Home Region:  West Africa (Africa)

Middle and Late Nok

G SC New WA  ni_nok_2

Preceding:
[continuity; Early Nok] [continuity]   Update here
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
No Polity found. Add one here.

No General Descriptions provided.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Original Name:
Middle and Late Nok  
Capital:
none  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[900 BCE ➜ 400 BCE]  
Duration:
[900 BCE ➜ 0 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
UNCLEAR:    [continuity]  
Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity  
Language
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[10 to 50] people  
Polity Territory:
[0 to 1] km2  
Polity Population:
[10 to 50] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
1  
Religious Level:
0  
Military Level:
0  
Administrative Level:
0  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred absent  
Professional Priesthood:
inferred absent  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred absent  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
inferred absent  
Merit Promotion:
inferred absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
inferred absent  
Examination System:
inferred absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
inferred absent  
Judge:
inferred absent  
Formal Legal Code:
inferred absent  
Court:
inferred absent  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
inferred absent  
Irrigation System:
inferred absent  
Food Storage Site:
inferred absent  
Drinking Water Supply System:
inferred absent  
Communal Building:
inferred absent  
Utilitarian Public Building:
inferred absent  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
inferred absent  
Port:
inferred absent  
Canal:
inferred absent  
Bridge:
inferred absent  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
inferred absent  
Trading Emporia:
inferred absent  
Special Purpose Site:
present  
Enclosure:
inferred absent  
Ceremonial Site:
present  
Burial Site:
present  
Other Special Purpose Site:
present  
Information / Writing System
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
inferred absent  
Sacred Text:
inferred absent  
Religious Literature:
inferred absent  
Practical Literature:
inferred absent  
Philosophy:
inferred absent  
Lists Tables and Classification:
inferred absent  
History:
inferred absent  
Fiction:
inferred absent  
Calendar:
inferred absent  
Information / Money
Information / Postal System
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Military use of Metals
Projectiles
Handheld weapons
Animals used in warfare
Armor
Naval technology
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Middle and Late Nok (ni_nok_2) was in:
Home NGA: None

General Variables
Identity and Location
Original Name:
Middle and Late Nok

"Although there is an abundance of archaeological remains in the ground of the area where it once spread, there is no indication of agglomerations of people above village level, thus there is no evidence that would warrant the existence of communities of a size that would be necessary to develop social stratification, which is regarded as one of the attributes of social complexity. Numerous excavations and prospections have contributed to the notion that no towns or any kind of urban environments existed. The rather small size of almost all recorded sites and the comparatively small quantities of excavated cultural remains even rule out village communities. Apparently the typical settlement of the Nok Culture which occupied the prehistoric landscape during all phases was either a hamlet or a single compound. What can be concluded from this is that there was no high population density and that Nok communities were small-scaled and organised in locally autonomous groups. Probably these groups consisted of only one or a few extended families or a comparable number of people living together at one site." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 252) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[900 BCE ➜ 400 BCE]

"[T]he Nok Culture can be viewed as a tripartite complex: starting with the onset of farming in the middle of the second millennium BCE, leading to a flourishing period between approximately 900 and 400 BCE with dense occupation, elaborate terracotta art and the advent of iron metallurgy, followed by its sudden decline and ultimate disappearance in the last centuries BCE. The Nok tradition vanishes around the turn of the eras, possibly related to unfavourable environmental changes (Höhn & Neumann 2016). Younger sites, up to historical times, are grouped together artificially as “Post-Nok” sites, in order to separate them from the Nok sites. Besides the complete absence of Nok sculptures, there is also a marked difference in pottery decoration techniques as well as in the chemical composition of the clay used for pottery making (Beck 2015; Franke 2015)." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 244) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Duration:
[900 BCE ➜ 0 CE]

"[T]he Nok Culture can be viewed as a tripartite complex: starting with the onset of farming in the middle of the second millennium BCE, leading to a flourishing period between approximately 900 and 400 BCE with dense occupation, elaborate terracotta art and the advent of iron metallurgy, followed by its sudden decline and ultimate disappearance in the last centuries BCE. The Nok tradition vanishes around the turn of the eras, possibly related to unfavourable environmental changes (Höhn & Neumann 2016). Younger sites, up to historical times, are grouped together artificially as “Post-Nok” sites, in order to separate them from the Nok sites. Besides the complete absence of Nok sculptures, there is also a marked difference in pottery decoration techniques as well as in the chemical composition of the clay used for pottery making (Beck 2015; Franke 2015)." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 244) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Political and Cultural Relations
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity


Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity

"As demonstrated by the uniformity of their material culture and their presumed belief system, most prominently reflected by the terracotta sculptures, external contacts within their culture must have existed. However, such a larger social network apparently was not organised and maintained in a way as to infer social inequality, social hierarchies or other signs of internal demarcation traceable by available archaeological data. None of the numerous excavations brought to light architectural remains of specified buildings or the spatial organisation of housing areas that might have been occupied by high-ranking members of the community. Further, among the admittedly few features interpreted as graves there is no evidence of any heterogeneity pointing to a difference between burials of elite members or commoners. Nowhere, an accumulation of valuable objects neither of iron nor any other materials signifying inequality in terms of property or prosperity was found." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 252) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Language
Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[10 to 50] people

Inhabitants. "Although there is an abundance of archaeological remains in the ground of the area where it once spread, there is no indication of agglomerations of people above village level, thus there is no evidence that would warrant the existence of communities of a size that would be necessary to develop social stratification, which is regarded as one of the attributes of social complexity. Numerous excavations and prospections have contributed to the notion that no towns or any kind of urban environments existed. The rather small size of almost all recorded sites and the comparatively small quantities of excavated cultural remains even rule out village communities. Apparently the typical settlement of the Nok Culture which occupied the prehistoric landscape during all phases was either a hamlet or a single compound. What can be concluded from this is that there was no high population density and that Nok communities were small-scaled and organised in locally autonomous groups. Probably these groups consisted of only one or a few extended families or a comparable number of people living together at one site." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 252) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Polity Territory:
[0 to 1] km2

in squared kilometers. " Other information obtained by examining illicit diggings concerns the average size of Nok sites. Commonly, looters will continue to dig as long as they come across cultural deposits which are an indicator for potentially valuable finds. They cease their efforts once they reach sterile soil, or — although according to local accounts this very rarely happens — a more promising site is discovered nearby. For this reason the extent of the looted area, which is rather unmissable because the pits are usually not backfilled and leave a landscape perforated by hollows (Fig. 5), roughly reflects the distribution of cultural deposits in the ground and thus indicates the size of a site. Naturally, not every recorded illicitly excavated Nok site has been measured in detail to confirm its respective expanse, but if the assumed relation between the visibly looted area and the extent of the site is correct, many Nok sites cover an area of about one to two hectares." [1] Note that "[a]lthough there is an abundance of archaeological remains in the ground of the area where it once spread, there is no indication of agglomerations of people above village level, thus there is no evidence that would warrant the existence of communities of a size that would be necessary to develop social stratification, which is regarded as one of the attributes of social complexity." [2]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 244) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.

[2]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 252) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Polity Population:
[10 to 50] people

Inhabitants. "Although there is an abundance of archaeological remains in the ground of the area where it once spread, there is no indication of agglomerations of people above village level, thus there is no evidence that would warrant the existence of communities of a size that would be necessary to develop social stratification, which is regarded as one of the attributes of social complexity. Numerous excavations and prospections have contributed to the notion that no towns or any kind of urban environments existed. The rather small size of almost all recorded sites and the comparatively small quantities of excavated cultural remains even rule out village communities. Apparently the typical settlement of the Nok Culture which occupied the prehistoric landscape during all phases was either a hamlet or a single compound. What can be concluded from this is that there was no high population density and that Nok communities were small-scaled and organised in locally autonomous groups. Probably these groups consisted of only one or a few extended families or a comparable number of people living together at one site." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 252) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
1

levels. "Although there is an abundance of archaeological remains in the ground of the area where it once spread, there is no indication of agglomerations of people above village level, thus there is no evidence that would warrant the existence of communities of a size that would be necessary to develop social stratification, which is regarded as one of the attributes of social complexity. Numerous excavations and prospections have contributed to the notion that no towns or any kind of urban environments existed. The rather small size of almost all recorded sites and the comparatively small quantities of excavated cultural remains even rule out village communities. Apparently the typical settlement of the Nok Culture which occupied the prehistoric landscape during all phases was either a hamlet or a single compound. What can be concluded from this is that there was no high population density and that Nok communities were small-scaled and organised in locally autonomous groups. Probably these groups consisted of only one or a few extended families or a comparable number of people living together at one site." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 252) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Religious Level:
0

levels. Inferred from the following quote. "As demonstrated by the uniformity of their material culture and their presumed belief system, most prominently reflected by the terracotta sculptures, external contacts within their culture must have existed. However, such a larger social network apparently was not organised and maintained in a way as to infer social inequality, social hierarchies or other signs of internal demarcation traceable by available archaeological data. None of the numerous excavations brought to light architectural remains of specified buildings or the spatial organisation of housing areas that might have been occupied by high-ranking members of the community. Further, among the admittedly few features interpreted as graves there is no evidence of any heterogeneity pointing to a difference between burials of elite members or commoners. Nowhere, an accumulation of valuable objects neither of iron nor any other materials signifying inequality in terms of property or prosperity was found." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 252) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Military Level:
0

levels. Inferred from the following quote. "As demonstrated by the uniformity of their material culture and their presumed belief system, most prominently reflected by the terracotta sculptures, external contacts within their culture must have existed. However, such a larger social network apparently was not organised and maintained in a way as to infer social inequality, social hierarchies or other signs of internal demarcation traceable by available archaeological data. None of the numerous excavations brought to light architectural remains of specified buildings or the spatial organisation of housing areas that might have been occupied by high-ranking members of the community. Further, among the admittedly few features interpreted as graves there is no evidence of any heterogeneity pointing to a difference between burials of elite members or commoners. Nowhere, an accumulation of valuable objects neither of iron nor any other materials signifying inequality in terms of property or prosperity was found." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 252) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Administrative Level:
0

levels. Inferred from the following: "As demonstrated by the uniformity of their material culture and their presumed belief system, most prominently reflected by the terracotta sculptures, external contacts within their culture must have existed. However, such a larger social network apparently was not organised and maintained in a way as to infer social inequality, social hierarchies or other signs of internal demarcation traceable by available archaeological data. None of the numerous excavations brought to light architectural remains of specified buildings or the spatial organisation of housing areas that might have been occupied by high-ranking members of the community. Further, among the admittedly few features interpreted as graves there is no evidence of any heterogeneity pointing to a difference between burials of elite members or commoners. Nowhere, an accumulation of valuable objects neither of iron nor any other materials signifying inequality in terms of property or prosperity was found." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 252) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Professions
Professional Soldier:
absent

Inferred from the following quote. "In sum, we have not found unambiguous evidence of social complexity and the often suggested highly advanced social system of the Nok Culture. [...] As demonstrated by the uniformity of their material culture and their presumed belief system, most prominently reflected by the terracotta sculptures, external contacts within their culture must have existed. However, such a larger social network apparently was not organised and maintained in a way as to infer social inequality, social hierarchies or other signs of internal demarcation traceable by available archaeological data. None of the numerous excavations brought to light architectural remains of specified buildings or the spatial organisation of housing areas that might have been occupied by high-ranking members of the community. Further, among the admittedly few features interpreted as graves there is no evidence of any heterogeneity pointing to a difference between burials of elite members or commoners. Nowhere, an accumulation of valuable objects neither of iron nor any other materials signifying inequality in terms of property or prosperity was found." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 252) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Professional Priesthood:
absent

Inferred from the following quote. "In sum, we have not found unambiguous evidence of social complexity and the often suggested highly advanced social system of the Nok Culture. [...] As demonstrated by the uniformity of their material culture and their presumed belief system, most prominently reflected by the terracotta sculptures, external contacts within their culture must have existed. However, such a larger social network apparently was not organised and maintained in a way as to infer social inequality, social hierarchies or other signs of internal demarcation traceable by available archaeological data. None of the numerous excavations brought to light architectural remains of specified buildings or the spatial organisation of housing areas that might have been occupied by high-ranking members of the community. Further, among the admittedly few features interpreted as graves there is no evidence of any heterogeneity pointing to a difference between burials of elite members or commoners. Nowhere, an accumulation of valuable objects neither of iron nor any other materials signifying inequality in terms of property or prosperity was found." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 252) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Professional Military Officer:
absent

Inferred from the following quote. "In sum, we have not found unambiguous evidence of social complexity and the often suggested highly advanced social system of the Nok Culture. [...] As demonstrated by the uniformity of their material culture and their presumed belief system, most prominently reflected by the terracotta sculptures, external contacts within their culture must have existed. However, such a larger social network apparently was not organised and maintained in a way as to infer social inequality, social hierarchies or other signs of internal demarcation traceable by available archaeological data. None of the numerous excavations brought to light architectural remains of specified buildings or the spatial organisation of housing areas that might have been occupied by high-ranking members of the community. Further, among the admittedly few features interpreted as graves there is no evidence of any heterogeneity pointing to a difference between burials of elite members or commoners. Nowhere, an accumulation of valuable objects neither of iron nor any other materials signifying inequality in terms of property or prosperity was found." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 252) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent

"In sum, we have not found unambiguous evidence of social complexity and the often suggested highly advanced social system of the Nok Culture." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 251) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Merit Promotion:
absent

"In sum, we have not found unambiguous evidence of social complexity and the often suggested highly advanced social system of the Nok Culture." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 251) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent

"In sum, we have not found unambiguous evidence of social complexity and the often suggested highly advanced social system of the Nok Culture." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 251) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Examination System:
absent

"In sum, we have not found unambiguous evidence of social complexity and the often suggested highly advanced social system of the Nok Culture." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 251) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent

"In sum, we have not found unambiguous evidence of social complexity and the often suggested highly advanced social system of the Nok Culture." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 251) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Judge:
absent

"In sum, we have not found unambiguous evidence of social complexity and the often suggested highly advanced social system of the Nok Culture." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 251) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Formal Legal Code:
absent

"In sum, we have not found unambiguous evidence of social complexity and the often suggested highly advanced social system of the Nok Culture." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 251) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Court:
absent

"In sum, we have not found unambiguous evidence of social complexity and the often suggested highly advanced social system of the Nok Culture." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 251) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
absent

" There are no indications of far- or middle-distance exchange or trade contacts (apart from a few stone raw materials that do not occur locally and the depiction of a sea shell on the head of a male terracotta sculpture), no signs of communal construction activities, and no preserved facilities to store agricultural surplus. [...] It has to be considered that the preservation of features in Nok sites is generally poor and that the amount of data is not too large and regionally restricted to a rather small key study area." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 253) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Irrigation System:
absent

"There are [...] no signs of communal construction activities, and no preserved facilities to store agricultural surplus. [...] It has to be considered that the preservation of features in Nok sites is generally poor and that the amount of data is not too large and regionally restricted to a rather small key study area." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 253) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Food Storage Site:
absent

"There are [...] no signs of communal construction activities, and no preserved facilities to store agricultural surplus. [...] It has to be considered that the preservation of features in Nok sites is generally poor and that the amount of data is not too large and regionally restricted to a rather small key study area." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 253) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Drinking Water Supply System:
absent

"There are [...] no signs of communal construction activities, and no preserved facilities to store agricultural surplus. [...] It has to be considered that the preservation of features in Nok sites is generally poor and that the amount of data is not too large and regionally restricted to a rather small key study area." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 253) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Communal Building:
absent

NO_DESCRIPTION


Utilitarian Public Building:
absent

"There are [...] no signs of communal construction activities, and no preserved facilities to store agricultural surplus. [...] It has to be considered that the preservation of features in Nok sites is generally poor and that the amount of data is not too large and regionally restricted to a rather small key study area." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 253) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Transport Infrastructure
Road:
absent

"There are [...] no signs of communal construction activities, and no preserved facilities to store agricultural surplus. [...] It has to be considered that the preservation of features in Nok sites is generally poor and that the amount of data is not too large and regionally restricted to a rather small key study area." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 253) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Port:
absent

"There are [...] no signs of communal construction activities, and no preserved facilities to store agricultural surplus. [...] It has to be considered that the preservation of features in Nok sites is generally poor and that the amount of data is not too large and regionally restricted to a rather small key study area." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 253) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Canal:
absent

"There are [...] no signs of communal construction activities, and no preserved facilities to store agricultural surplus. [...] It has to be considered that the preservation of features in Nok sites is generally poor and that the amount of data is not too large and regionally restricted to a rather small key study area." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 253) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Bridge:
absent

"There are [...] no signs of communal construction activities, and no preserved facilities to store agricultural surplus. [...] It has to be considered that the preservation of features in Nok sites is generally poor and that the amount of data is not too large and regionally restricted to a rather small key study area." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 253) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
absent

"So far, excavations have revealed four categories of Nok sites: settlements, ritual sites, iron-smelting sites or furnaces, and burial sites." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 248) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Trading Emporia:
absent

" There are no indications of far- or middle-distance exchange or trade contacts (apart from a few stone raw materials that do not occur locally and the depiction of a sea shell on the head of a male terracotta sculpture), no signs of communal construction activities, and no preserved facilities to store agricultural surplus. [...] It has to be considered that the preservation of features in Nok sites is generally poor and that the amount of data is not too large and regionally restricted to a rather small key study area." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 253) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Special Purpose Site:
present

"So far, excavations have revealed four categories of Nok sites: settlements, ritual sites, iron-smelting sites or furnaces, and burial sites." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 248) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Enclosure:
absent

"So far, excavations have revealed four categories of Nok sites: settlements, ritual sites, iron-smelting sites or furnaces, and burial sites." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 248) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Ceremonial Site:
present

"Apart from settlement sites, there are a few sites containing deliberately positioned stone arrangements combined with clay vessels and occasionally terracotta fragments (Rupp 2010: 71). Some of them are suggested to represent burials and are discussed below. Other sites contain large parts of one or more terracotta sculptures which were mostly intentionally deposited. In the case of Utak Kamuan Garaje Kagoro (Rupp 2014b), no settlement site has been found in the vicinity suggesting that ritual sites were located away from inhabited areas in remote and isolated places and are thus rarely discovered." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 249) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Burial Site:
present

"[T]here are find contexts that have been interpreted as burial sites". [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 251) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Other Special Purpose Site:
present

"So far, excavations have revealed four categories of Nok sites: settlements, ritual sites, iron-smelting sites or furnaces, and burial sites." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 248) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Information / Writing System
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent

"In sum, we have not found unambiguous evidence of social complexity and the often suggested highly advanced social system of the Nok Culture." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 251) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Sacred Text:
absent

"In sum, we have not found unambiguous evidence of social complexity and the often suggested highly advanced social system of the Nok Culture." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 251) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Religious Literature:
absent

"In sum, we have not found unambiguous evidence of social complexity and the often suggested highly advanced social system of the Nok Culture." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 251) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Practical Literature:
absent

"In sum, we have not found unambiguous evidence of social complexity and the often suggested highly advanced social system of the Nok Culture." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 251) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Philosophy:
absent

"In sum, we have not found unambiguous evidence of social complexity and the often suggested highly advanced social system of the Nok Culture." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 251) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Lists Tables and Classification:
absent

"In sum, we have not found unambiguous evidence of social complexity and the often suggested highly advanced social system of the Nok Culture." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 251) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


History:
absent

"In sum, we have not found unambiguous evidence of social complexity and the often suggested highly advanced social system of the Nok Culture." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 251) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Fiction:
absent

"In sum, we have not found unambiguous evidence of social complexity and the often suggested highly advanced social system of the Nok Culture." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 251) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Calendar:
absent

"In sum, we have not found unambiguous evidence of social complexity and the often suggested highly advanced social system of the Nok Culture." [1]

[1]: (Breunig and Ruppe 2016: 251) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/collections/GWWIKDDM/ES4TRU7R.


Information / Money
Information / Postal System
Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Military use of Metals
Projectiles
Handheld weapons
Animals used in warfare
Armor
Naval technology

Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions
- Nothing coded yet.