555 to 1561 on orders from Ivan the Terrible and is one of the most recognizable symbols of Russia. [1]

[1]: “Покровский Собор,” accessed December 13, 2023, https://en.shm.ru/museum/hvb/. Zotero link: KC49NTK6


Knowledge Or Information Building:
present

Kunstkamera: Established by Peter the Great in 1727, the Kunstkamera was the first museum in Russia. It is located on the Neva River in Saint Petersburg.

Museum and Scientific Research: The Kunstkamera was initially established as a museum of natural and human curiosities and anomalies, which was revolutionary at the time. It was part of Peter the Great’s efforts to modernize Russia and encourage scientific exploration.

Cultural and Educational Role: The museum played a significant role in the cultural and educational development of Russia, showcasing collections that spanned various scientific disciplines and cultural artifacts.

Library and Research Facilities: The Kunstkamera also housed extensive library collections and was a center for scientific research, further emphasizing its role as a building dedicated to knowledge and information. [1]

[1]: “History of the Kunstkamera,” accessed December 13, 2023, https://www.kunstkamera.ru/en/museum/kunst_hist/. Zotero link: 5F3QB4IA


Entertainment Building:
present

The Hermitage Theatre was one of the earliest theatres in Saint Petersburg. Established in the mid-18th century, it became a central venue for dramatic and musical performances, serving the Russian elite and general public alike.


Early Cultural Hub: The theatre was an important venue for entertainment and cultural events in Saint Petersburg, one of the empire’s most significant cities.

Architectural and Historical Value: Although less grand than later theatres like the Bolshoi or Alexandrinsky, the Winter Theatre was architecturally significant for its time and played a key role in the cultural life of the city.

Continued Use for Entertainment: Throughout its existence, the theatre hosted numerous performances, including plays, operas, and concerts, reflecting the entertainment practices and preferences of the era. [1]

[1]: “Hermitage Theater Now | Hermitage Theater | St.Petersburg, Russia.” Accessed December 13, 2023. https://hermitagetheater.com/theater. Zotero link: DAIHPNKW


Transport Infrastructure

The Russian Empire had a growing and increasingly complex road network. The most notable was the Siberian Route, a vast network connecting European Russia with Siberia and eventually to China. This route, beginning in Moscow and traversing cities like Kazan, Perm, and Yekaterinburg, was pivotal for the movement of people, goods, and resources across the vast territories of the empire. [1]

[1]: Index of Roads of the Russian Empire. Part 1, n.d., accessed December 14, 2023, https://www.prlib.ru/en/node/459675. Zotero link: DSAZV2VN


The Archangel Port (Arkhangelsk), located on the White Sea, is one of the oldest Russian ports, significant for its role as Russia’s primary sea port prior to the establishment of Saint Petersburg. Historically, it served as Russia’s only window to Western Europe for trade, especially during the 16th and 17th centuries. Archangel was pivotal in facilitating trade in timber, fur, and other goods, connecting Russia with markets in England and other European countries. With the founding of Saint Petersburg in the early 18th century, the port’s prominence declined, but it remained an important regional trade hub. [1]

[1]: “История,” АМТП, accessed December 14, 2023, https://ascp.ru/history/. Zotero link: 8RV3MW35


In the Russian Empire, significant canal construction occurred from the early 18th to the 19th century:

Vyshny Volodsky System (1757): Started at Tver on the Volga, it connected through Vyshny Volochok and followed the Volkhov River to the Neva, serving as the main link between Moscow and St. Petersburg.

Marinskaya System (1731-1799): Linked the Volga tributary Sheksna with Lake Onega and the Neva, playing a key role in connecting Siberia with European Russia.

Tikhvin System (1811): Connected the Volga tributary Mologa with Lake Ladoga, primarily used for timber transport.

Oginski Canal (1804): Linked the Dnieper and Njemen, running from the Dnieper through the Pripet to Pinsk.

Berezina Canal (1805): Connected the western Dvina and Dnieper, going through Lake Sepel into the Berezina.

Württemberg Canal (1828): Joined the Marinskaya system with the Northern Dvina, modernized during the last war.

These canals were part of a larger effort to improve transportation and trade, significantly enhancing Russia’s internal connectivity and economic development during this period. [1]

[1]: Stefan T. Possony, “European Russia’s Inland Waterways - Past, Present, and Future,” U.S Naval Institute Proceedings Zotero link: VKJJBJ5B


Bridge:
present

Great Stone Bridge in Moscow: Also known as the Bolshoy Kamenny Bridge, it was originally a wooden bridge built in the 17th century over the Moskva River. In the early 18th century, during the reign of Peter the Great, it was reconstructed in stone, reflecting the era’s advancements in bridge construction. [1]

[1]: S. O. Shmidt, M. I. Andreev, and V. M. Karev, eds., Moskva: Ėnt︠s︡iklopedii︠a︡, Biblioteka Istorii︠a︡ Moskvy s drevneĭshikh vremen do nashikh dneĭ (Moskva: Nauchnoe izd-vo “Bolʹshai︠a︡ rossiĭskai︠a︡ ėnt︠s︡iklopedii︠a︡,” 1997). Zotero link: 28L5IKZJ


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

Nerchinsk Mining District (Siberia): One of the oldest mining areas, established in the late 17th century, located in Eastern Siberia. It was renowned for silver and lead mining and played a crucial role in the economic development of the region. [1]

[1]: Igor Linkov and Richard Wilson, eds., Air Pollution in the Ural Mountains (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 1998), accessed December 14, 2023, http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-94-011-5208-2. Zotero link: 5SCPDUZM


Trading Emporia:
present

Astrakhan: Located near the Caspian Sea, Astrakhan was a significant trading emporium, especially for trade with Persia and Central Asia. It was a key center for the exchange of goods like silk, furs, and grains.

Arkhangelsk (Archangel): Situated in the north on the White Sea, Arkhangelsk was one of the earliest and most important trading ports in Russia before the establishment of Saint Petersburg. It was crucial for trade with Western Europe, particularly England and the Netherlands.

Nizhny Novgorod: Located at the confluence of the Volga and Oka rivers, Nizhny Novgorod was famous for its fairs and served as a major trading hub connecting the vast regions of Siberia and Central Asia with the European part of Russia.

Odessa: On the Black Sea coast, Odessa emerged as a vital trading port in the late 18th century. It became a major gateway for the export of grains and other agricultural products from the fertile regions of Ukraine and southern Russia.

Riga and Tallinn: In the Baltic region, these cities were significant trading emporia, facilitating trade with Northern and Western Europe. [1]

[1]: Nancy Shields Kollmann, The Russian Empire 1450-1801 (Oxford University Press, 2017) Zotero link: XQKZ97AS


Ceremonial Site:
present

Saint Basil’s Cathedral: Officially known as the Cathedral of the Intercession of the Most Holy Theotokos on the Moat, this iconic church is located in the Red Square in Moscow. It was built from 1555 to 1561 on orders from Ivan the Terrible and is one of the most recognizable symbols of Russia. [1]

[1]: “Покровский Собор,” accessed December 13, 2023, https://en.shm.ru/museum/hvb/. Zotero link: KC49NTK6


Burial Site:
present

In the Russian Empire, cemeteries were not just places of burial but also reflected the religious, cultural, and social aspects of Russian society. They varied greatly in size, design, and significance, with some becoming prominent historical and cultural sites.

Notable Cemeteries:



Novodevichy Cemetery (Moscow) [1]



Tikhvin Cemetery (Saint Petersburg) [2]





Arskoe Cemetery (Kazan) [3]

[1]: “Новодевичье Кладбище .. Онлайн Тур По Некрополю.” Accessed December 18, 2023. https://novodevichye.com/. Zotero link: XRK5X7XZ

[2]: “Некрополь Александро-Невской Лавры Кладбища Усыпальницы Санкт-Петербурга,” accessed December 18, 2023, https://lavraspb.ru/. Zotero link: QZ6VW9WI

[3]: “Кладбище Арское - Кладбища Казани,” accessed December 18, 2023, https://cemetery.kzn.ru/cemeteries/8. Zotero link: D5UMUI58


Information / Writing System

Script:
present

Cyrillic Script: Originally developed in the First Bulgarian Empire during the 9th century, the Cyrillic script was brought to Russia through the spread of Christianity. It became the foundation of the written language in the Russian Empire.. [1]

[1]: “Cyrillic Alphabet | Definition, History, & Facts | Britannica,” last modified October 11, 2023, accessed November 24, 2023, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Cyrillic-alphabet. Zotero link: 5PGC4769



Nonwritten Record:
present

Iconography and Symbolism: Religious and cultural icons, paintings, and symbols often conveyed stories, teachings, and historical events. Churches and religious buildings, for example, were adorned with iconography that told stories from religious texts. [1]

[1]: Dara Vandor, “A Brief History of Russian Icons,” Waddingtons.Ca, last modified February 12, 2021, accessed January 13, 2024, https://www.waddingtons.ca/a-brief-history-of-russian-icons/. Zotero link: A9KGIB4S



Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Mikhail Lomonosov (1711-1765) was a polymath who made significant contributions across various fields, including chemistry, physics, and astronomy. He is known for his works in natural science, the establishment of Moscow University, and his advocacy for the development of Russian science. [1]


Ivan Sechenov (1829-1905), often considered the father of Russian physiology, published "Reflexes of the Brain" in 1863, introducing electrophysiology and neurophysiology to Russian science. [2]

[1]: “Научное Наследие — Электронная Библиотека ГНПБУ.” Accessed December 18, 2023. http://elib.gnpbu.ru/sections/0100/lomonosov/. Zotero link: 43PKCEWE

[2]: F. Volgyesi, “[SECHENOV’S The Reflexes of the Brain (1863)],” Orvosi Hetilap 104 (July 21, 1963): 1381–1382. Zotero link: RKFSKT6C


Sacred Text:
present

The primary sacred text in the Russian Orthodox tradition was the Bible, comprising the Old and New Testaments. This also included texts specific to Eastern Orthodox Christianity, such as the Septuagint version of the Old Testament and the Orthodox Liturgical texts.

[1]

[1]: Neil Kent, A Concise History of the Russian Orthodox Church (Washington: Academica Press, 2021). Zotero link: YC6JFSXF


Religious Literature:
present

Russian Orthodox Religious Literature:

Patristic Texts: These are writings by the Church Fathers, which hold significant theological and spiritual value in the Orthodox tradition. They include works by early Christian theologians such as St. John Chrysostom and St. Basil the Great.

Hagiographies: Lives of saints, known as hagiographies, were popular in the Russian Orthodox Church. These texts, which detail the lives and miracles of saints, played a vital role in religious education and devotion.

Liturgical Texts: These include various service books like the Euchologion (trebnyk), Octoechos, and the Horologion, containing prayers, hymns, and liturgical instructions.
Paterikon: A collection of stories and sayings from the Desert Fathers and other monastic figures, the Paterikon was widely read for spiritual edification. [1]

[1]: Neil Kent, A Concise History of the Russian Orthodox Church (Washington: Academica Press, 2021). Zotero link: YC6JFSXF


Practical Literature:
present

"Domostroi" : A comprehensive guide to household management, religious life, and family ethics. [1]


Mikhail Lomonosov’s Works: Lomonosov, a polymath, wrote extensively on subjects like chemistry, physics, and natural science, making significant contributions to practical scientific knowledge in Russia. [2]

[1]: “Домострой,” accessed December 18, 2023, https://www.hist.msu.ru/ER/Etext/domostr.htm. Zotero link: KEUFJJ2S

[2]: “Научное Наследие — Электронная Библиотека ГНПБУ.” Accessed December 18, 2023. http://elib.gnpbu.ru/sections/0100/lomonosov/. Zotero link: 43PKCEWE


Philosophy:
present

Ivan Kireyevsky (1806–1856) and Alexei Khomyakov (1804–1860): As founders of the Slavophil movement, both thinkers contributed significantly to the philosophy of Russian Orthodoxy and the critique of Western rationalism, promoting a unique Russian spiritual and philosophical identity. [1] [2]

[1]: “Lib.Ru/Классика. Киреевский Иван Васильевич. Собрание Сочинений.” Accessed December 18, 2023. http://az.lib.ru/k/kireewskij_i_w/. Zotero link: DBERDH73

[2]: “Lib.Ru/Классика. Хомяков Алексей Степанович. Собрание Сочинений,” accessed December 18, 2023, http://az.lib.ru/h/homjakow_a_s/. Zotero link: HGKEKCXJ


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Government and Administrative Records: The Russian bureaucracy, particularly from the time of Peter the Great onward, was known for its detailed and extensive administrative practices. This included keeping records of populations, tax collections, land ownership, military conscription, and other state-related activities.

Economic and Trade Data: Merchants, trading companies, and state organizations involved in commerce would maintain lists and tables for inventory, trade transactions, customs duties, and other economic data.

Scientific and Academic Classifications: In the field of science and academia, Russian scholars and institutions would use lists and tables for various purposes, including classification in natural sciences (like botany, zoology, and geology) and in compiling statistical and research data.

Religious and Ecclesiastical Records: The Russian Orthodox Church, an integral part of the empire’s social fabric, maintained records in the form of lists and tables, including parish registers, records of ecclesiastical decisions, and theological classifications. [1]

[1]: “Государственный Архив Российской Федерации - ГАРФ - Главная Страница,” accessed December 18, 2023, https://statearchive.ru/.. Zotero link: 25IR6P7G


History:
present

The History of the Russian State" by Nikolay Karamzin (1816-1829): Karamzin was a historian and writer who penned this influential 12-volume work, which provided a comprehensive narrative of Russian history from ancient times up to the reign of Mikhail I. [1]

"Russian History from Ancient Times" by Sergey Solovyov (1851-1879): Solovyov’s work is one of the most comprehensive and authoritative histories of Russia, covering the period from ancient times through the 17th century. It is known for its scholarly rigor and narrative style. [2]

[1]: History of the Russian State. T. 8, n.d. Accessed December 18, 2023. https://www.prlib.ru/en/node/416773. Zotero link: 5GEVU6AT

[2]: “Birthday Anniversary of Sergei Soloviev, Russian Historian, Petersburg Academy of Science Member, Author of ‘History of Russia from Ancient Times,’” Presidential Library, accessed December 18, 2023, https://www.prlib.ru/en/history/619246. Zotero link: BR4J6IKH


Fiction:
present

Alexander Sumarokov, a playwright and poet, is often considered the father of Russian classical literature. [1]






Mikhail Lomonosov [2] and Gavrila Derzhavin [3] were also prominent poets

[1]: “Александр Петрович Сумароков.” Accessed December 19, 2023. https://rvb.ru/18vek/sumarokov/. Zotero link: WSVQBZEM

[2]: “Научное Наследие — Электронная Библиотека ГНПБУ.” Accessed December 18, 2023. http://elib.gnpbu.ru/sections/0100/lomonosov/. Zotero link: 43PKCEWE

[3]: “Lib.Ru/Классика: Державин Гавриил Романович. Стихотворения.” Accessed December 19, 2023. http://az.lib.ru/d/derzhawin_g_r/text_0010.shtml. Zotero link: TRJXDZPA


Calendar:
present

During the period from 1776 to 1910, the Russian Empire used the Julian calendar. [1]

[1]: “Russian Calendar History,” accessed November 24, 2023, https://myweb.ecu.edu/mccartyr/Russia.html. Zotero link: 6ISBAAIB


Information / Money

Indigenous Coin:
present

From 1776 to 1917, the Russian monetary system saw significant transformations, marked by the introduction of paper currency and a major shift to the gold standard. These changes were part of broader efforts to modernize the economy, stabilize the currency, and integrate Russia into the global financial system. The use of indigenous coins, backed by gold, became a key feature of this period, reflecting Russia’s evolving economic and financial landscape. [1]

[1]: “Zum Russischen Geldsystem Vom Kiewer Reich Bis 1897 | Moneymuseum.Com,” Zotero link: GVG4B2EK


Article:
present

Fur Trade: Significant fur trading activities in Siberia and the Ural regions, where hunting was a major source of livelihood. Trading centers for skins were regular features, with Yakutsk in eastern Siberia being a notable market. An annual fair in Irbit in the Urals was dedicated entirely to bartering in animal skins, such as sables and ermines, hunted by various indigenous groups like the Ostiaks, Tatars, and Soiols​​. [1]

[1]: Reynolds, E. K. “The Economic Resources of the Russian Empire.” Geographical Review 1, no. 4 (1916): 249–265. Accessed December 19, 2023. https://www.jstor.org/stable/207297. Zotero link: TGHSB93W


Store Of Wealth:
present

The establishment of the State Bank of the Russian Empire in 1860 and the emergence of commercial banks marked the development of a formal banking system, which facilitated credit for industrial and commercial ventures. [1]


The Hermitage Museum Treasury: While primarily known as a museum today, the Hermitage in Saint Petersburg, originally a part of the Winter Palace complex, was used to store vast collections of art, jewels, and gold. The Treasury Gallery of the Hermitage housed precious items collected by the Tsars over centuries. [2]






The Kremlin Armory: In Moscow, the Kremlin Armory, one of the oldest museums in Russia, was used to store state regalia, ceremonial Tsarist garments, and valuable items made of gold and precious stones. It served as both a storehouse and workshop for the production and preservation of these items. [3]

[1]: “История Банка России,". Zotero link: A2HGJZX9

[2]: “The Treasure Gallery of the State Hermitage Museum.” Zotero link: H8I44B7I

[3]: “Armoury Chamber,” Zotero link: SS6DBVZI


Debt And Credit Structure:
present

State Debt for War Financing: The Russian Empire incurred significant state debt to finance various wars, including the Napoleonic Wars and World War I. This debt was managed through the issuance of government bonds and taking loans from domestic and foreign sources. [1]

Banking System Development: The establishment of the State Bank of the Russian Empire in 1860 and the emergence of commercial banks marked the development of a formal banking system, which facilitated credit for industrial and commercial ventures. [2]





Reliance on Foreign Loans: The empire heavily relied on foreign loans, especially from Western European countries, for financing industrialization and infrastructure projects, making the economy susceptible to external economic influences. [1]



Modern Credit Instruments: Various credit instruments, including promissory notes and government bonds, were used. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw more sophisticated credit use, particularly in the business sector. [2]

[1]: Sontag, John P. “Tsarist Debts and Tsarist Foreign Policy.” Slavic Review 27, no. 4 (1968): 529–541. Accessed December 19, 2023. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2494436. Zotero link: 8X5IIK87

[2]: “История Банка России,” accessed December 19, 2023, https://www.cbr.ru/about_br/history/. Zotero link: A2HGJZX9


Information / Postal System

General Postal Service:
present

First Post Offices: The first post offices were established in major cities: Moscow (1711), Riga (around 1712), and Saint Petersburg (1714). Postal agencies also appeared in many cities. Between 1712 and 1716, a military field post service was created to serve the army.

Expansion in the 18th Century: New postal routes were increasingly established from the first quarter of the 18th century. However, establishing regular postal connections, even with major cities, took decades. It was only by a decree in 1740 that postal offices appeared in all the main provincial and district cities. [1]

[1]: Pazin, R. V., et al. Istorii︠a︡ Rossii: Uchebnik: 10-11 Klassy: S Drevneĭshikh Vremen Do Kont︠s︡a XVII Veka. Legion-M, 2019. Zotero link: Y4CZGWJY


Courier:
present

The Yamskoy Prikaz (17th-18th centuries): The Yamskoy Prikaz was established in the 17th century as part of the Tsarist government. It organized the courier service and maintained the network of relay stations across Russia. [1]



The history of the State Courier Service of the Russian Federation (SFS Russia) dates back to December 17, 1796, when Emperor Paul I signed a Decree on the creation of a separate courier corps. The personnel of the Courier Corps (courier) ensured the delivery of the emperor’s decrees, orders, reports, securities, parcels, as well as the escort of high-ranking officials. [2]

[1]: “Story of Russian Coachmen,” The Fascinating Story of Russian Coach Drivers. Zotero link: W3R29737

[2]: “ABOUT THE STATE FISCAL SERVICE OF RUSSIA,” https://gfs.gov.ru/informaciya/o-gfs-rossii/. Zotero link: 8WMJSDED


Fastest Individual Communication:
[30 to 40]
1776 CE 1853 CE

Saint Petersburg to Vladivostok

Horse Relay System (up to 1853):

Before the widespread adoption of the telegraph and the railway, the fastest method was the horse relay system.
A message from Saint Petersburg to Vladivostok via horse relay would have taken several weeks, possibly more than a month, considering the vast distance (approximately 9,000 kilometers) and the challenges of the terrain and weather. [1]




Telegraph Lines (from 1853):

The introduction of the telegraph significantly reduced communication time. The first telegraph line in Russia was established in 1853. [2]
By the late 19th century, a telegraph message from Saint Petersburg to Vladivostok could be transmitted in a matter of hours.

[1]: Simon Franklin and Katherine Bowers, eds., Information and Empire: Mechanisms of Communication in Russia, 1600-1850 (Cambridge: Open Book Publishers, 2017). Zotero link: Z6FKYETN

[2]: Oleg Valentinovich Makhrovskiy, “180 Years of Telecommunication in Russia,” in 2012 Third IEEE HISTory of ELectro-Technology CONference (HIS℡CON). Zotero link: 84JP29EH

Fastest Individual Communication:
0
1853 CE 1917 CE

Information / Measurement System
Weight Measurement System:
present

One pood was equivalent to approximately 16.38 kilograms or 36.11 pounds. It was a standard measure for a range of goods, from agricultural produce to industrial materials.

Additionally, smaller units like the "funt" (equivalent to roughly one pound) were also in use. [1]

[1]: Очерки Истории Русской Метрологии. XI - Начало XX Века - Шостьин Н.А., n.d., Zotero link: K39G27B6


Volume Measurement System:
present

Vedro: The vedro was a common unit for measuring liquid volume. One vedro was equivalent to roughly 12.3 liters or 3.25 U.S. gallons. It was widely used for everyday purposes, including the sale of beverages like milk and vodka.

Shtoff: Another unit for liquid volume was the shtoff, smaller than the vedro. One shtoff was equivalent to about 1.23 liters. It was often used in the context of alcoholic beverages.

Chetvert: For measuring larger quantities of dry goods, especially grains, the chetvert was used. One chetvert varied in size but was roughly equivalent to 5.77 bushels or about 210 liters. It was crucial in agricultural trade and taxation.

Pood: While primarily a unit of weight, the pood was sometimes used in volume measurement for bulk goods. This was especially true in markets and trade where weight and volume were closely related. [1]

[1]: Очерки Истории Русской Метрологии. XI - Начало XX Века - Шостьин Н.А., n.d., Zotero link: K39G27B6


Time Measurement System:
present

Julian Calendar: Until 1918, Russia used the Julian calendar, which was 12 days behind the Gregorian calendar adopted by most Western countries by the 20th century. This difference led to some unique chronological discrepancies in historical events and records. [1]

Hours, Minutes, and Seconds: The basic units of hours, minutes, and seconds were used for everyday timekeeping. [2]

[1]: “Russian Calendar History,” accessed November 24, 2023, https://myweb.ecu.edu/mccartyr/Russia.html. Zotero link: 6ISBAAIB

[2]: Очерки Истории Русской Метрологии. XI - Начало XX Века - Шостьин Н.А., n.d., Zotero link: K39G27B6


Length Measurement System:
present

Verst: The verst was the primary unit of length measurement in Russia. One verst is approximately equal to 1.067 kilometers or 0.6629 miles. It was commonly used for measuring distances between towns or for land surveying.

Arshin: For shorter distances, the arshin was frequently used. One arshin was equivalent to roughly 28 inches or 71 centimeters. It was a standard measure in trade and construction.

Sazhen: Another traditional Russian unit of length was the sazhen, mainly used in construction and land measurement. One sazhen was equal to about 2.134 meters or 7 feet.

Standardization Efforts: Throughout this period, there were efforts to standardize measurement units for greater consistency and ease of trade and administration. This included the establishment of standards for traditional units like the verst and arshin. [1]

[1]: Очерки Истории Русской Метрологии. XI - Начало XX Века - Шостьин Н.А., n.d., Zotero link: K39G27B6


Area Measurement System:
present

Dessiatina: The primary unit for measuring land area in the Russian Empire was the dessiatina. One dessiatina was equivalent to about 2.7 acres or 1.09 hectares. It was widely used in agriculture, land transactions, and taxation. [1]

[1]: Очерки Истории Русской Метрологии. XI - Начало XX Века - Шостьин Н.А., n.d., Zotero link: K39G27B6



Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Military use of Metals
Projectiles
Handheld weapons
Animals used in warfare
Armor
Naval technology

Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.