Home Region:  Central Europe (Europe)

Holy Roman Empire - Ottonian-Salian Dynasty

OTHER  de_empire_1

The Holy Roman Empire encompassed, at various times, the present-day countries of Germany, Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Poland and Switzerland. It had no central capital. The Emperor did not rule the individual nations in the coalition; thus, it was not a unitary state, but a confederation of constituent polities. It did not have common laws, language or customs. What did unite the countries of the empire was the Catholic faith, under the twin leadership of the papacy, and an emperor, the ‘Defender of the Roman Catholic Faith’. Though there was no centralised governance, it was Germany and its kings, who emerged as the core region of the empire. By 1030 German kings were consistently crowned as the Holy Roman Emperor. [1]
At an earlier stage, the Empire consisted of the Kingdoms of Germany, Italy and Burgundy (from 1052) and was known more commonly as the Ottonian Empire. It wasn’t until the mid-twelfth century that historians generally consider it to be the Holy Roman Empire when other states such as Bohemia and Hungary were taken within its borders. [2]
There is a lack of literature on the HRE as a single entity: “A major reason for the Empire’s relative scholarly neglect is that its history is so difficult to tell. The Empire lacked the things giving shape to conventional national history: a stable heartland, a capital city, centralized political institutions and, perhaps most fundamentally, a single ‘nation’. It was also very large and lasted a long time. A conventional chronological approach would become unfeasibly long, or risk conveying a false sense of linear development and reduce the Empire’s history to a high political narrative.” [3]
Because the Holy Roman Empire was such an inchoate polity, assigning its start and end dates, by necessity, involves a degree of arbitrariness. The origins of this polity go back to East Francia, which formed after the division of the Carolingian Empire in 843. In 919 the kingship of this polity passed from the Carolingian to the Ottonian dynasty. The first ruler of the Kingdom of Germany was the Duke of Saxony Henry the Fowler. His son, Otto I the Great, was crowned as Roman Emperor in 963. Thus, the medieval German Empire formed in stages between 843 and 963; we chose to assign the beginning date to 919, thus designating East Francia, ruled by Charlemagne descendants, to a separate Seshat polity.
The Ottonian period was generally characterized by (relative) internal peace and territorial expansion, and is considered as one of the three medieval renaissances.
When the last Ottonian emperor, Henry II, died childless, the imperial princes elected Conrad II as emperor. As a result, the empire passed from the Ottonian to Salian dynasty, the latter being based in Franconia. The Salian dynasty produced four Emperors.
Towards the end of the Salian rule, the Empire was riven by multiple conflicts between the emperor and the pope, imperial bishops, and secular princes. The last Salian emperor, Henry V, died childless in 1125, and the empire passed on to the Hohenstaufen dynasty.

[1]: Wilson 2016: 5-7. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA

[2]: Power 2006: 17, 210. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V4WE3ZK.

[3]: Wilson 2016: 5. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
32 U  
Original Name:
Holy Roman Empire - Ottonian-Salian Dynasty  
Capital:
None  
Alternative Name:
German Kingdom  
Sacrum Imperium Romanum  
Heiliges Römisches Reich  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,050 CE  
Duration:
[919 CE ➜ 1,125 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Succeeding Entity:
Holy Roman Empire - Hohenstaufen and Welf Dynasties  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuation  
Preceding Entity:
East Francia  
Degree of Centralization:
confederated state  
Language
Religion
Religion Genus:
Christianity  
Religion Family:
Catholicism  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
100,000 people  
Polity Territory:
1,000,000 km2 1050 CE
Polity Population:
21,500,000 people  
Largest Communication Distance:
1683  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
5  
Religious Level:
6  
Military Level:
-  
Administrative Level:
-  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred present  
Source Of Support:
unknown  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
present  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
absent  
present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
inferred absent  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown  
Communal Building:
present  
Symbolic Building:
present  
Knowledge Or Information Building:
present  
Entertainment Building:
unknown  
Special Purpose House:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Trading Emporia:
present  
Special Purpose Site:
unknown  
Ceremonial Site:
present  
Burial Site:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Token:
inferred absent  
Precious Metal:
present  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Article:
inferred absent  
Store Of Wealth:
present  
Debt And Credit Structure:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
absent  
General Postal Service:
absent  
Courier:
inferred present  
Information / Measurement System
Weight Measurement System:
present  
Volume Measurement System:
present  
Time Measurement System:
present  
Length Measurement System:
present  
Geometrical Measurement System:
unknown  
Area Measurement System:
present  
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Military use of Metals
Projectiles
Handheld weapons
Animals used in warfare
Armor
Naval technology
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Holy Roman Empire - Ottonian-Salian Dynasty (de_empire_1) was in:
Home NGA: None

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Holy Roman Empire - Ottonian-Salian Dynasty

Capital:
None

There was no permanent capital during this period of the HRE. There were several cities and palaces that the emperor and his itinerant court would travel between and reside in. Around 800-1556 CE, the city of Aachen in Germany was the site at which all Emperors were crowned and held the most favoured royal palace, but it was not a capital. [1] There were attempts in the thirteenth century to create a permanent royal centre but they did not take hold. [2]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 428, 434. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA

[2]: Power 2006: 103. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V4WE3ZK.


Alternative Name:
German Kingdom
Alternative Name:
Sacrum Imperium Romanum
Alternative Name:
Heiliges Römisches Reich

Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,050 CE

1050 CE could arguably be a peak date for the HRE under the Salian dynasty as they held the most territory (around 1 million square kilometres) of the polity period.


Duration:
[919 CE ➜ 1,125 CE]

Political and Cultural Relations
Succeeding Entity:
Holy Roman Empire - Hohenstaufen and Welf Dynasties



Degree of Centralization:
confederated state

Language

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
100,000 people

Inhabitants. Northern Italy had the largest cities in continental Europe (except for Paris which was not part of the HRE). Milan, Genoa, Venice, Naples, Florence and Palermo were likely to have exceeded 100,000 inhabitants in the early fourteenth century. [1]

[1]: Power 2006: 73. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V4WE3ZK.


Polity Territory:
1,000,000 km2
1050 CE

in squared kilometers.The earlier size of the HRE during Charlemagne’s rule as the first Holy Roman Emperor (r. 800-823) was 1.2 million square kilometres. [1] However, from this polity period and beyond the HRE’s territory was less than 1 million square kilometres, with its peak of around 1 million square kilometres in 1050. [2]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 758. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA

[2]: Taagepera 1997: 496. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/5A6JA43D


Polity Population:
21,500,000 people

People.Population estimates for the HRE are not forthcoming in the sources and any that are available are labelled as guesswork. [1] The above figures are estimates based on partial data in the sources consulted. By the end of the Carolingian dynasty in 887 CE, the empire had a population of around 20 million. [2] In 1300 the estimated population of the Empire was: Germany – 14 million, Italy - 7.5 million, Hungary and Slavic states – 10.5 million, but this is missing some significant territories such as France and Bohemia. [3] However, the total Empire population was again only 20 million in 1700, so the figure of 21,500,000 for 1300, prior to the Black Death devastating Europe’s population may well be close to correct. Churches, cathedrals, abbeys, chapels and other places of worship were present across the Empire. [4] The overall population figure for the whole of Europe has been estimated at 38.5 million in 1000 CE, and 73.5 million at 1340 CE. [1] Further calculations and research will be needed to have a more accurate figure.

[1]: Power 2006: 57. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V4WE3ZK.

[2]: Wilson 2016: 320. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA

[3]: Wilson 2016: 490. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA

[4]: Wilson 2016: 496. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA


Largest Communication Distance:
1683

in kilometers.From Hamburg in the north of Germany to Rome, which was at the edge of the HRE during this period, is 1,683km. However this is by modern roads so it was likely to be much further in the tenth-to-fourteenth centuries.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
5

levels. [1] : 1. Imperial Cities ::2. Towns ::: 3. Villages :::: 4. Hamlets ::::: 5. Farmstead

[1]: Wilson 2016: 505-506. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA


Religious Level:
6

levels. [1] [2] : 1. Pope :: 2. Cardinals ::: 3. Archbishops :::: 4. Bishops ::::: 5. Abbotts /Abbess :::::: 6. Monks / Nuns

[1]: Wilson 2016: 79-89. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA

[2]: Power 2006: 209. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V4WE3ZK.


Military Level:
-

levels. There was no central military in the HRE, rather, the nation states within its borders would raise their own armies when needed.


Administrative Level:
-

levels.The administrative hierarchy of the empire was not simple, owing to the fact that although the pope and emperor provided spiritual and moral leadership, each country within the empire had its own monarch and imperial/local governance.


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

Professional soldiers were present in the different nation states and could be raised to an army by the monarch/lord when needed as most rulers did not have a standing army, but they were not employed directly by the HRE which did not have a specific army of its own. [1] [2]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 321. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA

[2]: Power 2006: 21. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V4WE3ZK


Professional Priesthood:
present

The papacy and their members of the Roman Catholic Church.


Professional Military Officer:
present

Professional officers are not mentioned in the sources, however it is likely that they performed the same duties as the soldiers and were called upon by their monarch or lord when needed as most rulers did not have a standing army. [1] [2]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 5-7. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA

[2]: Power 2006: 21. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V4WE3ZK



Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Imperial cities had government offices. [1]

[1]: Power 2006: 74. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V4WE3ZK



Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

Imperial and papal officials. Royal estates were administered, taxes were collected, officials often sat in on tribunals. [1]

[1]: Power 2006: 105, 107, 214. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V4WE3ZK



Law
Professional Lawyer:
present

There were lawyers throughout the various countries of the Empire. [1] In the 1090s lawyers were tasked with piecing together old Roman Empire laws. There were law schools in Italy and France. [2]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 604. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA

[2]: Wilson 2016: 606. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA


Judge:
present

Judges were present throughout the period, and from the eleventh century their role changed from one of arbiter to one of deciding guilt and punishment. [1]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 607. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA


Formal Legal Code:
absent

There were both written and unwritten laws across the Empire, some of which did not survive in practice as many laws were not codified. The largest territory of the Empire, Germany, had not completely codified its laws until 1806. [1] Laws were also local to each member country of the Empire and so it was not uniform across all territories. There were two forms of institutional law; one comprised the rules for the elite population and their homage, vassalage and fealty to the monarch, while canon law was a more widespread form of moral, legal and ecclesiastical laws. Between 1037 and 1158 Emperor’s issued four statutes regarding feudal relations. [2]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 604. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA

[2]: Wilson 2016: 606. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA

Formal Legal Code:
present

There were both written and unwritten laws across the Empire, some of which did not survive in practice as many laws were not codified. The largest territory of the Empire, Germany, had not completely codified its laws until 1806. [1] Laws were also local to each member country of the Empire and so it was not uniform across all territories. There were two forms of institutional law; one comprised the rules for the elite population and their homage, vassalage and fealty to the monarch, while canon law was a more widespread form of moral, legal and ecclesiastical laws. Between 1037 and 1158 Emperor’s issued four statutes regarding feudal relations. [2]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 604. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA

[2]: Wilson 2016: 606. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA


Court:
present

Across the empire there were papal courts and within each country/nation that was part of the empire there were imperial and local courts. [1]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 69. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

During the Ottonian period towns expanded to include a permanent market square, and along the Rhine and Danube rivers 130 new market towns were built during this period. [1] Many villages also had a small market. [2]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 505-506. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA

[2]: Power 2006: 62. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V4WE3ZK


Irrigation System:
absent

Although there were irrigation systems in some parts of Muslim occupied Europe such as Valencia and Sicily, there is no discussion of irrigation in the HRE in the sources consulted. [1]

[1]: Power 2006: 8. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V4WE3ZK


Food Storage Site:
present

Most houses, even peasant houses, had larders for food storage. [1] Cities and towns had granaries. [2]

[1]: Power 2006: 47. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V4WE3ZK

[2]: Power 2006: 62, 74. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V4WE3ZK


Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown

Very likely but not mentioned in the sources.


Communal Building:
present

Churches and other places of worship. [1] Schools and universities

[1]: Wilson 2016: 504. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA


Symbolic Building:
present

Churches, cathedrals, abbeys, chapels and other places of worship were present across the Empire. [1]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 86-94. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA


Knowledge Or Information Building:
present

The first university was founded in Bologna 1088 and by 1800 there were a total of 45 in the Empire. [1] There were law schools in Italy and France. [2]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 70-71, 276. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA

[2]: Wilson 2016: 606. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA




Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present

Roads were present across the Empire and continued to be improved and added to for trade and communication purposes, especially from the early twelfth century. [1] [2]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 491-2, 581. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA

[2]: Power 2006: 10. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V4WE3ZK


Port:
present

Ports were present across the Empire and continued to be improved and added to for trade and communication purposes, especially from the early twelfth century. [1]

[1]: Power 2006: 10. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V4WE3ZK


Bridge:
present

Bridges were present across the Empire and continued to be improved and added to for trade and communication purposes, especially from the early twelfth century. [1]

[1]: Power 2006: 10. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V4WE3ZK


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

Silver mines were common across continental Europe. [1]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 204. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA


Trading Emporia:
present

There were likely many trading emporiums given the changing overland routes during this period, such as Truso in Prussia. [1]

[1]: Curta 2005: 67. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/RIISSF6A



Ceremonial Site:
present

Churches, cathedrals, abbeys, chapels and other places of worship were present across the Empire. [1]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 86-94. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA


Burial Site:
present

Cemeteries across the polity.


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

There was a surge in written documents from the ninth century onwards across Europe and the territories of the Holy Roman Empire. [1] Religious and administrative documents were originally written in Latin, but from the thirteenth century began to be written in German. . [2] Thousands of charters survive from the eleventh-to-thirteenth century and beyond. [3]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 506. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA

[2]: Wilson 2016: 54, 259. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA

[3]: Power 2006: 102. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V4WE3ZK




Nonwritten Record:
present

Royal seals and stamps were used to authenticate charters and official imperial documents. [1]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 32, 269. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA




Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

There were many scientific works in Europe and it was a very popular topic of the time. Medicine and astrology. Philosophy also incorporated physics, metaphysics and ethics. [1]

[1]: Power 2006: 158-160. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V4WE3ZK


Sacred Text:
present

The Bible.


Religious Literature:
present

Prior to the twelfth century, religious texts and commentaries were the primary form of written documents in the HRE. [1]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 320, 506. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA


Practical Literature:
present

Guidelines for running a manor, such as the management of land, agricultural information and manorial law. During the Carolingian period capitularies were written as legally binding administrative guides. [1] The Mirror of the Saxons was written by a Judge, Eike von Repkow, around 1224 which compiled customs, written law, and the workins of the Empire. [2]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 403, 605. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA

[2]: Wilson 2016: 607. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA


Philosophy:
present

There were many religious and natural philosophical works in Europe and it was a very popular topic of the time. It also incorporated physics, metaphysics and ethics. [1]

[1]: Power 2006: 158-160. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V4WE3ZK


History:
present

Historical works were popular during this period such as the works of Otto of Freising – grandson of Emperor Henry IV – who wrote The Two Cities and Deeds of Frederick I. Imperial histories and histories of the crusades were particularly popular across Europe. [1]

[1]: Power 2006: 166-168. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V4WE3ZK



Calendar:
present

The HRE used the Julian calendar. Saints days became a regular fixture of the calendar in the twelfth century. [1]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 81, 130. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA


Information / Money
Token:
absent

Sources consulted thus far have not mentioned the use of articles.


Precious Metal:
present

Gold and silver were used as currency and for decorative objects. [1]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 49, 214, 354. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA


Paper Currency:
absent

Paper currency was not issued in Europe until 1761 by Austria. [1]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 467. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA


Indigenous Coin:
present

From the late eighth century, coins were issued by popes as well as by kings of countries within the HRE. [1]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 12. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA


Article:
absent

Sources consulted thus far have not mentioned the use of articles.


Store Of Wealth:
present

Insignia and holy relics were often put into special storage. [1] Coin hoards have often been found at trading centres. [2]

[1]: Power 2006: 273, 286. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V4WE3ZK

[2]: Curta 2005: 79. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/RIISSF6A


Debt And Credit Structure:
present

Monarchs often borrowed money to finance wars. In Italy wealthy citizens would extend credit services to other lords and some peasants. Landlords often gave credit to their tenants [1]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 518, 544 . https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
absent

A general post service was not yet established in the HRE. [1]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 105, 419, 526. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA


General Postal Service:
absent

A general post service was not yet established in the HRE. [1]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 105, 419, 526. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA


Courier:
present

Messengers may have been hired by a monarch, imperial court, and official administrative offices. [1]

[1]: Wilson 2016: 526. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/N5M9R9XA


Information / Measurement System
Weight Measurement System:
present

There was not one centralised measurement system in the HRE, rather each country had their own standards. For example, Germany and Austria used Stein/Pfund, while in Italy they used rubbo/libbra. [1]

[1]: Cardarelli 2003: 87-88, 100-103. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/UWS9ZN34.


Volume Measurement System:
present

There was not one centralised measurement system in the HRE, rather each country had their own standards. For example, Germany and Austria used scheffel/Metzen/fuder/quart, while in Italy they used moggio/staia/brenta. [1]

[1]: Cardarelli 2003: 87-88, 100-103. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/UWS9ZN34.



Length Measurement System:
present

There was not one centralised measurement system in the HRE, rather each country had their own standards. For example, Germany and Austria used meile/fuss/zoll, while in Italy they used miglio/piede/oncia. [1]

[1]: Cardarelli 2003: 87-88, 100-103. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/UWS9ZN34.



Area Measurement System:
present

There was not one centralised measurement system in the HRE, rather each country had their own standards. For example, Germany and Austria used meile/fuss/zoll, while in Italy they used miglio/piede/oncia. [1]

[1]: Cardarelli 2003: 87-88, 100-103. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/UWS9ZN34.



Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Military use of Metals
Projectiles
Handheld weapons
Animals used in warfare
Armor
Naval technology

Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
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