Home Region:  Northeast Africa (Africa)

Egypt - New Kingdom Thutmosid Period

D G SC WF HS PT EQ 2020  eg_new_k_1 / EgNKThu

Preceding:
1720 BCE 1567 BCE Egypt - Thebes-Hyksos Period (eg_thebes_hyksos)    [None]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
1293 BCE 1070 BCE Egypt - New Kingdom Ramesside Period (eg_new_k_2)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

During the New Kingdom, the Egyptian king acquired the title of ’pharaoh’, meaning ’great house’. In the Thutmosid Period, or Eighteenth Dynasty (1550-1293 BCE), the pharaohs turned the Egyptian ’home’ into a great empire stretching from Kush in northern Sudan (conquered by Thutmose I) to the south to Palestine and Syria in the northeast (taken by Thutmose III). [1] [2] For the first time, the capital of a great Egyptian state was in Upper Egypt, at Thebes (although in 1373 BCE Akhenaten briefly had the capital moved to El Amarna in Middle Egypt).
Population and political organization
The pharaoh, a living god-king, was also the chief priest, highest judge and top military commander; he usually fought in battle, as Thutmose III apparently did at the famous Bronze Age battle of Megiddo in the 15th century BCE. [3] The professional army was augmented by troops from conquered places such as Nubia and Libya. [4]
During the New Kingdom, labyrinthine networks of imperial power and wage-earning agents we know as scribes [5] were overseen by two viziers: one for the north and one for the south of Egypt. [6] The Egyptian vizier was the second-highest judge; [7] he supervised the activities of the state bureaucracy and served as a representative of the pharaoh’s interests. [8] Most of the viziers’ duties seem to have been judicial, involving dispute settlement, answering petitions, and authorizing transfers of property. [8] For most of the two to three million people who occupied New Kingdom Egypt, however, the law was usually administered at the local level, [7] under chiefs of towns (the capitals of nomes) and mayors of villages.
The resources commanded by the New Kingdom Egyptian state enabled the pharaohs to carry out grand architectural and tomb-building projects. [9] The most prolific builder of the Thutmosid Period was a female pharaoh called Hatshepsut. [10] At Deir el-Medina, in the Valley of the Kings, opposite Thebes, a workers’ village was created at the start of the Eighteenth Dynasty to house craftsmen dedicated to building royal tombs. [11] The community was managed by a palace scribe appointed by the vizier. The scribe oversaw supervisors, who managed two teams of five workers on ten-day shifts. [12] In the village, oracle statues attended by priests served as the ’highest local voice of authority’. [13]
Although not a typical town, documents written by skilled workers at Deir el-Medina reveal that writing was not confined to the elite, but had become important in wider society. [14] Major temples across Egypt included libraries and archives, most likely managed by scribes educated in local schools. [15] Documents attesting to the sophistication of this Late Bronze Age state include government archives, wills, title deeds, census lists, conscription lists, orders, memos, tax lists, letters, journals, inventories, regulations, and transcripts of trials. [7]

[1]: (Sherif 1981, 265) N. M. Sherif. 1981. ’Nubia before Napata (-3100 to -750)’, in General History of Africa, Vol II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa, edited by G. Mokhtar, 245-77. Paris: UNESCO.

[2]: (Dupuy and Dupuy 2007, 5) R. Ernest Dupuy and Trevor N. Dupuy. 2007. The Collins Encyclopedia of Military History: From 3500 B.C. to the Present. 4th ed. London: BCA.

[3]: (Morenz and Popko 2010, 111) Ludwig D. Morenz and Lutz Popko. 2010. ’The Second Intermediate Period and the New Kingdom’, in A Companion to Ancient Egypt, Volume 1, edited by Alan B. Lloyd, 101-19. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

[4]: (Spalinger 2005, 6-7) Anthony J. Spalinger. 2005. War in Ancient Egypt: The New Kingdom. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

[5]: (Van Dijk 2000, 298-99) Jacobus Van Dijk. 2003. ’The Amarna Period and the Later New Kingdom’, in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 265-307. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[6]: (O’Connor 1983, 208) David O’Connor. 1983. ’Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period c. 2686-1552 BC’, in Ancient Egypt: A Social History, edited by Bruce G. Trigger, Barry J. Kemp, David O’Connor and Alan B. Lloyd, 183-278. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[7]: (Brewer and Teeter 1999, 73) Douglas J. Brewer and Emily Teeter. 1999. Egypt and the Egyptians. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[8]: (Van De Mieroop 2011, 180) Marc Van De Mieroop. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

[9]: (Van De Mieroop 2011, 182) Marc Van De Mieroop. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

[10]: (Bryan 2000, 229) Betsy M. Bryan. 2000. ’The 18th Dynasty before The Amarna Period (c. 1550-1352 BC)’ in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 207-64. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[11]: (Bryan 2000, 213) Betsy M. Bryan. 2000. ’The 18th Dynasty before The Amarna Period (c. 1550-1352 BC)’ in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 207-64. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[12]: (Ziskind and Halioua 2007) Bernard Ziskind and Bruno Halioua. 2007. ’Occupational Medicine in Ancient Egypt’. Medical Hypotheses 69 (4): 942-45.

[13]: (Van De Mieroop 2011, 235) Marc Van De Mieroop. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

[14]: (Van De Mieroop 2011, 156) Marc Van De Mieroop. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

[15]: (Lazaridis 2016) Nikolaos Lazaridis. 2016. ’Education and Apprenticeship’, in UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology. Accessible online at https://uee.cdh.ucla.edu/articles/education_and_apprenticeship/?x=87&y=5.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
36 R  
Original Name:
Egypt - New Kingdom Thutmosid Period  
Capital:
Thebes  
Alternative Name:
New Kingdom  
18th Dynasty  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,300 BCE  
Duration:
[1,550 BCE ➜ 1,293 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
Succeeding Entity:
Ramesside period  
Preceding Entity:
Preceding:   Egypt - Thebes-Hyksos Period (eg_thebes_hyksos)    [None]  
Succeeding: Egypt - New Kingdom Ramesside Period (eg_new_k_2)    [continuity]  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Afro-Asiatic  
Language:
Late Egyptian  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Egyptian Religions  
Religion Family:
Atenism  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[30,000 to 100,000] people  
Polity Territory:
650,000 km2 1500 BCE 1451 BCE
900,000 km2 1450 BCE 1351 BCE
1,000,000 km2 1350 BCE 1294 BCE
Polity Population:
[3,350,000 to 4,500,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
5  
Religious Level:
5  
Military Level:
7  
Administrative Level:
[5 to 6]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
inferred present  
Court:
unknown  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
absent  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
present  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
inferred present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Token:
unknown  
Precious Metal:
inferred present  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
absent  
Foreign Coin:
absent  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
inferred absent  
General Postal Service:
absent  
Courier:
inferred present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
present  
  Earth Rampart:
inferred present  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
inferred absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
inferred absent  
  Iron:
inferred absent  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
present  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
absent  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
present  
  Dog:
inferred absent  
  Camel:
inferred absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
inferred present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
present  
  Plate Armor:
inferred absent  
  Limb Protection:
inferred absent  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
inferred absent  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Egypt - New Kingdom Thutmosid Period (eg_new_k_1) was in:
 (1550 BCE 1294 BCE)   Upper Egypt
Home NGA: Upper Egypt

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Egypt - New Kingdom Thutmosid Period

Capital:
Thebes

If a timeline were to be drawn up of the shift of importance commonly attributed to New Kingdom cities, it might look like this: Thebes: 1570-1373 BCE; Akhetaten: 1373-1330 BCE; Thebes: 1330-[1278-1237 BCE]; Per-Ramesse: [1278-1237 BCE]-1069 BCE
In 1373 BCE Akhenaten (c1379-1361 BCE) moved capital from Thebes to Akhetaten (El Amarna).
Capital returned to Thebes in 4th year of the reign of Tutankhamen. [1]

[1]: ([1])


Alternative Name:
New Kingdom
Alternative Name:
18th Dynasty

Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,300 BCE

c1300 BCE zenith. [1]
Amenhotep III (c1417-1379 BCE)

[1]: (Modelski 2003, 162)


Duration:
[1,550 BCE ➜ 1,293 BCE]

Ahmose (1550-1525 BCE) was the first king of the 18th Dynasty. [1]

[1]: (Bryan 2000, 207)


Political and Cultural Relations

Succeeding Entity:
Ramesside period

Preceding Entity:
Egypt - Thebes-Hyksos Period [eg_thebes_hyksos] ---> Egypt - New Kingdom Thutmosid Period [eg_new_k_1]
Preceding Entity:
Egypt - New Kingdom Thutmosid Period [eg_new_k_1] ---> Egypt - New Kingdom Ramesside Period [eg_new_k_2]

Degree of Centralization:
unitary state

Language
Linguistic Family:
Afro-Asiatic

Language:
Late Egyptian

"The Afro-Asiatic Egyptian language is related to the Asiatic Semitic, the North African Berber, the Ethiopian Kushitic and some languages spoken in Chad and the Sudan. A few people ... consider Egyptian to be part of a single black African language family." [1]

[1]: ([2])


Religion
Religion Genus:
Egyptian Religions


Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI


Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[30,000 to 100,000] people

people. Thebes according to Modelski, Piramesse or El-Amarna according to Mumford. [1] [2]
60,000: 1500 BCE; 80,000: 1400 BCE; 80,000: 1300 BCE
EWA: Amarna probably largest settlement for brief period
Amarna or ’the city of Akhetaten’ "covered a large area of about 10 by 8 miles (16 by 13 kilometers). Much of the area on the Nile’s west bank was intended for agriculture and the fields there could support an estimated 45,000 people." [3] "The number of houses in the entire South Suburb (including unexcavated areas) was about 2400, covering an area of over 1.5km2. Janssen (1983: 286) suggests that the ’southern zone’ housed between 35,000 and 45,000 people, and that this was probably over half of the city’s population, while Kemp (1981: 96) suggests a lower figure of about 16,000-25,000 individuals." [4]
Thebes until Ramses II (c1278-1237 BCE) built new capital, Per-Ramesses.
Per-Ramesses. 160,000: 1200 BCE. 120,000: 1100 BCE. [5]
Thebes. 60,000: 1500 BCE. 80,000: 1400 BCE. 80,000: 1300 BCE. 150,000: 1200 BCE. 100,000: 1100 BCE. 120,000: 1000 BCE. [6]
Thebes. 80,000: 1360 BCE. 60,000: 1000 BCE. [7]
Memphis 50,000: 1200 BCE, 34,000: 1000 BCE. [8]
Population estimates for the New Kingdom (c. 1550-1069 BCE) [9]
Piramesse 350 (1,000?) ha 100,000 persons 286 (1000?) people per ha
Tanis 105 ha 31,000 persons 295 per ha
Luxor 280 ha 85,000 persons 305 per ha
Memphis 79 ha
el-Amarna 380 þ (1,200?) ha 30,000- 50,000? 79-131 (25-42)/ha.
Hermopolis 100 ha
Tell el-Yahu- diya 13.7 ha

[1]: (Modelski 2003: 34) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/IVFNX9HJ.

[2]: (Mumford 2010: 331) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/ZK4788F4.

[3]: (Van De Mieroop 2011, 205) Van De Mieroop, Marc. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Wiley-Backwell. Chichester.

[4]: (Shaw 2015, 29) Shaw, Ian. 2015. Ancient Egyptian Technology and Innovation. Bloomsbury.

[5]: (Modelski 2003, 33)

[6]: (Modelski 2003, 34)

[7]: (Chase-Dunn spreadsheet [4])

[8]: (Chase-Dunn spreadsheet [5])

[9]: (Mumford 2010, 331)


Polity Territory:
650,000 km2
1500 BCE 1451 BCE

[1]
Thutmose I (c1530-1520 BCE) conquered the independent kingdom of Kush in northern Sudan. [2]
Under Thutmose III (c1504-1450 BCE) Syria and Palestine first conquered 1470-1450 BCE, then lost 1380-1365 BCE. Mostly reclaimed between 1299-1232 BCE, under Ramses II. [3]
Ramses III (c1182-1151 BCE) Asiatic colonies conquered by Sea Peoples.

[1]: (Chase-Dunn spreadsheet [3])

[2]: (Mokhtar 1981, 265)

[3]: (Dupuy and Dupuy 2007, 5)

Polity Territory:
900,000 km2
1450 BCE 1351 BCE

[1]
Thutmose I (c1530-1520 BCE) conquered the independent kingdom of Kush in northern Sudan. [2]
Under Thutmose III (c1504-1450 BCE) Syria and Palestine first conquered 1470-1450 BCE, then lost 1380-1365 BCE. Mostly reclaimed between 1299-1232 BCE, under Ramses II. [3]
Ramses III (c1182-1151 BCE) Asiatic colonies conquered by Sea Peoples.

[1]: (Chase-Dunn spreadsheet [3])

[2]: (Mokhtar 1981, 265)

[3]: (Dupuy and Dupuy 2007, 5)

Polity Territory:
1,000,000 km2
1350 BCE 1294 BCE

[1]
Thutmose I (c1530-1520 BCE) conquered the independent kingdom of Kush in northern Sudan. [2]
Under Thutmose III (c1504-1450 BCE) Syria and Palestine first conquered 1470-1450 BCE, then lost 1380-1365 BCE. Mostly reclaimed between 1299-1232 BCE, under Ramses II. [3]
Ramses III (c1182-1151 BCE) Asiatic colonies conquered by Sea Peoples.

[1]: (Chase-Dunn spreadsheet [3])

[2]: (Mokhtar 1981, 265)

[3]: (Dupuy and Dupuy 2007, 5)


Polity Population:
[3,350,000 to 4,500,000] people

Province of Nubia, 100,000. Palestine: 250,000. Egypt: 3m. Total = 3.35 mln [1] However, McEvedy and Jones tend to underestimate.
A likely maximum population estimate is around 7 million. [2]
Egypt: 4.5m by the end of the New Kingdom. [3]

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 226)

[2]: (Baines, John. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. April 2020. Email)

[3]: (Stearns 2001, 30)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
5

EWA: example of vassal capital: Byblos. District capital and vassal capital is the same but district capital is within Egypt and vassal capital is for outside. There is strong inferred evidence for the level of hamlets.
1. Memphis, Thebes, Pi-Ramesses
2. Provincial Capital or Regional Centre [1] 3. Town (rare)4. Village5. Hamlet
"There was a distinct heirarchy of settlements. The cities were Memphis, Thebes and (later) Pi-Ramesse. Elsewhere, in any given region, the provincial capital was usually the most important administratively and probably the largest in population. It was surrounded by a zone of fairly large and densely concentrated villages (interspersed by rare towns intermediate in administrative function (and size?) between the villages and the capital. Unfortunately, it is impossible to equate this hierarchy with any certainty to Egyptian nomenclature; ’cities’, ’towns’ and ’villages’ (respectively niwt, dmi and whyt) were distinguished from each other, but the terms appear to be used with great looseness. Slightly less ambiguous are smaller units, such as ’nobleman’s estate’ (bhm) and ’house (hamlet? of X’ (’tnx)." [2]

[1]: (Baines, John. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. April 2020. Email)

[2]: (O’Connor 1983, 211-213) O’Connor, David. "New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period 1552-664 BC" in Trigger, B G. Kemp, B J. O’Connor, D. LLoyd, A B. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Religious Level:
5

Brier and Hobbs (2008, 72)- Diagram "Government organization at the time of the New Kingdom." [1]
1. Pharaoh (not included in diagram)
2. Overseer of the Temples and Prophets of all the Gods"a government official who functioned not as a priest but as the civil overlord of an institution that controlled great national wealth. So entwined were Egypt’s civil and religious affairs, however, that, in addition to his civil post, a vizier often held the position of overseer of the temples. Ranked directly below the overseer stood high priests ..." [2]
3. High Priests of each god"the chief priest was designated as the ’first god’s servant’." [3] "at Karnak, a second, third or even fourth god’s servant served under him." [3]
4. Second god’s servant are these servants at the same or at different levels i.e. does the second command the third etc.?5. Scroll carriercleric who "maintained and read the sacred texts of the temple."
5. Wab priestsmaintained idols and instruments. had to be circumcised. shave whole body every two days, bathe twice a day and twice a night, weather non-animal clothing, avoid pork, fish and beans, they worked shifts of one month followed by three months of rest. [4] "Wab priests ... were organized into squadrons of ten or so, and served under the command of a ’god’s father.’ All were male, but women could serve as priestesses who sang and danced for a god." [5]
4. Third god’s servant5. Scroll carrier
5. Wab priests
4. Fourth god’s servant5. Scroll carrier
5. Wab priests
1. King
"In the temple, the sun-god’s daily journey through the heavens was symbolically enacted by means of rituals and hymns, the principal aim of which was to maintain the created order of the universe. The king played a crucial role in this daily ritual; he was the main officiant, the sun priest, who had an intimate knowledge of all aspects of the sun-god’s daily course." [6]
"Although the seat of government during most of the New Kingdom was the northern capital, Memphis, the 18th-Dynasty kings had originated from Thebes, and this city remained the most important religious centre of the country. Its local god, Amun (’the hidden one’), had become associated with the sun-god Ra and as Amun-Ra King of the Gods was worshipped in every major temple in Egypt, including Memphis." [7]
_ Cult of Amun, Thebes _
2. God’s father or Amun [8]
2. God’s wife of Amun [9]
3. Steward of the estate of Amun" administered the land owned by the temple. [8]

3. Overseer of priests. [10] same as? High Priest of Amun [11]
4. Second Priest of Amun [8] [12]
5. Third Priest of Amun [8] [12]
6. Fourth Priest of Amun [12] 7. Scribes and other workers?
_ Cult of Osiris, Abydos _
2.
3.
4.
5.
_ Amarna Period _

2.
3.
4.
_ Cult centres _
2.
3.
4.
EWA: 1 Pharaoh, 2 High Priest/Temple Steward, 3 Lector-priests, God’s servants. God’s fathers. 4 Wab priests.
Pharaoh (1). Divine Adoratrice (?). Overseer of Priests of Upper and Lower Egypt (2). High Priest/Temple Steward (3). God’s servants. God’s fathers. Lector-priests (4, 4-5 or 4-6). Wab priests (5, 5-6 or 5-7). Non-priestly workers.

[1]: (Brier and Hobbs 2008, 72) Brier, Bob. Hobbs, H A. 2008. Daily Life of the Ancient Egyptians. Greenwood Publishing Group.

[2]: (Brier and Hobbs 2008, 74-75) Brier, Bob. Hobbs, H A. 2008. Daily Life of the Ancient Egyptians. Greenwood Publishing Group.

[3]: (Brier and Hobbs 2008, 75) Brier, Bob. Hobbs, H A. 2008. Daily Life of the Ancient Egyptians. Greenwood Publishing Group.

[4]: (Brier and Hobbs 2008, 75-76) Brier, Bob. Hobbs, H A. 2008. Daily Life of the Ancient Egyptians. Greenwood Publishing Group.

[5]: (Brier and Hobbs 2008, 76) Brier, Bob. Hobbs, H A. 2008. Daily Life of the Ancient Egyptians. Greenwood Publishing Group.

[6]: (Van Dijk 2000, 266)

[7]: (Van Dijk 2000, 267)

[8]: (Van Dijk 2000, 300)

[9]: (Bryan 2000, 210)

[10]: (Bryan 2000, 230)

[11]: (Van Dijk 2000, 301)

[12]: (Bryan 2000, 261)


Military Level:
7

Brier and Hobbs (2008, 72)- Diagram "Government organization at the time of the New Kingdom." [1]
1. Pharaoh (not included in diagram)
2. Great Overseer of the Army3. Overseer of the North Armies4. General officers
3. Overseer of the South Armies4. General officers
EWA: This is based upon the cavalry as this is better known and represents likely the longest chain of command: 6 Pharaoh (Commander-in-Chief), 5 Chief of army/general (leads expedition or building work), 4 Intermediate officer (equivalent of batalion) , 3 Commander of Company, 2 Commander of Platoon, 1 Soldiers
1. Pharaoh
2. South and North Chief Deputy3. Chief of army/General4. Intermediate officer5. Commander of company6. Commander of platoon7. Individual soldier
Schulman’s New Kingdom hierarchy - does not include scribal ranks [2]
1. General (Commander of a host)2. Chief of troops3. Troop commanders4. Adjutants
4a. Standard bearers
4b. Chariot warriors were supervised by chiefs who had the rank of standard bearers. (18th Dynasty). [3]
Became Charioteer and Shieldbearer. Shieldbearer commanders. Chariotry commanders.5. Adjutants of a company6. Platoon leaders7. Infantrymen
Pharaoh. Commander-in-chief. Chief deputy of the northern corps/Chief deputy of the southern corps. Division general/Military commander (5000 men). Host (? men). Company (250 men). Platoon (50 men). Squad (?).
Noncommissioned officer headed the smallest army unit (50 men). Troop commander had authority over five of these units (250 men), which amounted to a company. A division of 20 companies (5,000 men) was headed by a military commander. There were 4 divisions - named after the royal gods Amun, Re, Ptah, and Seth and the four bases Thebes, Heliopolis, Memphis, and Piramesse - in the entire army (20,000 men). [4]
Fortresses had commanders. [5]
In New Kingdom the King became a more active military leader. Most military men were soldier-farmers, in a “kleruchic” system, where they could be mobilized when needed. Foreign mercenaries also used. [6]

[1]: (Brier and Hobbs 2008, 72) Brier, Bob. Hobbs, H A. 2008. Daily Life of the Ancient Egyptians. Greenwood Publishing Group.

[2]: (Spalinger 2013, 400)

[3]: (Spalinger 2013, 401)

[4]: (Gnirs 2001)

[5]: (Van Dijk 2000, 285-286)

[6]: (Manning 2012, 76)


Administrative Level:
[5 to 6]

Source 1: Brier and Hobbs (2008, 72)- Diagram "Government organization at the time of the New Kingdom." [1] 1. Pharaoh (not included in diagram)
2. Northern Tchety3. Northern nomarchs4. Village chiefs5. Constables
4. Great Kenbet of the North5. Village Kenbets
2. Southern Tchety3. Southern nomarchs4. Village chiefs
4. Great Kenbet of the South5. Village Kenbets5. Constables
2. Overseer of the House of Gold (Treasury)3. Overseer of Granaries
3. Overseer of Cattle
2. Taxes ?
Source 2: "Fig. 3.4. Schematic outline of the developed structure of government in the New Kingdom. The fragility of much of the evidence on which this diagram is based must be emphasized, as must its inability adequately to illustrate significant changes in the structure ... Nevertheless, the writer believes that the diagram gives a reasonable approximation of the divisions of functions and powers within New Kingdom government." [2]
1. King
2. Chancellor of the Court3. Camberlain of the Court
2. Chief Steward of the Royal Estates3. Bureaucracy for the Royal Domain
2. Commander-in-Chief3. Chief Deputy of the Northern Corps
3. Chief Deputy of the Southern Corps4. General Officers
4. Bureaucracy5. Garrisons / Town and Village Levies / Military villages
2. Overseer Of Prophets Of (All The Gods) Of Upper and Lower Egypt -- "held at various times by vizier, high priest of Amun."3. God’s Wife of Amun4. Priesthoods Bureaucracy
3. High Priest of Amen4. Priesthoods Bureaucracy
3. High Priests of Other Gods4. Priesthoods Bureaucracy
2. Northern Vizier
2. Southern Vizier3. Overseers (2) of the Treasury4. Bureaucracy5. Village Chiefs
5. Town Mayors6. for both mayors and kenbet-councils "there was internal hierarchization and differences in function." [3]
5. Councils6. for both mayors and kenbet-councils "there was internal hierarchization and differences in function." [3]
4. Judiciary5. Village Chiefs
5. Town Mayors
5. Councils
4. Police5. Village Chiefs
5. Town Mayors
5. Councils
2. Overseer of the Granaries of Upper and Lower Egypt / Overseer of Cattle not sure I understand the correct position of these titles
2. Governors of Northern Lands3. Vassel Kings
Battalion Commanders
2. Governor of Southern Lands. King’s Son of Kush.3. Deputy of Wawat4. Mayors of Egyptian Centres
4. Chiefs of Indigenous Groups
3. Deputy of Kush4. Mayors of Egyptian Centres
4. Chiefs of Indigenous Groups
3. Battalion Commanders
van den Boorn (1988)
"We note, that the interrogation of local urban officials takes place in the bureau of the vizier ... It is evident, that interrogations and hearings of urban authorities entailed their journeying to the seat of the vizier: for the vizier, a perfect means of exercising effective control over his urban officials. For the functionaries involved, the possibility of being called back to the residence-city meant a check on possibile irregularities, also support for their local politics in having the opportunity to consult the vizier and knowing that they were backed. On the practical side, it entailed a great deal of traveling. Moreover, it presupposes a local apparatus managing affairs in their absence." [4]
The knbty n w was the "’councillor of the district’ the official responsible for the rural district. As Luft aply remarks ... these officials are apparently treated as members of a collective of officials, as members of a knbt, instead of being treated as individual officials with an individual title. It would seem possible, therefore, to assume the existence of an overall ’council of the district(s)’ in which these officials were group as a separate echelon of the local government (parallel to the ’urban authorities’?) or perhaps according to some geographical principle. At present, there seems to be no evidence for the existence of such a council. ... he has definite and direct ties to the vizier and his executive departments ... This would seem to contradict the viewpoint held by Helck to the effect that the councillor of the district was subordinate to the mayor ... He is known to have at his disposal a ’bodyguard’ and a scribe ... they clearly operate on their own behalf, independent from the mayor, as representatives of their own administrative area." [5] knbty n w mainly Middle Kingdom but also early New Kingdom [6]
Alternative attempt (multiple sources):
1. Pharaoh
The term "Pharaoh" - Egyptian for "great house" - emerged as political title in the New Kingdom.
JGM: Note also use of term in the Old Testament.
"One office that was more often that not held by foreigners was that of ’royal butler,’ a senior executive position outside the normal bureaucratic hierarchy, the holder of which was often entrusted with special royal commissions." [7]
2. "Scribe of the house of the Pharaoh." (Papyrus BM 10053 recto. Ram IX) [8]
_ Central government line _ [9]
2. Vizier [10]
3. Overseer of policemen(Thut III - Am II period). "Inscription from the tomb of Vizier Rh-mi-r’": "It is he (the vizier) who appoints the overseer of policemen in the bureau of the pr-nswt." [11]
3. Overseer of Pharoah’s treasury (Papyrus Chester Beatty III. Meren.) [12] Overseer of the treasury [13] 4. "Scribe of the overseer of the treasury of the Pharoah, I.p.h" (Papyrus Anastai VI., Sety II.) [14]
4. Deputy of Pharoah’s treasury (Papyrus Chester Beatty III. Meren.) [12]
4. "The chief of the record keepers of the treasury of the Pharoah, I. p. h. (Papyrus Sallier I, Meren.) [15]

4. Overseers of gold and silver houses, royal stewards, overseers of the granary [16] , Overseer of works [17]
5. Royal scribe [18]
3. Overseer of pr-’3 inferred4. "Overseer of the workshop of the armory of the pr-’3, I. p. h." (Papyrus Bologna 1094, Meren.) [19] 5. Scribe of the armory of the pr-’3 (Papyrus Bologna 1094, Meren.) [19]
3. "Overseer of the treasuries/enclosures in the mansion of the pr-’3"(Wine jar sealing no. 47 from Malkata, Am.III) [20] 4. "Chief archivist of the treasury of the pr-’3, I. p. h." (Inscription of Rameses III referring to the official Pn-p3-t3 at Tod) [21]
3. Overseer of the hnwty (Ostracon from the Tom of Sn-n-Mwt. Hatsh.) [22]
3. Overseer of the hnw (Ostracon from the Tom of Sn-n-Mwt. Hatsh.) [22]
3. Overseer of the pr-nswt (Ostracon from the Tom of Sn-n-Mwt. Hatsh.) [22] Overseer of the pr-nswt (Inscription from the tomb of the recruiting scribes Hr-m-hb. Thut. IV) [23]
Are these public officials appointed by central or local government? Was there an "Overseer of the market places" at level 4.? Perhaps they appointed the public weighers.
5. Qabbaneh (public weighers in the market place) [24] 6. Notary assisted the Qabbaneh [24]
_ Provincial line _ [9]
2. Vizier"It is he [the vizier] who holds the hearing of the mayor and the settlement-leaders who have gone out in his name to Upper and Lower Egypt."(Thut III - Am II period). "Inscription from the tomb of Vizier Rh-mi-r’" [11]
2. Nomes [13] Nomes had capitals. Hebenu was the capital of the Oryx nome. [13]
3. Chiefs of towns"It is he [the vizier] who holds the hearing of the mayor and the settlement-leaders who have gone out in his name to Upper and Lower Egypt."(Thut III - Am II period). "Inscription from the tomb of Vizier Rh-mi-r’" [11]
3. Chiefs of villagesMayors e.g. mayor of Thinis (region of Abydos). [25]
"It is he [the vizier] who holds the hearing of the mayor and the settlement-leaders who have gone out in his name to Upper and Lower Egypt."(Thut III - Am II period). "Inscription from the tomb of Vizier Rh-mi-r’" [11]
4. Local bureaucrats
5. Scribes
_ Nubian line _ [9]
2. Governor"Viceroy and overseer of southern countries." [26]
Provinces in Palestine and Syria [7]
3. Bureaucrats for the whole of Nubia4. Bureaucrats for both Nubian Provinces5. Scribes
(Thut III - Am II period). "Inscription from the tomb of Vizier Rh-mi-r’" mentions mayors and settlement-leaders. [27]
EWA: Central line/capital: King, Central elites, bureaucrats
Provincial line: King, Central elites, chiefs of towns and chiefs of villages, local bureuacrats and scribes
Nubian line as an example of ’foreign’ territory: King, Nubian Governor, bureaucrats for the whole of Nubia and for both Nubian provinces, scribes
O’Connor (1983) [28]
"The garrisons of Egyptian (and Kushite) troops in the ’Northlands’ were small, scattered and under the direct control of several ’battalion-commanders’ and not of the governors. ... The ’Southlands’ (Wawat and Kush), with their Nubian population ... was ruled by a single governor, who shared no important administrative power with the local chieftains; its military forces were centralized under a single ’battalion-commander’". [29]
"The internal government of Egypt was divided for functional reasons, into four major units (fig. 3.4) and these were sometimes further divided geographically ... Centralized control was maintained by means of the small group of powerful officials who headed each department, who reported directly who the king, who were appointed and removed by him." [29]
Dier-el-Medina worker village
1. Pharoah
2. Vizier3. Palace scribePalace scribe managed the community and was himself appointed by the Vizier. [30] Two teams of workers worked ten days and then were replaced. [30]
4. Team on the left(or right) supervisor5. Team on the left(or right) worker (*5)
4. Team on the left(or right) doctor
4. Team on the left(or right) non-commissioned officer5. Team on the left(or right) guard
5. Team on the left(or right) gate-keeper

[1]: (Brier and Hobbs 2008, 72) Brier, Bob. Hobbs, H A. 2008. Daily Life of the Ancient Egyptians. Greenwood Publishing Group.

[2]: (O’Connor 1983, 208) O’Connor, David. "New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period 1552-664 BC" in Trigger, B G. Kemp, B J. O’Connor, D. LLoyd, A B. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[3]: (O’Connor 1983, 214) O’Connor, David. "New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period 1552-664 BC" in Trigger, B G. Kemp, B J. O’Connor, D. LLoyd, A B. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[4]: (van den Boorn 1988, 115-116) van den Boorn, G. P. F. 1988. The Duties of the Vizier. Civil Administration in the Early New Kingdom. Kegan Paul International. London & New York.

[5]: (van den Boorn 1988, 175-177) van den Boorn, G. P. F. 1988. The Duties of the Vizier. Civil Administration in the Early New Kingdom. Kegan Paul International. London & New York.

[6]: (van den Boorn 1988, 177) van den Boorn, G. P. F. 1988. The Duties of the Vizier. Civil Administration in the Early New Kingdom. Kegan Paul International. London & New York.

[7]: (Van Dijk 2000, 292)

[8]: (Pagliari 2012, 675) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.

[9]: (Ref. Helck. 1957. Zur Verwaltung des Mittleren und Neuen Reich.)

[10]: (Van Dijk 2000, 285)

[11]: (Pagliari 2012, 727) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.

[12]: (Pagliari 2012, 662) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.

[13]: (Bryan 2000, 230)

[14]: (Pagliari 2012, 672) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.

[15]: (Pagliari 2012, 669) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.

[16]: (Bryan 2000, 261)

[17]: (Bryan 2000, 236)

[18]: (Bryan 2000, 264)

[19]: (Pagliari 2012, 663) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.

[20]: (Pagliari 2012, 610) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.

[21]: (Pagliari 2012, 859) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.

[22]: (Pagliari 2012, 737) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.

[23]: (Pagliari 2012, 752) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.

[24]: (Willard 2008, 2249)

[25]: (Bryan 2000, 241)

[26]: (Bryan 2000, 234)

[27]: (Pagliari 2012, 726) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.

[28]: (O’Connor 1983) O’Connor, David. "New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period 1552-664 BC" in Trigger, B G. Kemp, B J. O’Connor, D. LLoyd, A B. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[29]: (O’Connor 1983, 209) O’Connor, David. "New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period 1552-664 BC" in Trigger, B G. Kemp, B J. O’Connor, D. LLoyd, A B. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[30]: Ziskind, Bernard. Halioua. Occupational medicine in ancient Egypt. 2007. Medical Hypotheses. Volume 69. Issue 4. pp 942-945. Elsevier.


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

[1] [2]

[1]: (Manning 2012, 76)

[2]: (Brewer and Teeter 1999, 74)


Professional Priesthood:
present

During the New Kingdom the priesthood became a full-time profession. The position of chief priest could be held by members of the royal family, then by officials appointed by the Pharaoh. [1] Temples "sustained by government grants bestowed in return for formal blessings on the undertakings of the state." [2]

[1]: (Doxey 2001)

[2]: (Mokhtar 1981, 102)


Professional Military Officer:
present

[1] [2]

[1]: (Manning 2012, 76)

[2]: (Brewer and Teeter 1999, 74)


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Offices of government and police headquarters close to royal court. [1]

[1]: (Trigger 1983, 217)


Merit Promotion:
unknown

Social order considered maat, that is, divinely intended. [1] However, in the army commoners could achieve promotion to officer status. [2] shn[t]y st.f m ’h "One whose position/status was promoted in the ’h." (tomb of Dhwty, Thut III - Hatsh. period). [3] the ’h is considered to be a palace with ceremonial and ritual functions.

[1]: (Hinds 2006, 5)

[2]: (Healy 1992, 19)

[3]: (Pagliari 2012, 716) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

Several major administrative departments, e.g. treasury, granaries, and other public works, overseen by vizier. [1]

[1]: (Baines, John. Personal Communication. April 2020. Email)


Examination System:
absent

Schools attached to departments. [1]

[1]: (Unknown [6])


Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent

No professional judges or lawyers. [1] Not present until Ptolemaic era.

[1]: (McDowell 2001)


King highest judge, vizier second highest judge. However, law usually administered at local level. [1]
JGM: Note the important text: "The Duties of the Vizier" that lays out the chief judges responsibilities, and provides the formal organization of the legal system of the New Kingdom. See G.P.F. Van Den Boorn,The Duties of the Vizier:Civil Administration in the Early New Kingdom. Kegan Paul, 1988.

[1]: (Brewer and Teeter 1999, 73)


Formal Legal Code:
present

Not discovered.
Few codes known to exist. However, the law system was nationally integrated such that local disputes could be appealed to a higher court.
Legal Text of Mose concerns control of land tenure and tax obligations. "In a case that went through five lawsuits over control of, or rights to, disputed land in the Village of Neshi, the plaintive Mose, as descendant of Neshi sought to overturn the judgement of of the Qenbet, "council" or court of magistrates in Memphis." This was the local court that had jurisdiction over the case "at the level of the nome, because Memphis was the capital of the nome in which the disputed land was located." The case moved up to the "Great Qenbet over which the Vizier presided, at national level." [1]
Inscriptions record pharaonic decrees on crimes and punishments. Instructions for Merikare, written in Middle Kingdom, "set down basic guidelines for administering justice" and was well known in the New Kingdom. [2]
Legal system based on precedent and case law. [3]

[1]: (Kohler and Gumerman 2000, 313)

[2]: (Hinds 2006, 6)

[3]: (Brewer and Teeter 1999, 73)


The following quotes are relevant but do not explictly confirm the existence of a physical building exclusively devoted to legal proceedings
van den Boorn (1988)
"We want to stress that the vizier apparently does not pronounce a verdict on the dispute itself. He only orders a re-assessment to be carried out by the local officials in charge and stipulates its duration. Therefore, the petitioner’s request is not for a trial or re-trial, his appeal is concerned with obtaining legal permission for a re-assessment by the local authorities. Ultimately, the matter will be settled locally." [1]
O’Connor (1983)
"Oracles, which were always delivered by a specific god but variously in his ’national’ or local form, were a source of reassurance and guidance for individuals and an important social mechanism easing the tensions and conflicts inherent in closely-knit and largely self-regulating town and village communities. The local kenbet-councils ... were clearly unable or unwilling to solve many disputes involving ownership or rights and cases of theft and other crimes, and these were therefore submitted to a god as a neutral arbitrator of unimpeachable authority." [2]
"The New Kingdom kenbet-councils were primarily judicial but they were also quasi-administrative, since they were often concerned with property rights." [3]
Archival texts of court proceedings. [4]
Courts called kenbet at local and provincial levels. [5]
"It is difficult to answer the question of whether the kenbet was a council or a court, or both." [6]
Civil service officials controlled the judiciary. Vizier was the chief judge on civil matters. [7]
"with priests of the local temples, nomarchs comprised the district court of justice." [8]
All officials were responsible for reporting crime to the vizier’s office, which either ratified decisions made by the lower officials or set up an investigation itself (and if necessary enacted a punishment). [9]

[1]: (van den Boorn 1988, 165) van den Boorn, G. P. F. 1988. The Duties of the Vizier. Civil Administration in the Early New Kingdom. Kegan Paul International. London & New York.

[2]: (O’Connor 1983, 199) O’Connor, David. "New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period 1552-664 BC" in Trigger, B G. Kemp, B J. O’Connor, D. LLoyd, A B. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[3]: (O’Connor 1983, 214) O’Connor, David. "New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period 1552-664 BC" in Trigger, B G. Kemp, B J. O’Connor, D. LLoyd, A B. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[4]: (O’Connor 1983, 185) O’Connor, David. "New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period 1552-664 BC" in Trigger, B G. Kemp, B J. O’Connor, D. LLoyd, A B. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[5]: (Brewer and Teeter 1999, 73)

[6]: (Haring 2010)

[7]: ([7])

[8]: (Pardey 2001)

[9]: (McDowell 2001)


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

"Merchants who worked for their own gain existed in ancient Egypt only during the New Kingdom." In the New Kingdom there is "evidence that Asian merchants traded on the market in Thebes." [1] "Among the various public officials were the Qabbaneh, or public weighers, who erected their balances in the market place while a notary stood by to record the details." [2] Earliest known depiction of the balance dates to Amenophis III (1391-1353 BCE) [2] Warburton disagrees with the supply state view so presumably independent merchants could have existed earlier "lack of evidence of state ’control’ of crafts or of the economy; ... absence of evidence of ’redistribution’ ... increasingly widespread evidence of commercial activity ... exaggerated attention to titles has paid neither sufficient attention to their absence, nor to the lack of evidence for an administrative role of titles when they are documented. Together these points suggest that the Ancient Egyptian economy was a pre-capitalist market economy in which administration played a relatively unimportant role in itself." [3]

[1]: (Altenmuller 2001)

[2]: (Willard 2008, 2249)

[3]: (Warburton 2007) Warburton, David A. 2007. Work and Compensation in Ancient Egypt. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. Vol. 93. pp 175-194. Egypt Exploration Society.


Irrigation System:
present

Irrigation was a local responsibility throughout the Pharaonic period. Central authority primarily concerned with taxation. However, central government was responsible for national projects like land reclamation and irrigation of new areas in Fayyum and Delta. Techniques employed included extension of canal network for the control of flood waters, and the human powered shaduf system. [1] Shaduf introduced middle second millennium BCE [2] , which would be around start of the New Kingdom.

[1]: (Nicholson and Shaw 2000, 515)

[2]: (Juan Carlos Moreno García, Recent Developments in the Social and Economic History of Ancient Egypt, 14)


Food Storage Site:
present

Granaries. [1]
Taxes - usually grain and cattle - stored in temple or state granaries. [2] "The Great Harris Papyrus, in the British Museum, records that during the reign ofRamesses II, 81 322 men worked in the Temple of Karnak, tending over 400 000 livestock. The huge storehouses attached to the temples were major centres for the redistribution of goods." [3]

[1]: (Trigger 1983, 232)

[2]: (Unknown [8], 13)

[3]: (Unknown [9], 13)


Drinking Water Supply System:
absent

A pipe network that connects the drinking water to individual settlements is not known to exist / not thought to be present. However, various technologies might have incorporated piped water? 1. Water filtration system in use since c2000 BCE. [1] (privately owned, but also used in temples and government offices?). 2. In Amarna many property compounds had their own well "a unique feature of this city, which made its inhabitants independent of the Nile for their daily water supplies." [2] 3. A map of Amarna labels a "Water Tower" [3] near the central city. This would store too much water for private consumption and could be a store of water intended for public consumption.

[1]: (Angelakis et al. 2012, 136)

[2]: (Van Dijk 2000, 274)

[3]: (Van Dijk 2000, 273)


Transport Infrastructure

Western coast road. [1] Royal Road at Amarna. [2] Reliable road through Sinai had to be developed in order to advance by land into Canaan. Connected east Delta (or Avaris, at Perunefer) to Gaza. [3] Road network emerged with development of irrigation systems. Excavated soil was piled by the side of ditches, these formed embankments which were used as paths and roads. Generally not paved. (An exception was the 11.5 km paved straight road - using flagstones and petrified wood - discovered in the Fayyum, which artefacts date to Old Kingdom). [4]

[1]: ([10])

[2]: (Arnold 2003, 37)

[3]: (Garcia ed. 2013, 435-436)

[4]: (Partridge 2010)


Memphis and Aswan were two large ports. At Avaris there was a dockyard called Perunefer. [1]

[1]: (Garcia ed. 2013, 435-436)


Thutmose I (r c1525-1512 BCE) re-excavated the canals. [1]

[1]: ([11])


Bridge:
present

Bridges over wide expanse of water unknown. Small bridges were built. A bridge at Amarna linked two parts of a royal palace that was separated by a Royal Road. It was supported by two pillars 5 meters apart. [1]

[1]: (Arnold 2003, 37)


Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Annals of Thutmose III carved into temple walls at Karnak. [1] [2] Armana Letters records on 350 clay tablets, written in cuneiform script, record diplomacy with the Near East. [3]

[1]: (Manning 2012, 76)

[2]: (Mokhtar 1981, 100)

[3]: (Teeter and Brewer 1999, 43)


Script:
present

Practical Hieratic script and ornamental Hieroglyphs [1] Sacred script vs ordinary long-hand (Hieratic). [2]

[1]: (Unknown [12])

[2]: (Quirke 2001)


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent

The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language. The repertoire of glyphs is based on the Greek alphabet augmented by letters borrowed from the Egyptian Demotic and is the first alphabetic script used for the Egyptian language. [1]

[1]: Ritner, Robert Kriech. 1996. "The Coptic Alphabet". In The World’s Writing Systems, edited by Peter T. Daniels and William Bright. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. 1994:287-290.


Nonwritten Record:
present

Annals of Thutmose III carved into temple walls at Karnak. [1] [2] Armana Letters records on 350 clay tablets, written in cuneiform script, record diplomacy with the Near East. [3]

[1]: (Manning 2012, 76)

[2]: (Mokhtar 1981, 100)

[3]: (Teeter and Brewer 1999, 43)


Non Phonetic Writing:
present

hieroglyphs



Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Medical texts. Kahun Gynecological papyrus (1825 BCE), the Edwin Smith papyrus (1700 BCE), and the Ebers papyrus (1500 BCE) covered "surgery, healing, skin diseases, stomach ailments, medicines, the head, dentistry, gynecology, and diseases of the extremities". [1]

[1]: (Marios, Hanna, Alsiegh, Mohammadali and Tubbs 2011) Loukas, Marios. Hanna, Michael. Alsaiegh, Nada. Mohammadali, M Shoja. Tubbs, R Shane. 20 April 2011. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians. May 2011. Clinical Anatomy. Volume 24. Issue 4. pp 409-415. Wiley.


Sacred Text:
present

Each temple had religious ritual books; to some extent standardized perhaps? Greco-Roman texts suggests standardization of temple building and design. (J.G. Manning, personal communication)


Religious Literature:
present

Prayers. [1]

[1]: (Lichtheim 2006, viii)


Practical Literature:
present

The Instruction of Any, The Instruction of Amenemope. [1] The Installation of the Vizier. Duties of the Vizier. [2] Teaching of Amennakht. Teaching of Hori. [3]

[1]: (Lichtheim 2006, viii)

[2]: (Unknown [13])

[3]: (Moers 2010, 689)


Philosophy:
present

The Duties of the Vizier TT 100. "Ancient Egyptians had a strict code of ethics as expressed by the New Kingdom Instructions of Amenemope who lived during the reign of Amenhotep III18. The instructions of Amenemope commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with handicapping conditions". [1]

[1]: (Kozma 2006) Kozma, Chahira. February 16 2006. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A. Volume 140A. Issue 4. 302-311.


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

History:
present

"Annals, inscribed in the forty-second year" of the reign of Thutmose III. [1]

[1]: (Bryan 2000, 236)


Fiction:
present

Love poems and tales. [1] JGM: on the absence of philosophy, often noted, I would hesitate about. Or do we mean here "non-religious"? Clearly there was a well thought out Philosophy/Theology, preserved in temple texts still for many temples unpublished. See for example: R.B. Finnestad, Image of the world and symbol of the creator. Harrassowitz, 1985. The scribe Kenhirkhepshef, who worked at Deir el Medina during the reign of Rameses II, had a large library with papyri on medical texts, religious spells, hymns, letters, poetry, household hints, dream interpretations. [2] "Prohibitions". Miscellanies used in Ramesside scribal education. Satirical letter of P.Anastasi I. Laus ubis (lyrical form), hymns and prayers. Love songs. "The Antef Song". "Songs from the Orchard". Tales: "Taking of Joppa", "Apophis and Seqenenre", "Doomed Prince", "Two Brothers", "Truth and Falsehood", "Head and Trunk", "Khonsuembheb and the Ghost", "Horus and Seth." [3]

[1]: (Lichtheim 2006, viii)

[2]: (Booth 2011, 301)

[3]: (Moers 2010, 689)


Calendar:
present

"The existence of a festival calendar recorded on papyrus for the reign of Amenhotep I (Papyrus Ebers verso), raises the possibility that the king wished to rework earlier calendars. [1]

[1]: (Bryan 2000, 216)


Information / Money





Article:
present

"by far the most common were units of grain, copper, and silver (also popular was linen...)" [1] List of items tax paid in for New Kingdom: Gold, rainment, chest of linen, "large bolts", silver, oxen, calves, necklace bead, "1 two-year-old" and "two-year-olds" (two-year-old what?), garments, grain, yearlings, pigeons, firstlings of the year, honey. [2]

[1]: (Haring 2016) Haring, Ben. 2016. Economy. https://uee.cdh.ucla.edu/articles/economy/?x=56&y=16

[2]: (Ezzamel 2002, 20) Ezzamel, Mahmoud. 2002. Accounting working for the state: Tax assessment and collection during the New Kingdom, ancient Egypt. Accounting and business research. Volume 32. Issue 1. pp 17-39.


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
absent

Letters existed. [1] However this might not be enough to infer the presence of postal stations. (Thut III - Am II period). "Inscription from the tomb of Vizier Rh-mi-r’" states the duties of the vizier. "It is he who dispatches every messenger of the pr-nswt sent to the mayors and the settlement-leaders; is he who dispatches everyone who will circulate all messages of the pr-nswt." [2]

[1]: (Unknown [14], 10)

[2]: (Pagliari 2012, 726) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.


General Postal Service:
absent

Courier:
present

"Messengers." [1] Mounted messengers. [2] (Thut III - Am II period). "Inscription from the tomb of Vizier Rh-mi-r’" states the duties of the vizier. "It is he who dispatches every messenger of the pr-nswt sent to the mayors and the settlement-leaders; is he who dispatches everyone who will circulate all messages of the pr-nswt." [3]

[1]: (Spalinger 2013, 408)

[2]: (Healey 1992)

[3]: (Pagliari 2012, 726) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications

Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present

Thutmose I at Karnak "extended its walls westwards to join two new pylon gates (the Fourth and Fifth) which he built as the entrance to the temple." [1]

[1]: (Bryan 2000, 223)


Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown

Thutmose I at Karnak "extended its walls westwards to join two new pylon gates (the Fourth and Fifth) which he built as the entrance to the temple." [1]

[1]: (Bryan 2000, 223)


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

According to Gnirs, "fortification architecture and techniques of siege had become the basic means of warfare by the third millennium BCE." [1]

[1]: (Gnirs 2001)





Earth Rampart:
present

According to Gnirs, "fortification architecture and techniques of siege had become the basic means of warfare by the third millennium BCE." [1]

[1]: (Gnirs 2001)



Complex Fortification:
absent

"With the exception of planned settlements, we have no evidence for wall-construction around towns in the New Kingdom."Spence does not describe complex fortifications. [1] According to Gnirs, "fortification architecture and techniques of siege had become the basic means of warfare by the third millennium BCE." [2]

[1]: (Spence 2004: 270) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/M4BFTF9V.

[2]: (Gnirs 2001)


Military use of Metals

1274 BCE Battle of Kadesh, Egyptian mercenary army still using bronze weapons. [1]

[1]: (Dupuy and Dupuy 2007, 7)


Bronze is made with copper. Bronze plates could be added to leather armor. [1] Copper and/or Bronze may also have been used for shields. [2]

[1]: (Gnirs 2001)

[2]: (Hoffmeier 2001)


Bronze plates could be added to leather armor. [1] Mail coats made out of bronze. [2]

[1]: (Gnirs 2001)

[2]: (Hoffmeier 2001)


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

not yet developed


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

not yet developed


[1] [2]

[1]: (Brewer and Teeter 1999, 74)

[2]: (Hoffmeier 2001)



[1]

[1]: (Spalinger 2008, 12)


Handheld Firearm:
absent

not yet developed


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

not yet developed


not yet developed


Composite Bow:
present

Composite bow from beginning of New Kingdom. [1] Effective range of 160 to 175 meters. [2] Non-academic reference says Hyksos introduced the composite bow to Egypt - is this correct?

[1]: (Gnirs 2001)

[2]: (Hoffmeier 2001)


New World weapon


Handheld weapons

Present but used less frequently. Preiser-Kapeller (2015) suggests next data for war clubs for an Upper Egypt NGA polity may be East Roman Empire 395-631 CE. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)


Military historian suggests "All armies after the seventeenth century B.C.E. carried the sword, but in none was it a major weapon of close combat; rather, it was used when the soldier’s primary weapons, the spear and axe, were lost or broken." [1] - can an historian of ancient Egyptian history confirm this? Sickle-shaped sword [2]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 26-27) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[2]: (Spalinger 2013, 477)



First recorded use in Egypt 312 BCE [1]

[1]: (Lloyd 2000, 394) Lloyd, A B in Shaw, I. 2000. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Non-academic source for long bronze dagger. Can we confirm this?


Battle Axe:
present

The socket axe was introduced by the Hyksos but axe technology remained behind that of Sumer even for some time afterwards. Egyptians previously had used a cutting axe with the blade insecurely tied to the shaft without a socket. [1]

[1]: (Gabriel and Metz 1991, 61-63) Richard A Gabriel. Karen S Metz. 1991. The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Animals used in warfare

Horse-drawn chariot first effectively exploited as a weapon by the 18th Dynasty. [1] Horses non-native to Egypt. Introduced c1700 BCE. [2] Mounted scouts important from the beginning of the New Kingdom. [1] According to Egyptian administrative records, a chariot would carry "one or two bows, two to four quivers attached at both sides of the chariot (providing eighty arrows altogether), a spear and/or a javelin, as well as axe and shield for close combat." The crew was the chariot driver and the bowmen with the addition of a shield man from late second millennium BCE. [1]

[1]: (Gnirs 2001)

[2]: (Partridge 2010, 384)


elephants not used until Kushite military [1]

[1]: (http://www.afropedea.org/kush#TOC-Military)


The donkey was probably domesticated from the African wild ass ’in more than one place’ but for the Nubian subspecies 5500-4500 BCE in the Sudan. [1] Military historian suggests "During the Bronze Age the standard mechanism of transport was the donkey (Egypt) or the solid-wheeled cart drawn by the onager (Sumer)." [2] - can an historian of ancient Egypt confirm this?

[1]: (Mitchell 2018, 39) Peter Mitchell 2018. The Donkey in Human History: An Archaeological Perspective. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 7) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.



camels not considered native to Egypt, likely introduced by Persians in 525 BCE


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

inferred from presence in previous polities [1]

[1]: (Fields 2007, 4)


Infantry carried round or oval shields covered with hide. [1] Cowhides probably most common material. Copper and/or Bronze may also have been used for shields. [2]

[1]: (Brewer and Teeter 1999, 74)

[2]: (Hoffmeier 2001)


Scaled Armor:
present

"the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty, "but it consisted of nothing more elaborate than metal scales sewn onto a leather base." [1] Bronze scale armor on short-sleeved, knee length shirt made out of linen or leather. [2]

[1]: (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 135-138) Fischer-Bovet (2014) Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge University Press

[2]: (Gnirs 2001)


Plate Armor:
absent

"the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty, "but it consisted of nothing more elaborate than metal scales sewn onto a leather base." [1]

[1]: (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 135-138) Fischer-Bovet (2014) Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge University Press


Limb Protection:
absent

"Body armour, in the form of small bronze plates riveted to linen or leather jerkins, with a a tapered lower half, began to be used." [1] Jerkins do not have sleeves. Infantrymen wore padded fabric armour. [2]

[1]: (Shaw 1991: 42) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.

[2]: (Brewer and Teeter 1999, 74)


Laminar Armor:
absent

Technology not yet available. A military historian suggests lamellar armour was introduced by the Assyrians (9th century BCE?) [1] - can an Egyptian historian confirm its absence at this time?

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Appeared in 18th Dynasty, likely to have been made of bronze as the word for helmet is the same as the word for an "ingot of metal." Battle scenes do not depict soldiers wearing helmets. Likely used by charioteers who were unable to carry shields. [1] Sherdan mercenaries wore spiked helmets. [2]

[1]: (Hoffmeier 2001) J K Hoffmeier in D B Redford. ed. 2001. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Brewer and Teeter 1999, 75)


In the New Kingdom mail coats were made out of bronze developed for charioteers. Evidence from a scene from the tomb of Kenamun. Colour of painting suggests bronze used for scales. [1] "the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty, "but it consisted of nothing more elaborate than metal scales sewn onto a leather base." [2]

[1]: (Hoffmeier 2001)

[2]: (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 135-138) Fischer-Bovet (2014) Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge University Press


Breastplate:
present

"Body armour, in the form of small bronze plates riveted to linen or leather jerkins, with a a tapered lower half, began to be used." [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1991: 42) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

After the introduction of the horse and chariot in the New Kingdom, the importance of the land army increased relative to that of the navy. [1] Navy mostly of transport and communications sort. [2]

[1]: (Garcia ed. 2013, 436)

[2]: (Unknown [15], 15)


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown


Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions