Home Region:  Central Europe (Europe)

Austria - Habsburg Dynasty II

D G SC CC PT EQ 2020  at_habsburg_2

Preceding:
1454 CE 1648 CE Austria - Habsburg Dynasty I (at_habsburg_1)    [None]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
No Polity found. Add one here.

The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ended the Thirty Years’ War, the Habsburgs faced the task of consolidating their fragmented territories, this era was marked by a series of succession wars, reflecting the Habsburgs’ quest for territorial expansion and dynastic security. [1]

The beginning of the period saw the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession (1700-1714), a conflict over the vast inheritance of the Spanish Habsburgs. The war ended with the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt, which, while ceding the Spanish throne to the Bourbon Philip of Anjou, granted the Austrian Habsburgs significant territories in Italy and the Netherlands, reshaping the European balance of power. [2]




In mid-18th century the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) challenged Maria Theresa’s right to her father’s throne. Despite initial setbacks, including the loss of Silesia to Prussia, Maria Theresa confirmed her rule and laid the foundation for the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. [3]




The Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) further tested the Habsburg power, as Maria Theresa sought to reclaim Silesia and counter Prussia’s rise. This global conflict, stretching from the heart of Europe to distant colonies, ended without altering the Silesian status quo but significantly realigned international alliances, setting the stage for future confrontations. [4]




At the end of the 18th century, the War of the Bavarian Succession (1778-1779) once again pitted the Habsburgs against Prussia, this time over the strategic region of Bavaria on the question of succession to the Electorate of Bavaria after the extinction of the Bavarian branch of the House of Wittelsbach. The conflict ended with the Treaty of Teschen with only minor gains for the Habsburg monarchy.
[5]


In the 19th century, the Habsburg Empire faced the challenge of Napoleonic France which resulted in the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 and the establishment of the Austrian Empire in 1804, Francis II became Francis I, Emperor of Austria. [6]




The Congress of Vienna in 1815 which laid the foundation of the post Napoleonic order in central Europe. further redefined the Habsburg realm, securing its status as a great power. [7]



The revolutionary period of 1848, with its calls for liberalization and nationalism, profoundly challenged the imperial status quo, revealing the deep-seated tensions within its multi-ethnic composition. [8]



In response to these internal upheavals and the growing nationalist movements, “the Ausgleich” of 1867 with Hungary marked a pivotal compromise. This agreement gave rise to the Dual Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (“k. u. k.-Monarchie).



“The Ausgleich (“compromise”) reached with Hungary in 1867 was a major concession for Franz Joseph, and it created the so-called dualist Austria-Hungary that existed until 1918… The arrangement was dualist because it was not federalist. Rather than parceling out the monarchy into a structure in which the Austro-German lands, the Czech lands, Galicia, and Hungary-Croatia would all have roughly equal weight, it was divided simply into two, the Hungarian half and the Austrian half. This latter was not really called “Austria” but rather “Cisleithania,” meaning “beyond the Leitha River,” which was the border between Austria and Hungary. The formal name of the Cisleithanian half was “the countries and realms represented in the Reichsrat,” which gives some indication of the insubstantial basis for common identity of those territories. The governmental link between these two halves was also minimal. Foreign and military policy belonged almost exclusively to Franz Joseph. He retained the power to appoint and dismiss ministers, who thus had only a partial responsibility to parliament, and he could reject laws passed by the Reichsrat. There was a joint financial ministry and tariff regime. But details such as Hungary’s share of the budget could be renegotiated every decade, which led to repeated political conflicts in the years ahead, so dualism’s division of powers was by no means entirely clear. Nearly everything else was separate. There were distinct parliaments for the Cisleithanian and Hungarian halves, and each half had its own administrative, legal, and school systems. The realm was designated as kaiserlich (“imperial”) for the Austrian Empire of Cisleithania and königlich (“royal”) for the Kingdom of Hungary. In practice, dualism meant that the Austro-Germans dominated the other peoples in their half, and the Hungarians the other peoples in theirs. In many ways, Hungary’s weight within the Dual Monarchy only grew after 1867, thanks to economic advances that in turn fed into greater assertiveness on the part of the Magyar elite… Ultimately, even the Austro-Germans and the Hungarians disliked dualism. The former resented Hungarians’ disproportionate weight in the monarchy, while the latter constantly pushed for more autonomy and resisted any changes that would reduce their weight. And virtually all the other national groups detested the arrangement because it unfairly excluded them.” [9]


“By the summer of 1918 the Habsburg dynasty’s death knell was ringing… Karl presided impotently over the progressive hollowing out of the whole monarchical state until there was almost nothing left that he actually governed. At the end of October the nearly 400-year-old monarchy dissolved in a matter of weeks. Karl issued a proposal for federalization on 16 October, but he and his idea were already irrelevant by that point. Gyula Andrássy, the last foreign minister of Austria-Hungary, said that the implicit logic behind the final, futile moves taken by the leadership was that “so that no one can kill us, we’ll commit suicide.” The initiative was instead firmly in the hands of the various national groups. On 18 October Romanians in Hungary called for union with the Kingdom of Romania. On the 21st the Germans of the monarchy declared their right to self-determination. On the 28th the Czech National Council declared independence, and on the 30th the new Czechoslovakia was officially formed. On the 29th the Croatian parliament formally dissolved its connections to Austria and Hungary and pledged to join the new Yugoslav kingdom. On the 31st the Ruthenians in Galicia announced their secession. On 1 November the Hungarians proclaimed their ties to the monarchy ended, followed ten days later by Galicia joining the new Polish republic. As all this was happening, Karl was still working at his desk in Schönbrunn, but the palace was mostly empty. Only a few loyal servants remained, since even his bodyguards had left. Finally on 11 November Karl signed papers that he was “temporarily” giving up his powers. He never formally abdicated but went into exile, first in Switzerland. Karl twice tried to retake the throne in Hungary in 1921, but after these unsuccessful attempts he was removed by the British to Madeira, where he died in 1922.” [10]

[1]: Arndt, Der Dreißigjährige Krieg. Zotero link: PULFEDKX

[2]: Schnettger, Der Spanische Erbfolgekrieg. Zotero link: HK6DTTSH

[3]: (Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Kriegsarchiv) Zotero link: WC966X6J

[4]: Danley and Speelman, The Seven Years’ War. Zotero link: AE3M256H

[5]: Michael Kotulla, Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte: vom Alten Reich bis Weimar (1495 - 1934). Zotero link: U84B9DNB

[6]: “Germany - Prussia, Napoleon, Reunification | Britannica.” Zotero link: F52JWVA3

[7]: Heinz Duchhardt, Der Wiener Kongress: die Neugestaltung Europas 1814/15. Zotero link: KQ7ZZYPE

[8]: Dowe, Haupt, and Langewiesche, Europa 1848. Zotero link: ZDEFI38W

[9]: Berger, Der Österreichisch-ungarische Ausgleich von 1867. Zotero link: 7SEQIFJ2

[10]: “Das Ende der Monarchie,” Die Welt der Habsburger, accessed February 4, 2024, https://www.habsburger.net/de/kapitel/das-ende-der-monarchie. Zotero link: G9K39WS5

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
33 N  
Original Name:
Austria - Habsburg Dynasty II  
Capital:
Vienna  
Budapest  
Alternative Name:
Habsburg Monarchy 1649 CE 1804 CE
Empire of Austria 1804 CE 1867 CE
Kaisertum Österreich 1804 CE 1867 CE
Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia 1867 CE 1918 CE
Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie 1867 CE 1918 CE
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy 1867 CE 1918 CE
k. u. k.-Monarchie 1867 CE 1918 CE
Dual Monarchy 1867 CE 1918 CE
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,780 CE ➜ 1,790 CE]  
Duration:
[1,649 CE ➜ 1,918 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Succeeding Entity:
Interwar Austria  
Preceding Entity:
Preceding:   Austria - Habsburg Dynasty I (at_habsburg_1)    [None]  
Degree of Centralization:
nominal  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
German  
Religion
Religious Tradition:
Christianity  
Religion Family:
Catholicism  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
250,000 people 1817 CE
357,000 people 1848 CE
758,807 people 1873 CE
2,000,000 people 1910 CE
Polity Territory:
673,396,908 km2 1790 CE
Polity Population:
26,000,000 people 1790 CE
30,000,000 people 1815 CE
34,000,000 people 1848 CE
51,390,000 people 1910 CE
Largest Communication Distance:
1720  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
5  
Religious Level:
6  
Military Level:
17  
Administrative Level:
8 1867 CE 1918 CE
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
present  
Source Of Support:
salary 1867 CE 1918 CE
salary  
enoblement  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
present  
Merit Promotion:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
present  
Examination System:
present  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
present  
Judge:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
present  
Court:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
present  
Communal Building:
present  
Symbolic Building:
present  
Knowledge Or Information Building:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
Entertainment Building:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
present  
Trading Emporia:
present  
Special Purpose Site:
present  
Enclosure:
present  
Ceremonial Site:
present  
Burial Site:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
Philosophy:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
present  
History:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
present  
Fiction:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Token:
inferred absent  
Precious Metal:
present  
Paper Currency:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
Transitional (Absent -> Present)  
Indigenous Coin:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
present  
Article:
inferred absent  
Store Of Wealth:
present  
Debt And Credit Structure:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
Transitional (Absent -> Present)  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
Transitional (Absent -> Present)  
General Postal Service:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
present  
Fastest Individual Communication:
0 1867 CE 1918 CE
Information / Measurement System
Weight Measurement System:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
present  
Volume Measurement System:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
present  
Time Measurement System:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
Length Measurement System:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
present  
Geometrical Measurement System:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
Area Measurement System:
present 1867 CE 1918 CE
present  
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Military use of Metals
Projectiles
Handheld weapons
Animals used in warfare
Armor
Naval technology
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Austria - Habsburg Dynasty II (at_habsburg_2) was in:
Home NGA: None

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Austria - Habsburg Dynasty II

Capital:
Vienna

Language “One part of the integration process that could create a loyal populace was, in Joseph’s vision, an overarching public culture in the German language. German was not adopted specifically to benefit the native German speakers of the monarchy, but rather because it was already the primary language of the dynasty, many of the elite, and of the most educated parts of the monarchy’s population. As Joseph himself said, “The German language is the universal language of my empire. Why should I negotiate laws and business with one of my provinces in their own language? I am the ruler of the German Empire and therefore the other states which I possess are provinces which must form one complete state, of which I am the head.”10 This quotation reveals that Joseph’s motivation for “Germanization” was not nationalist but rather centralist; it was pragmatic, in his view, to standardize and centralize his rule by promoting the German language.” [1] “The Habsburgs held territories that today are located in twelve different European countries and that in the late eighteenth century included speakers of languages known today as Croatian, Czech, Flemish, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Ladin, Polish, Romanian, Serb, Slovak, Slovene, Ukrainian, and Yiddish.” [2]

[1]: (Curtis 2013: 238) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92

[2]: (Judson 2016: 19) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

Capital:
Budapest

Vienna had been reinstated as the capital of Austria since 1804. [1] However, Hungary had it’s own capital, Budapest. “Around 1914, after decades of rapid growth, the twin capitals Vienna and Budapest had populations of 2 million and not quite 1 million respectively.” [2] Language “Storm centers of strife in the nationally mixed areas were the crownlands with the culturally most advanced population, particularly Bohemia with its roughly three-fifths to two-fifths relationship between Czechs and Germans. Here the distinction between language of the land (Landessprache) and language customary in the lands (landesübliche Sprache) has to be introduced. The former notion meant that a language of the land was any language spoken as vernacular by at least 20 percent of the people. That applied to Bohemia and Moravia in regard to the Czech and German languages, in Silesia to the Polish as well.30 According to a language ordinance of 1880, administrative actions should be taken in the language in which they were initiated by an individual party with interpreter service provided for the other party, if necessary. The other concept, the language "customary in the land" was for the Germans in Bohemia and Moravia the language prevalent in any given district. The Czechs did not recognize any distinction between the two concepts in these two crownlands. The Germans stressed the importance of the distinction. It looked like a hair-splitting theoretical issue, yet in practice the consequences were far-reaching. The Czechs demanded that the Czech language should, on historical grounds be the only official language throughout the two crownlands, even in German districts. The Germans on the other hand held that the official language should be only the one customary in any given district— in the German districts, German. The Germans thereby promoted the administrative separation of Bohemia and Moravia as historic entities, in a Czech and German part. This view was opposed by the Czechs who considered the lands of the Bohemian crown as historically Czech lands once united under the crown of St. Wenceslav… Even more subjective was the German position. Except for the unjustified demand for full administrative partition of Bohemia, the German position would have been arguable there as well as in Moravia, if the Germans had been ready to agree to recognition of the same principles in predominantly Slovene southern Styria or in the Italian part of South Tyrol (the Trentino). Here the Germans insisted that the historic lands must be administered as entities with German majorities, even though Slovenes and Italians had a clear majority in the South of both crownlands. As for the language of administration, a further bone of contention was the administrative practice in regard to a tripartite concept of language use: first, an "external" language used in communicating with the interested parties, second an "internal" language used within the government agencies for the agenda not to be communicated to the parties, and third the so-called "innermost" language used between lower and higher government agencies, in particular in communicating between the crownland administrations and the ministries in Vienna. The struggle for the use of the internal language in the administration of Galicia was won by the Poles in 1868, by the Czechs not until the 1890’s and only in part. Prime Minister Count Badeni, appointed in 1895, believed he could settle the enervating Czech-German language conflict in Bohemia and Moravia by two language ordinances of 1897 which provided simply for the conduct of business in both languages, Czech and German throughout the crownlands.” [3]

[1]: (Fichtner 2003: 35) Fichtner, Paula Sutter. 2003. The Habsburg Monarchy, 1490-1848: Attributes of Empire. Macmillan International Higher Education. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QQ77TV4K

[2]: (Curtis 2013: 290) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92

[3]: (Kann 1974: 439-441) Kann, Robert A. 1974. A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918. Los Angeles: University of California Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/RP3JD4UV


Alternative Name:
Habsburg Monarchy
1649 CE 1804 CE
Alternative Name:
Empire of Austria
1804 CE 1867 CE
Alternative Name:
Kaisertum Österreich
1804 CE 1867 CE
Alternative Name:
Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia
1867 CE 1918 CE
Alternative Name:
Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie
1867 CE 1918 CE
Alternative Name:
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy
1867 CE 1918 CE
Alternative Name:
k. u. k.-Monarchie
1867 CE 1918 CE
Alternative Name:
Dual Monarchy
1867 CE 1918 CE

Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,780 CE ➜ 1,790 CE]

“In the 1780s the Habsburg dynasty’s holdings stretched from today’s cities of Innsbruck in the west to Lviv in the east, from Milan and Florence on the Italian peninsula to Antwerp on the North Sea and Cluj in the Carpathian Mountains, from Prague in Bohemia to Vukovar and down to Belgrade in the south. The Habsburgs held territories that today are located in twelve different European countries and that in the late eighteenth century included speakers of languages known today as Croatian, Czech, Flemish, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Ladin, Polish, Romanian, Serb, Slovak, Slovene, Ukrainian, and Yiddish.” [1]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 19) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW


Duration:
[1,649 CE ➜ 1,918 CE]

Political and Cultural Relations
Succeeding Entity:
Interwar Austria

Preceding Entity:
Austria - Habsburg Dynasty I [at_habsburg_1] ---> Austria - Habsburg Dynasty II [at_habsburg_2]

Degree of Centralization:
nominal

Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European


Religion
Religious Tradition:
Christianity

Religion Family:
Catholicism


Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
250,000 people
1817 CE

“Vienna’s population increased from around 250,000 in 1817 to 357,000 in 1848.” [1]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 112) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

Population of the Largest Settlement:
357,000 people
1848 CE

“Vienna’s population increased from around 250,000 in 1817 to 357,000 in 1848.” [1]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 112) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

Population of the Largest Settlement:
758,807 people
1873 CE

Inhabitants. “For example, in 1873 the city districts of Lower Austria including Vienna with a civil population of 758,807 received 17 Deputies, whereas Bohemia and Moravia with 1,518,260 were allocated 45.” [1] “From 1859 to 1917, for example, the Viennese built 460,000 new apartments— a number that hardly kept pace with the size of the population, which doubled between 1870 and 1900, reaching two million in 1910.” [2]

[1]: (Boyer 2022: 117) Boyer, John W. 2022. Austria, 1867–1955. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/CG3P4KKD

[2]: (Judson 2016: 349) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

Population of the Largest Settlement:
2,000,000 people
1910 CE

Inhabitants. “For example, in 1873 the city districts of Lower Austria including Vienna with a civil population of 758,807 received 17 Deputies, whereas Bohemia and Moravia with 1,518,260 were allocated 45.” [1] “From 1859 to 1917, for example, the Viennese built 460,000 new apartments— a number that hardly kept pace with the size of the population, which doubled between 1870 and 1900, reaching two million in 1910.” [2]

[1]: (Boyer 2022: 117) Boyer, John W. 2022. Austria, 1867–1955. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/CG3P4KKD

[2]: (Judson 2016: 349) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW


Polity Territory:
673,396,908 km2
1790 CE

squared kilometres. “At its height, the Habsburg Monarchy covered more than 260,000 square miles— ten degrees of latitude and eighteen degrees of longitude— making it the largest continental European power and second only to the Russian Empire in total landmass. Its west- east length, from Italy to eastern Transylvania, was about 860 miles, and its north- south length, from Bohemia to Croatia, was about 500 miles (excluding Dalmatia).7 Measured end to end, its frontiers were more than 4,000 miles by the end of the eighteenth century — about the width of the Atlantic Ocean.” [1]

[1]: (Mitchell 2018: 22) Mitchell, A. Wess. 2018. The Grand Strategy of the Habsburg Empire. Princeton; Oxford: Princeton University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TESFCKPW


Polity Population:
26,000,000 people
1790 CE

“At Leopold’s death [1790], the monarchy’s population of 26 million people made it the second largest in Europe. Hungary accounted for nearly half that total, with the Bohemian crownlands and the Austrian territories adding another 20 percent each.” [1] “In the immediate aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars, Imperial Austria counted some 30 million people inside its new borders. During the next thirty years the population grew rapidly at an annual rate of at least 1 percent as increased agricultural productivity especially in the Hereditary Lands and Bohemia made it possible to feed an expanding population.” [2] “This robust economic growth was unavoidably attended by important social changes. The population increased significantly, with the monarchy reaching a total of nearly 34 million inhabitants by 1848.” [3]

[1]: (Curtis 2013: 244) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92

[2]: (Judson 2016: 112) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[3]: (Curtis 2013: 257) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92

Polity Population:
30,000,000 people
1815 CE

“At Leopold’s death [1790], the monarchy’s population of 26 million people made it the second largest in Europe. Hungary accounted for nearly half that total, with the Bohemian crownlands and the Austrian territories adding another 20 percent each.” [1] “In the immediate aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars, Imperial Austria counted some 30 million people inside its new borders. During the next thirty years the population grew rapidly at an annual rate of at least 1 percent as increased agricultural productivity especially in the Hereditary Lands and Bohemia made it possible to feed an expanding population.” [2] “This robust economic growth was unavoidably attended by important social changes. The population increased significantly, with the monarchy reaching a total of nearly 34 million inhabitants by 1848.” [3]

[1]: (Curtis 2013: 244) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92

[2]: (Judson 2016: 112) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[3]: (Curtis 2013: 257) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92

Polity Population:
34,000,000 people
1848 CE

“At Leopold’s death [1790], the monarchy’s population of 26 million people made it the second largest in Europe. Hungary accounted for nearly half that total, with the Bohemian crownlands and the Austrian territories adding another 20 percent each.” [1] “In the immediate aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars, Imperial Austria counted some 30 million people inside its new borders. During the next thirty years the population grew rapidly at an annual rate of at least 1 percent as increased agricultural productivity especially in the Hereditary Lands and Bohemia made it possible to feed an expanding population.” [2] “This robust economic growth was unavoidably attended by important social changes. The population increased significantly, with the monarchy reaching a total of nearly 34 million inhabitants by 1848.” [3]

[1]: (Curtis 2013: 244) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92

[2]: (Judson 2016: 112) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[3]: (Curtis 2013: 257) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92

Polity Population:
51,390,000 people
1910 CE

People. “According to the 1910 census, which included Bosnia-Herzegovina, the monarchy had a population of 51,390,000, greater than that of France. Of that total, 28,572,000 lived in Cisleithania, 20,886,000 in Hungary, and 1,932,000 in Bosnia-Herzegovina.” [1]

[1]: (Curtis 2013: 296) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92


Largest Communication Distance:
1720

kilometers. The furthest distance between two cities of the empire were between Antwerp (Belgium) and Belgrade (Serbia), however, this is via modern roads so this is likely to have been a greater distance during this period: “In the 1780s the Habsburg dynasty’s holdings stretched from today’s cities of Innsbruck in the west to Lviv in the east, from Milan and Florence on the Italian peninsula to Antwerp on the North Sea and Cluj in the Carpathian Mountains, from Prague in Bohemia to Vukovar and down to Belgrade in the south.” [1] From the capital of Vienna the furthest distance was to Bucharest which was 1070km or 42 days by marching. [2] “Large distances impeded strategic mobility between the Habsburg heartland and periphery. Depending on weather and road conditions, an infantry regiment could expect to march for three weeks from the imperial capital to the Ottoman frontier, two weeks to forward positions in Moravia, a month to the Italian frontier, and about as long to outposts in Poland (see figures 2.2– 2.3).” [3]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 19) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[2]: (Mitchell 2018: 24) Mitchell, A. Wess. 2018. The Grand Strategy of the Habsburg Empire. Princeton; Oxford: Princeton University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TESFCKPW

[3]: (Mitchell 2018: 22) Mitchell, A. Wess. 2018. The Grand Strategy of the Habsburg Empire. Princeton; Oxford: Princeton University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TESFCKPW


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
5

“In 1770 the government of Empress Maria Theresa (1717–1780) sought to make an accurate count of the population in the western regions of her realm and to apply a new system of house numbers to “all towns, markets, and villages, even in the most scattered localities.’” [1] : 1. Capital city (Vienna in Austria) :: 2. Regional capital cities (e.g. Prague in Bohemia) ::: 3. Market towns :::: 4. Towns ::::: 5. Villages

[1]: (Judson 2016: 16) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW


Religious Level:
6

levels. [1] [2] : 1. Pope :: 2. Archbishops ::: 3. Prince bishops :::: 4. Bishops ::::: 5. Abbots :::::: 6. Chaplains

[1]: ‘Austria-Hungary’. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/47VQW2IL.

[2]: (Judson 2016: 334) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW.


Military Level:
17

The following military levels are taken from Rothenburg’s work on the Austrian army during the reign of Franz Joseph I (r.1848-1916). [1] : 1. The Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary (dual title) :: General/flag Officers : 1. Feldmarschall :: 2. Generaloberst ::: 3. General der Waffengattung ::::4. Feldmarschall-Leutnant :::::5. Generalmajor :::::: Field/senior Officers :::::: 6. Oberst ::::::: 7. Oberstleutnant :::::::: 8. Major ::::::::: Junior Officers ::::::::: 9. Hauptmann / Rittmeister :::::::::: 10. Oberleutnant ::::::::::: 11. Leutnant :::::::::::: Senior NCO :::::::::::: 12. Stabsfeldwebel ::::::::::::: 13. Feldwebel :::::::::::::: Junior NCO :::::::::::::: 14. Zugsführer ::::::::::::::: 15. Korporal :::::::::::::::: 16. Gefreiter ::::::::::::::::: Private ::::::::::::::::: 17. Infanterist

[1]: (Rothenberg 1976: 80-90) Rothenberg, Gunther Erich. 1976. The Army of Francis Joseph. Purdue University Press. http://archive.org/details/armyoffrancisjos00gunt. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/7KIJ2E3J


Administrative Level:
8
1867 CE 1918 CE

levels.The Austrian and Hungarian states had their own parliament and government, however there were three joint ministries which administered their common affairs: ministry of war, ministry of finance, and the ministry of foreign affairs and of the imperial and royal house. [1] [2] “The centralistic governmental structure in a country increasingly weakened by national strife faced great difficulties. They affected the stability of the administration. Thus in Germany, where the powers of the legislative branch of government were encumbered with limitations similar to those in Austria, only five chancellors headed the cabinet between 1871 and 1917. In the dual states of the Habsburg empire the situation was different. Hungary had seventeen prime ministers and Cisleithanian Austria twenty during that period.” [3] : 1. The Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary (dual title) :: 2. Prime Minister ::: 3. Chancellors :::: 4. State Government/Parliament ::::: 5. Diets (in each territory) :::::: 6. Town Council ::::::: 7. Mayor or other locally elected ruler :::::::: 8. Local authorities and administrators

[1]: ‘Austria-Hungary’. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/47VQW2IL.

[2]: Judson 2016: 335. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW.

[3]: (Kann 1974: 424) Kann, Robert A. 1974. A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918. Los Angeles: University of California Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/RP3JD4UV


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

“The years between 1902 and 1904 were marked by an on-again, off-again return to obstruction by the Czechs, but Koerber was able to get a regular budget passed in 1902, the first in four years’ time, and in February 1903 he persuaded the major parties to approve legislation to raise the number of new recruits for the army by 22,000 men, thus meeting an essential demand of military leaders who found the current levels of conscription inadequate to sustain normal troop levels.” [1]

[1]: (Boyer 2022: 342) Boyer, John W. 2022. Austria, 1867–1955. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/CG3P4KKD

Professional Soldier:
present

“In 1748, immediately following the War of the Austrian Succession, Maria Theresa implemented a barrage of administrative reforms to strengthen her military and to create a more effective and centralized state. Her state chancellor, Count Friedrich Wilhelm von Haugwitz (1702–1765), forced the diets of the Hereditary Lands to increase their tax contributions to the military bud get, while creating a standing army of some 108,000 men.” [1] “Higher incomes naturally gave the state more resources for expanding its competencies, a development easily traceable with the military. The monarchy could field around 150,000 men in 1740 and some 300,000 in 1790. Military expenditures at the end of Joseph’s reign accounted for 65 percent of the total state budget, though characteristically for Habsburg history there was never enough money to pay for it all.15 Nonetheless, the reforms undertaken in Maria Theresia’s and Joseph’s reigns made the Habsburg army the second largest in Europe after Russia’s. The increased tax revenues in turn supported massively larger conscription. That conscription itself symbolizes the augmented institutions of the dynasty’s rule, since it depended on the bureaucracy to keep track of the population eligible for military service. The army was also one of the most successful engines of centralization. More than ever before, the central state was responsible for recruiting, training, and financing the military, sidelining the estates’ former authority in those activities. The military grew to perform the crucial integrative role within the heterogeneous realms that it would fulfill until the monarchy’s end. An example is that after the 1740s Hungarian generals started rising through the ranks of the army, and Hungarian soldiers began fighting for the monarchy outside the borders of Hungary. In this way one of the least integrated parts of the monarchy became more tightly bound to the center.” [2]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 28) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[2]: (Curtis 2013: 243) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92


Professional Priesthood:
present


Professional Military Officer:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

“At the same time the Emperor continued to ennoble military officers and bourgeois civil servants with patents of minor nobility (Dienstadel) that were essentially career awards. Between 1804 and 1918 the Emperor approved 8,931 ennoblements, including 2,157 to civil servants and over 4,000 to military officers. From 1848 to 1918, 84% of the grants of nobility went to bourgeois for longstanding public or military service.” [1]

[1]: (Boyer 2022: 417) Boyer, John W. 2022. Austria, 1867–1955. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/CG3P4KKD

Professional Military Officer:
present

“Habsburg grand strategy is also reflected in the institutions that Austria developed for conceiving of and implementing decisions about means and ends in both their conceptual and material dimensions.39 These included a court war council with specialized roles to prepare for war on a standing basis, a professional and highly competent diplomatic corps, an intelligence bureau, and a general staff.” [1] “Reversals at the start of the war also prompted refinements in Habsburg planning at the operational level. In 1757, the foundation was laid for a professional General Staff, with a separate reporting structure from that of the civilian- dominated Hofkriegsrat.71 These changes, together with the improved education for military officers and heightened emphasis on maps and planning, had an unmistakable effect on the army’s performance in the field. [2]

[1]: (Mitchell 2018: 15) Mitchell, A. Wess. 2018. The Grand Strategy of the Habsburg Empire. Princeton; Oxford: Princeton University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TESFCKPW

[2]: (Mitchell 2018: 180) Mitchell, A. Wess. 2018. The Grand Strategy of the Habsburg Empire. Princeton; Oxford: Princeton University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TESFCKPW


Source Of Support:
salary
1867 CE 1918 CE

“The structure of civil-service compensation was then further modified by the Liberals in early 1873, when the (Adolf) Auersperg Cabinet introduced a major bill to create eleven rank classes (Rangklassen) and systematic promotion opportunities based on length of service, along with salary increases that in some cases amounted to 30% to 40%, including various additional supplements.” [1] “During the investigations of the Administrative Reform Commission in 1910–11, Guido von Haerdtl reported that civil-service salary expenses had increased nearly 200 per cent between 1890 and 1911, largely owing to additional staff hiring.” [2] “At the same time the Emperor continued to ennoble military officers and bourgeois civil servants with patents of minor nobility (Dienstadel) that were essentially career awards. Between 1804 and 1918 the Emperor approved 8,931 ennoblements, including 2,157 to civil servants and over 4,000 to military officers. From 1848 to 1918, 84% of the grants of nobility went to bourgeois for longstanding public or military service.” [3]

[1]: (Boyer 2022: 131) Boyer, John W. 2022. Austria, 1867–1955. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/CG3P4KKD

[2]: (Boyer 2022: 132) Boyer, John W. 2022. Austria, 1867–1955. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/CG3P4KKD

[3]: (Boyer 2022: 417) Boyer, John W. 2022. Austria, 1867–1955. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/CG3P4KKD

Source Of Support:
salary

“Although nobles and aristocrats usually occupied the highest echelons of this expanding bureaucracy, educated sons of the middle classes were increasingly filling positions at the middle and lower levels. Moreover, Maria Theresa handed out more patents of nobility than ever before to commoners who earned distinction through their ser vice to the state. During her reign almost 40 percent of all the people who gained a patent of nobility came from the expanding bureaucracy.” [1] “Through his many regulations for the bureaucracy and its procedures, Joseph sought to establish a unified and equal set of norms throughout the monarchy and to create what often sounds like a secular priesthood. During his ten- year reign he issued a steady stream of regulations to micromanage its every aspect of a bureaucrat’s career, from his education to rules for his hiring, promotion, salary levels, punishments, and vacations, as well as to prohibit him from accepting gifts.” [2] “The burst of “modernization” in the middle decades of the eighteenth century gave the Habsburg monarchy institutions reasonably advanced for their time. Centralization of power was achieved in large part through the growth of a central bureaucracy, in the Habsburg lands as elsewhere. One estimate has 6,000 members of the state bureaucracy in 1740, 10,000 in 1762, and 20,000 in 1782. These numbers increasingly came from people of non-noble classes, which helped expand the regime’s base of support. Joseph’s travels around the monarchy convinced him that the professionalism of local officials was often low, which inspired his mission to improve the bureaucracy. Thus training was improved, pay increased and tied more to merit, and a pension system introduced.” [3]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 32) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[2]: (Judson 2016: 61) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[3]: (Curtis 2013: 242) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92

Source Of Support:
enoblement

“Although nobles and aristocrats usually occupied the highest echelons of this expanding bureaucracy, educated sons of the middle classes were increasingly filling positions at the middle and lower levels. Moreover, Maria Theresa handed out more patents of nobility than ever before to commoners who earned distinction through their ser vice to the state. During her reign almost 40 percent of all the people who gained a patent of nobility came from the expanding bureaucracy.” [1] “Through his many regulations for the bureaucracy and its procedures, Joseph sought to establish a unified and equal set of norms throughout the monarchy and to create what often sounds like a secular priesthood. During his ten- year reign he issued a steady stream of regulations to micromanage its every aspect of a bureaucrat’s career, from his education to rules for his hiring, promotion, salary levels, punishments, and vacations, as well as to prohibit him from accepting gifts.” [2] “The burst of “modernization” in the middle decades of the eighteenth century gave the Habsburg monarchy institutions reasonably advanced for their time. Centralization of power was achieved in large part through the growth of a central bureaucracy, in the Habsburg lands as elsewhere. One estimate has 6,000 members of the state bureaucracy in 1740, 10,000 in 1762, and 20,000 in 1782. These numbers increasingly came from people of non-noble classes, which helped expand the regime’s base of support. Joseph’s travels around the monarchy convinced him that the professionalism of local officials was often low, which inspired his mission to improve the bureaucracy. Thus training was improved, pay increased and tied more to merit, and a pension system introduced.” [3]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 32) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[2]: (Judson 2016: 61) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[3]: (Curtis 2013: 242) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

Town and city halls; ministeries; parliament buildings. “To keep up with their growing responsibilities and functions, communal administrations expanded and diversified, hiring increasing numbers of educated staff. In 1896 the town of Aussig / Ústí already employed a hundred people. As became typical, by 1900 the town had found it necessary to hire a director to supervise the growing personnel, and in 1911 the town inaugurated a new town office building because the old town hall had no space for increased office demand.” [1] “Expanding infrastructures and new public entitlements compelled the governments of Austria and Hungary to add layers of bureaucrats to fulfill new functions, and then more layers to monitor the effectiveness of the first layers. Competence in producing desired outcomes became critical to maintaining political legitimacy, in local town halls and in imperial ministries alike. Parliaments, crownland diets, and town halls now engaged in archival record- keeping on a scale as yet unknown, while enforcing a maze of legal standards for everything from workplace safety to public health to transportation to conditions of emigration. Bureaucracy begat more bureaucracy as popular expectations fueled the state’s expansion into the everyday lives of its citizens.” [2] “Symbol of that transformation was Franz Joseph’s decision in 1857 to tear down the colossal fortifications—evidence of the city’s former position near the perilous frontier of the Ottoman Empire—and build the roughly circular boulevard known as the Ringstraße. Over the next several decades a series of imposing structures were erected along this street, in historicist styles that referenced the dynasty’s geographic reach and centuries’-old authority. The Votive Church was erected in gothic style as a thanksgiving for Franz Joseph surviving the 1853 assassination attempt. A permanent parliament was constructed to look like a Greek temple. The city hall echoed in an elephantine fashion Brussels’ medieval city hall.” [3]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 356-357) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[2]: (Judson 2016: 336) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[3]: (Curtis 2013: 289) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92

Specialized Government Building:
present

“During Maria Theresa’s reign, for example, several new buildings had sprung up in Vienna and in the crownland capitals to house the offices where her bureaucrats came to work every day. Although some aristocrats continued to work from home (as late as the post- Napoleonic period Metternich frequently received colleagues at home in his pajamas), the new trend demanded a strict separation of workplace from home. One Viennese observer in 1787 described seeing at half past nine daily ‘an army of ca. four and a half thousand men marching; it is the army of the bureaucrats. After these follow three hundred wagons… All of these headed for the Department of State, the Imperial Chancellery, the Department of War, the Austrian- Bohemian Chancellery, the Hungarian- Transylvanian Chancellery, the Netherlandish Chancellery, the Town Hall, etc.’ After the 1780s, bureaucrats worked at home only in times of emergency— during the Napoleonic Wars— when the regime wanted to save on light and heat costs.” [1]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 60) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW


Merit Promotion:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

“The structure of civil-service compensation was then further modified by the Liberals in early 1873, when the (Adolf) Auersperg Cabinet introduced a major bill to create eleven rank classes (Rangklassen) and systematic promotion opportunities based on length of service, along with salary increases that in some cases amounted to 30% to 40%, including various additional supplements.” [1]

[1]: (Boyer 2022: 131) Boyer, John W. 2022. Austria, 1867–1955. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/CG3P4KKD

Merit Promotion:
present

“The burst of “modernization” in the middle decades of the eighteenth century gave the Habsburg monarchy institutions reasonably advanced for their time. Centralization of power was achieved in large part through the growth of a central bureaucracy, in the Habsburg lands as elsewhere. One estimate has 6,000 members of the state bureaucracy in 1740, 10,000 in 1762, and 20,000 in 1782. These numbers increasingly came from people of non-noble classes, which helped expand the regime’s base of support. Joseph’s travels around the monarchy convinced him that the professionalism of local officials was often low, which inspired his mission to improve the bureaucracy. Thus training was improved, pay increased and tied more to merit, and a pension system introduced.” [1] “The period 1780 to 1848 saw both an absolute and a proportional increase in the numbers of non- noble men who served at the higher levels of the bureaucratic ser vice. During this period a bureaucrat’s success depended increasingly on proof of his individual merit. A bureaucratic post could be considered neither hereditary nor venal. The candidate who earned it became an active participant in the very construction of the new state. In this sense, as Waltraud Heindl has argued, the expansion of the bureaucracy as the executor of state policy rested on an Enlightenment ideal of dedicated citizenship. “[The bureaucrat’s] job presupposed a concept of citizenship, and to be a citizen meant, according to the Enlightenment . . . active participation in the construction of the nation state. His post could neither be hereditary, nor for sale [venal], nor could it depend on the caprice of the prince [monarch].”12 In turn, the rapid expansion of non- noble membership in this bureaucracy produced a workplace ethos that by 1800 had incorporated new habits, new social behaviors, and new cultural practices among bureaucrats both at the office and in domestic settings with their families.” [2]

[1]: (Curtis 2013: 242) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92

[2]: (Judson 2016: 59) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

“Expanding infrastructures and new public entitlements compelled the governments of Austria and Hungary to add layers of bureaucrats to fulfill new functions, and then more layers to monitor the effectiveness of the first layers. Competence in producing desired outcomes became critical to maintaining political legitimacy, in local town halls and in imperial ministries alike. Parliaments, crownland diets, and town halls now engaged in archival record- keeping on a scale as yet unknown, while enforcing a maze of legal standards for everything from workplace safety to public health to transportation to conditions of emigration. Bureaucracy begat more bureaucracy as popular expectations fueled the state’s expansion into the everyday lives of its citizens.” [1] “But the system of ‘double administration’ (Doppelverwaltung) that the Liberals sanctioned in 1861—each Crownland had a professional, state-appointed bureaucratic hierarchy in the persons and staffs of the District Captains (Bezirkshauptmänner) and the imperial governors (Statthalter or Landespräsidenten) juxtaposed to a politically appointed, regional bureaucracy headed by the elected Provincial Executive Committee of the diet— created a powerful space for the training of local political elites, and rich sources of local political patronage, new job creation, and regional political education uncontrolled by the Crown.” [2]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 336) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[2]: (Boyer 2022: 117) Boyer, John W. 2022. Austria, 1867–1955. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/CG3P4KKD

Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

“The expanding and increasingly centralized bureaucracies of the eighteenth century continued to employ many of the regional nobles who might otherwise have lost political influence as the diets gradually ceded more areas of competence to Vienna. In the case of Bohemia, for example, Maria Theresa even retained the services of several Bohemian nobles who had momentarily abandoned her for the Bavarians in 1741, installing them in both the provincial and central bureaucracies. The ambitious character of the reform programs produced a sharp increase in civil servants’ administrative reach into society. It also produced a growing demand for new servants of the state to take on a rapidly expanding workload. In Hungary during Maria Theresa’s reign, the ruling council saw its workload rise by 400 percent, while the numbers of officials who dealt with correspondence alone rose from fifty to over one hundred twenty! Clearly administrative change required more and better educated state employees to manage reform. Although nobles and aristocrats usually occupied the highest echelons of this expanding bureaucracy, educated sons of the middle classes were increasingly filling positions at the middle and lower levels.” [1] “The burst of “modernization” in the middle decades of the eighteenth century gave the Habsburg monarchy institutions reasonably advanced for their time. Centralization of power was achieved in large part through the growth of a central bureaucracy, in the Habsburg lands as elsewhere. One estimate has 6,000 members of the state bureaucracy in 1740, 10,000 in 1762, and 20,000 in 1782. These numbers increasingly came from people of non-noble classes, which helped expand the regime’s base of support. Joseph’s travels around the monarchy convinced him that the professionalism of local officials was often low, which inspired his mission to improve the bureaucracy. Thus training was improved, pay increased and tied more to merit, and a pension system introduced. These bureaucrats were not personal servants of the monarch, as in previous eras, but instead served the state. This idea is unequivocal in Joseph’s so-called Pastoral Letter of 1783 in which he gave instructions to all state officials. Here again he stressed the idea of service, writing that “he who does not have love for the fatherland and his fellow citizens, who does not find himself inspired with a special zeal for preserving the good,” would not succeed in the bureaucracy.” [2]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 31-32) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[2]: (Curtis 2013: 242) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92


Examination System:
present

“Through his many regulations for the bureaucracy and its procedures, Joseph sought to establish a unified and equal set of norms throughout the monarchy and to create what oft en sounds like a secular priesthood. During his ten- year reign he issued a steady stream of regulations to micromanage its every aspect of a bureaucrat’s career, from his education to rules for his hiring, promotion, salary levels, punishments, and vacations, as well as to prohibit him from accepting gifts.” [1] “The burst of “modernization” in the middle decades of the eighteenth century gave the Habsburg monarchy institutions reasonably advanced for their time. Centralization of power was achieved in large part through the growth of a central bureaucracy, in the Habsburg lands as elsewhere. One estimate has 6,000 members of the state bureaucracy in 1740, 10,000 in 1762, and 20,000 in 1782. These numbers increasingly came from people of non-noble classes, which helped expand the regime’s base of support. Joseph’s travels around the monarchy convinced him that the professionalism of local officials was often low, which inspired his mission to improve the bureaucracy. Thus training was improved, pay increased and tied more to merit, and a pension system introduced.” [2]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 61) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[2]: (Curtis 2013: 242) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92


Law
Professional Lawyer:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

“New courts of general jurisdiction under Joseph II operated on the first and second levels of adjudication and appeal and ignored ständisch differences; all citizens became subject to the same criminal code, with local inhabitants having a theoretical right of appeal from manorial courts to the royal courts. Local judges were forced to know the law, since appeals to royal courts were written, not oral. The regional Estates were nearly powerless to resist—they had no army, the great aristocrats had torn loyalties, and the provinces did not trust each other.” [1] “Over the course of the 1870s generational tensions became apparent as younger Liberals began to act out their ambitions and frustrations against their elders, which contributed to the instability of the regime by 1879. The Liberals were heavily juristic and academic in their occupational backgrounds, from the state service as well as private lawyers and university professors, as well as encompassing a large number of property owners and independent businessmen.” [2] “Of the men elected to the City Council in Vienna on anti-Semitic/anti-Liberal election slates between 1886 and 1891 most were wealthy artisans or owners of middle-sized businesses or stores, lawyers, schoolteachers (mostly senior teachers), and public or private employees.” [3]

[1]: (Boyer 2022: 8) Boyer, John W. 2022. Austria, 1867–1955. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/CG3P4KKD

[2]: (Boyer 2022: 119) Boyer, John W. 2022. Austria, 1867–1955. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/CG3P4KKD

[3]: (Boyer 2022: 237) Boyer, John W. 2022. Austria, 1867–1955. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/CG3P4KKD

Professional Lawyer:
present

“In part, election results like this heralded a significant shift in liberal politics that would become much clearer in the 1860s and 1870s, as artisans, manufacturers, and other members of the economic middle classes entrusted their political fates no longer to the bureaucrat with his legal education, but rather to another legally educated white-collar professional: the lawyer. “Th e lawyer,” argues Thomas Götz, “embodied the prototypical educated citizen (Bildungsbürger) like no other; his specialized knowledge and fluent speaking abilities gave this professional enormous potential usefulness for the new legal functions assigned to the newly set-up civic communes.”69 Although the bureaucrats and lawyers shared much in common, particularly a common educational background, they occupied professions that related quite differently to the public. In Innsbruck, for example, those communal elections of 1850 constituted a breakthrough for lawyers who, as an occupational group, now replaced state bureaucrats— also educated in law—as the acknowledged political voice of the middle classes. When constitutional life resumed in the 1860s, lawyers would dominate elected institutions at all levels of government, from village councils to Imperial Parliament.” [1]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 248) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW


Judge:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

“Among the most decisive changes implemented in 1867 was a new judicial system, which was the first piece of constitutional legislation that the parliament considered in October 1867. This bill provided for the strict separation of justice and administration on all levels of government and for the development of professional norms that would protect the independence of the judiciary. The law stipulated jury trials for all particularly serious crimes, and for all offenses against the press laws. All judicial officers were required to take an oath of allegiance to uphold the constitutional system. The law also guaranteed life tenure to judges and sought to protect them against political interference and harassment.” [1]

[1]: (Boyer 2022: 99) Boyer, John W. 2022. Austria, 1867–1955. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/CG3P4KKD

Judge:
present

“As emperor, Friedrich formally recognized the Privilegium maius and made it a part of imperial law. Thereby all Rudolf IV’s imagined privileges and prerogatives of the dynasty became reality. Making the Privilegium maius official meant that the Austrian archdukes now had a more solid legal basis to raise new taxes, tolls and fines, to grant titles of nobility, and to name officers such as judges and notaries.” [1]

[1]: (Curtis 2013: 68) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92


Formal Legal Code:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

“The monumental codification of civil law in 1812 was based on the principles of equality of all before the law.” [1] “Among the most decisive changes implemented in 1867 was a new judicial system, which was the first piece of constitutional legislation that the parliament considered in October 1867. This bill provided for the strict separation of justice and administration on all levels of government and for the development of professional norms that would protect the independence of the judiciary. The law stipulated jury trials for all particularly serious crimes, and for all offenses against the press laws. All judicial officers were required to take an oath of allegiance to uphold the constitutional system. The law also guaranteed life tenure to judges and sought to protect them against political interference and harassment.” [2]

[1]: (Curtis 2013: 271) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92

[2]: (Boyer 2022: 99) Boyer, John W. 2022. Austria, 1867–1955. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/CG3P4KKD

Formal Legal Code:
present

“The monumental codification of civil law in 1812 was based on the principles of equality of all before the law.” [1]

[1]: (Curtis 2013: 271) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92


Court:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

“New courts of general jurisdiction under Joseph II operated on the first and second levels of adjudication and appeal and ignored ständisch differences; all citizens became subject to the same criminal code, with local inhabitants having a theoretical right of appeal from manorial courts to the royal courts. Local judges were forced to know the law, since appeals to royal courts were written, not oral. The regional Estates were nearly powerless to resist—they had no army, the great aristocrats had torn loyalties, and the provinces did not trust each other.” [1] “The destruction of rural dependency under Alexander Bach in the 1850s, together with the elaboration of a new, powerful system of regional and local administration—but controlled from Vienna— beginning in the early 1850s, reshaped the Austrian civil service in powerful ways that endured well into the twentieth century… A new civil court system of local and regional courts and separated from the civil administration was charged with the uniform implementation of the Allgemeines Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch across a new hierarchy of jurisdictions. [2]

[1]: (Boyer 2022: 8) Boyer, John W. 2022. Austria, 1867–1955. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/CG3P4KKD

[2]: (Boyer 2022: 51-52) Boyer, John W. 2022. Austria, 1867–1955. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/CG3P4KKD

Court:
present

“In 1751 Maria Theresa created a single supreme court located in Vienna for both the Bohemian and Austrian lands.” [1] “Among the most radical of these decrees was one in 1784 that regulated marriage as a civil contract and took the power to determine appropriate marriages— for example, among related or divorced individuals— away from the Catholic Church and gave it to the secular courts.” [2] “New courts of general jurisdiction under Joseph II operated on the first and second levels of adjudication and appeal and ignored ständisch differences; all citizens became subject to the same criminal code, with local inhabitants having a theoretical right of appeal from manorial courts to the royal courts. Local judges were forced to know the law, since appeals to royal courts were written, not oral. The regional Estates were nearly powerless to resist—they had no army, the great aristocrats had torn loyalties, and the provinces did not trust each other.” [3]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 28) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[2]: (Judson 2016: 70) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[3]: (Boyer 2022: 8) Boyer, John W. 2022. Austria, 1867–1955. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/CG3P4KKD


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

“Theresan cameralism also looked upon the Habsburg holdings as a kind of inner-European colonial empire, self-sufficient enough to free the government from dependence on outside suppliers… Some provinces continued to send goods to traditional markets rather than to sell them at home.” [1]

[1]: (Fichtner 2003: 71) Fichtner, Paula Sutter. 2003. The Habsburg Monarchy, 1490-1848: Attributes of Empire. Macmillan International Higher Education. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QQ77TV4K


Irrigation System:
present

Food Storage Site:
present

“Food stocks in the larger cities of the Monarchy continued to fall to perilous depths. So grave was the situation by late April 1918 that the director of the Gemeinsame Ernährungsausschuss, Landwehr von Pragenau, ordered the seizure of several trains and barges carrying the equivalent of 2,455 wagons of grain from the Ukraine to Germany as they passed through Austrian territory.” [1]

[1]: (Boyer 2022: 557) Boyer, John W. 2022. Austria, 1867–1955. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/CG3P4KKD


Drinking Water Supply System:
present

Communal Building:
present

Places of worship; libraries; museums; theatres; cafes; clubs; schools; universities; . “The abbey of Melk, some 80 kilometers west of Vienna, was the high point of church construction. Boasting a dazzlingly gilded church, it is an overpowering assertion of Austrian Baroque Catholicism. Karl himself added to Vienna’s palace complex, including the building of the Spanish Riding School, and the Hofburg’s impressive library. But closer to his heart was his project to turn the abbey of Klosterneuburg into his own version of El Escorial, a new monastery-palace for the dynasty to replace the one lost in Castile.” [1] “Other organizations brought new local and regional newspapers into being, newspapers that for the first time reported local events along with international or court news. And more often than not, the middle classes were reading and discussing the contents of those newspapers not simply in their own Biedermeier parlors or drawing rooms, but also in a growing numbers of public sites (clubs, cafés, and restaurants) where social and civic life increasingly took place. Each of these diverse institutions— the museum, the library, the newspaper, the club, the café— had its roots in the seventeenth or eighteenth century, but only in the first half of the nineteenth century did their numbers proliferate significantly, and not simply in the few large cities of the empire like Vienna, Prague, or Milan. As smaller towns grew in size, the character of public life there gradually changed as well. In the late eighteenth century the Austrian Freemason Johann Pezzl had already observed that cafés not only were associated with urban life, but ‘as everyone knows, are considered nowadays to be one of the indispensable requirements of every large town.’ “ [2] “From the very beginning of his reign Joseph sought to expand his mother’s policies to promote popular education. There had never been anywhere near enough schools to realize Maria Theresa’s principle that primary schooling should be compulsory for all Austrian children, both boys and girls. Nor was there any effective way to compel families to send their children to schools. Funding for this ambitious goal was entirely inadequate. Joseph’s micromanaging bent made him eager to make specific budget cuts for existing institutions in order to balance the increased funding he proposed to give to primary schools. Joseph’s emphasis on increasing literacy among the lowest classes led him to shift funds away from secondary and higher institutions of learning. However, his own Education Commission fought Joseph’s repeated attempts to downgrade some of the universities and to rid them of subject areas he considered to be of little worth. Eventually Joseph concluded that no amount of cuts to university bud gets could possibly fund the compulsory elementary school system at an adequate level. Instead he enacted a law in 1785 that required a school to be established in every parish.” [3]

[1]: (Curtis 2013: 213) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92

[2]: (Judson 2016: 141) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[3]: (Judson 2016: 65) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW


Symbolic Building:
present

Cathedrals; churches; abbeys; chapels; monastaries. “The abbey of Melk, some 80 kilometers west of Vienna, was the high point of church construction. Boasting a dazzlingly gilded church, it is an overpowering assertion of Austrian Baroque Catholicism. Karl himself added to Vienna’s palace complex, including the building of the Spanish Riding School, and the Hofburg’s impressive library. But closer to his heart was his project to turn the abbey of Klosterneuburg into his own version of El Escorial, a new monastery-palace for the dynasty to replace the one lost in Castile.” [1]

[1]: (Curtis 2013: 213) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92


Knowledge Or Information Building:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

Schools; colleges; universities; museums; libraries. “By 1910 there were 22,386 primary schools in the Austrian half of the dual monarchy and 16,455 in Hungary. Increasing numbers of people— especially rural youth— actively sought and gained a degree of social mobility through the pursuit of education beyond primary school. This did not necessarily mean education in high schools or technical colleges or universities; instead, they often enrolled in short preparatory courses that offered training in basic secretarial skills, such as typing, filing, and stenography, which enabled candidates to access a range of new low-level white- collar jobs.” [1] “Other organizations brought new local and regional newspapers into being, newspapers that for the first time reported local events along with international or court news. And more often than not, the middle classes were reading and discussing the contents of those newspapers not simply in their own Biedermeier parlors or drawing rooms, but also in a growing numbers of public sites (clubs, cafés, and restaurants) where social and civic life increasingly took place. Each of these diverse institutions— the museum, the library, the newspaper, the club, the café— had its roots in the seventeenth or eighteenth century, but only in the first half of the nineteenth century did their numbers proliferate significantly, and not simply in the few large cities of the empire like Vienna, Prague, or Milan. As smaller towns grew in size, the character of public life there gradually changed as well. In the late eighteenth century the Austrian Freemason Johann Pezzl had already observed that cafés not only were associated with urban life, but ‘as everyone knows, are considered nowadays to be one of the indispensable requirements of every large town.’ “ [2] “To the extent to which scholarship was concentrated in the universities, learned societies, and ecclesiastic institutions of higher learning, those close to the capital, Vienna, were favored by greater governmental support than educational establishments in other areas. This was also true for support of scholarly activities in the less formal setting of grants given to individuals by the sovereign or by wealthy aristocrats. The universities did not assume undisputed leadership in higher education until the second half of the nineteenth century. Before that they had been frequently, though meagerly, supported by various kinds of patronage outside the academic domain.” [3]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 335) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[2]: (Judson 2016: 141) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[3]: (Kann 1974: 370) Kann, Robert A. 1974. A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918. Los Angeles: University of California Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/RP3JD4UV


Entertainment Building:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

Cafes; clubs; restaurants; theatres; swimming pools. “Other organizations brought new local and regional newspapers into being, newspapers that for the first time reported local events along with international or court news. And more often than not, the middle classes were reading and discussing the contents of those newspapers not simply in their own Biedermeier parlors or drawing rooms, but also in a growing numbers of public sites (clubs, cafés, and restaurants) where social and civic life increasingly took place. Each of these diverse institutions— the museum, the library, the newspaper, the club, the café— had its roots in the seventeenth or eighteenth century, but only in the first half of the nineteenth century did their numbers proliferate significantly, and not simply in the few large cities of the empire like Vienna, Prague, or Milan. As smaller towns grew in size, the character of public life there gradually changed as well. In the late eighteenth century the Austrian Freemason Johann Pezzl had already observed that cafés not only were associated with urban life, but ‘as everyone knows, are considered nowadays to be one of the indispensable requirements of every large town.’ “ [1] “What is more important to understand, however, is the dizzying array of imperial projects undertaken by small and medium- sized towns in the two decades from 1895 to 1914— projects ranging from new school buildings and hospitals to libraries and theaters, from electric lights to public swimming pools, from new railway stations to tramway systems.” [2] “In the first half of the eighteenth century a theater devoted mainly to the performance of Italian operas and another one for German plays were established under the sponsorship of Count Franz A. Sporck. In 1783 the German National Theater was opened under the sponsorship of Count Francis Nostitz. Here in 1787 Don Giovanni was performed for the first time with Mozart himself conducting. A few years later this theater was dubbed the Theater of the Bohemian Estates or the Estates National Theater. As in Vienna, Punch and Judy shows were performed until the 1770’s. An official, though still only interim Czech National Theater, was opened in 1862.” [3]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 141) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[2]: (Judson 2016: 356-357) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[3]: (Kann 1974: 386) Kann, Robert A. 1974. A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918. Los Angeles: University of California Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/RP3JD4UV

Entertainment Building:
present

Cafes; clubs; restaurants; “Other organizations brought new local and regional newspapers into being, newspapers that for the first time reported local events along with international or court news. And more often than not, the middle classes were reading and discussing the contents of those newspapers not simply in their own Biedermeier parlors or drawing rooms, but also in a growing numbers of public sites (clubs, cafés, and restaurants) where social and civic life increasingly took place. Each of these diverse institutions— the museum, the library, the newspaper, the club, the café— had its roots in the seventeenth or eighteenth century, but only in the first half of the nineteenth century did their numbers proliferate significantly, and not simply in the few large cities of the empire like Vienna, Prague, or Milan. As smaller towns grew in size, the character of public life there gradually changed as well. In the late eighteenth century the Austrian Freemason Johann Pezzl had already observed that cafés not only were associated with urban life, but ‘as everyone knows, are considered nowadays to be one of the indispensable requirements of every large town.’ “ [1]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 141) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW


Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present

“Industry and trade in cities like Brünn / Brno, Pest, and Trieste / Trst also benefited from new links created by Austria’s growing transportation infrastructure, which in turn stimulated increased economic growth. New highway projects, canals, river regulation, and mountain pass systems produced a rapid increase in continental transport and trade, as well as cutting the time it took to travel between economically linked destinations, often by over 50 percent.19 Between 1815 and 1848 the state constructed 2,240 kilometers (almost 1,400 miles) of roads, while local town governments or noble landowners added another 46,400 (28,830 miles) of privately funded roads.” [1]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 114-115) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW


Port:
present

“In Hungary, several projects increased the navigability of the Danube and Tisza Rivers. By the 1830s a Danube Steamship Society offered regular ser vice between Vienna and Pest. In 1847 the society’s fleet of forty- one ships transported over 900,000 passengers. In the 1830s a new Adriatic shipping line created the fi rst regular link between Trieste / Trst and the coastal towns of Dalmatia and Ottoman Mediterranean ports like Constantinople, Alexandria, and Salonica.” [1]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 115) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW


Bridge:
present

“Though some division of labor took place during the eighteenth century, nobles as a class remained responsible for oversight of taxation for military purposes; upkeep of bridges, roads, and hospitals; village government; regulation of building projects, commerce and trade policy; property registration and surveying; and police and fire protection.” [1]

[1]: (Fichtner 2003: 77) Fichtner, Paula Sutter. 2003. The Habsburg Monarchy, 1490-1848: Attributes of Empire. Macmillan International Higher Education. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QQ77TV4K


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

“Important for the financial structure of all Habsburg lands was the mining of ores, primarily silver and copper. The mines of the Erzgebirge in northwestern Bohemia, in Central and southern Bohemia, in the High and Low Tatra of Hungary in present-day Slovakia, and at an earlier time in Tyrol played an important role. Gold-mining, as for instance in Rauris (Salzburg), was never of major significance.” [1] Silver in particular was one of the greatest sources of wealth in Europe. [2] [3]

[1]: (Kann 1974: 120) Kann, Robert A. 1974. A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918. Los Angeles: University of California Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/RP3JD4UV

[2]: Fichtner 2003: 8, 18. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QQ77TV4K.

[3]: Curtis 2013: 101. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92.

Mines or Quarry:
present

“One reason Tyrol was so valuable to the house was that the ruler’s regalian rights over the mines supplied a substantial income with no need to get the estates’ consent. The actual income from those mines was still never enough to pay all of Maximilian’s expenses. Though his revenues compared favorably with those of the French and Castilian monarchs, he was always short of funds. The mines, therefore, became even more valuable as collateral for loans. Maximilian began the dynasty’s long relationship with the Fugger family of bankers, who attached themselves to the Habsburgs like a parasite to a host. Maximilian essentially gave the Fuggers control over Tyrol’s copper and silver mines. Of revenues from those mines, 50 percent would go to the Fuggers, 18 percent to Maximilian, and 32 percent to the mining contractor.” [1]

[1]: (Curtis 2013: 71) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92


Trading Emporia:
present

Fairs; markets. “In the 1840s, the Pest market fairs attracted some 30,000 participants.” [1]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 112) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW


Special Purpose Site:
present

Enclosure:
present

City walls. “Despite his very short reign, Joseph also founded Vienna’s Kärtnertor theater, established an arts academy, and ordered the construction of a new neighborhood outside the old city walls which continues to bear his name.” [1]

[1]: (Curtis 2013: 213) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92


Ceremonial Site:
present

Cathedrals; churches; abbeys; chapels; monastaries. “The abbey of Melk, some 80 kilometers west of Vienna, was the high point of church construction. Boasting a dazzlingly gilded church, it is an overpowering assertion of Austrian Baroque Catholicism. Karl himself added to Vienna’s palace complex, including the building of the Spanish Riding School, and the Hofburg’s impressive library. But closer to his heart was his project to turn the abbey of Klosterneuburg into his own version of El Escorial, a new monastery-palace for the dynasty to replace the one lost in Castile.” [1]

[1]: (Curtis 2013: 213) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92


Burial Site:
present

Cemeteries.


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Newspapers; magazines; academic journals; literary reviews; periodicals; almanacs; dictionaries. “Greater numbers of people in the 1830s and 1840s participated in policy debates thanks also to a rapid rise in literacy rates and to the dizzying increase in newspapers and magazines. Although heavily censored by the regime, these publications nevertheless promoted interregional discussions about many economic and social issues. While Hungary’s first newspaper had appeared in 1705 (in Latin) and its first German language newspaper in 1764, the first Hungarian- language newspaper debuted in 1780, followed by a Slovak- language newspaper in 1783… The spectrum of publications included scientific and academic journals, literary reviews, specialty journals in fields ranging from medicine to agriculture, almanacs, and fashion magazines. Some were published monthly or weekly, a few appeared as many as four times a week, and most appeared in the rapidly expanding town of Pest. In 1847, 103 of a total of 191 newspapers, periodicals, and magazines published in Hungary, appeared in Pest alone while another eighteen appeared across the Danube in Buda. Th ese numbers both reflected and produced a vibrant urban public culture of discussion and debate in these towns in the 1840s.” [1] “In Carniola it was largely members of the clergy who had put together the very first “Alpine Slavic” or “Carniolan- language” grammars, dictionaries, schoolbooks, and songbooks in the period 1815–1848.” [2]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 145-146) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[2]: (Judson 2016: 150) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW



Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

Parts of the empire used the Cyrillic alphabet such as Serb-speaking areas in Croatia. [1]

[1]: Judson 2016: 467. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW.


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

“The eighteenth century saw a veritable explosion of published works of literature, science, history, religion, and philosophy in the territories ruled by the Habsburgs.” [1] “In 1883 under the patronage of Crown Prince Rudolf, the government of Austria-Hungary initiated a vast proj ect to make visible the diversity and dimensions of empire. Th e goal was to collect studies of the empire’s highly diverse geology, flora, fauna, and populations in a set of illustrated volumes to be made available for public subscription: the so- called Kronprinzenwerk.” [2] “In 1847 the Academy of Sciences was organized, with a philosophic-historical section and a second one dedicated to research in the natural sciences—belatedly in comparison with similar institutions in other countries.” [3]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 29) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[2]: (Judson 2016: 8) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[3]: (Kann 1974: 371) Kann, Robert A. 1974. A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918. Los Angeles: University of California Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/RP3JD4UV

Scientific Literature:
present

“The eighteenth century saw a veritable explosion of published works of literature, science, history, religion, and philosophy in the territories ruled by the Habsburgs.” [1]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 29) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW


Sacred Text:
present

The bible.


Religious Literature:
present

“The eighteenth century saw a veritable explosion of published works of literature, science, history, religion, and philosophy in the territories ruled by the Habsburgs.” [1]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 29) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW


Practical Literature:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

Newspapers; magazines; academic journals; literary reviews; periodicals; almanacs. “Greater numbers of people in the 1830s and 1840s participated in policy debates thanks also to a rapid rise in literacy rates and to the dizzying increase in newspapers and magazines. Although heavily censored by the regime, these publications nevertheless promoted interregional discussions about many economic and social issues. While Hungary’s first newspaper had appeared in 1705 (in Latin) and its first German language newspaper in 1764, the first Hungarian- language newspaper debuted in 1780, followed by a Slovak- language newspaper in 1783… The spectrum of publications included scientific and academic journals, literary reviews, specialty journals in fields ranging from medicine to agriculture, almanacs, and fashion magazines. Some were published monthly or weekly, a few appeared as many as four times a week, and most appeared in the rapidly expanding town of Pest. In 1847, 103 of a total of 191 newspapers, periodicals, and magazines published in Hungary, appeared in Pest alone while another eighteen appeared across the Danube in Buda. Th ese numbers both reflected and produced a vibrant urban public culture of discussion and debate in these towns in the 1840s.” [1] “The world of newspapers changed radically in density after 1870 and especially after 1880. Newspaper penetration of households increased enormously between 1880 and 1910: in 1880 27% of all households in Vienna and the Alpine Länder received a daily newspaper, but this increased to over 70% by 1910.” [2]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 145-146) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[2]: (Boyer 2022: 117) Boyer, John W. 2022. Austria, 1867–1955. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/CG3P4KKD


Philosophy:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

“The eighteenth century saw a veritable explosion of published works of literature, science, history, religion, and philosophy in the territories ruled by the Habsburgs.” [1] “The purely intellectual contribution of the Austrian Enlightenment was limited. German classicism in literature and philosophy was a powerful stimulating force but its impact headed almost exclusively from outside.” [2] “Ernst von Feuchtersieben, professor of medicine, but actually a student of the philosophical aspects of psychosomatic problems, taught unimpeded at the University of Vienna. The Slavists, Batholomäus Kopitar, director of the Court (National) Library in Vienna and Franz von Miklosii, both of Slovene origin, made eminent contributions to comparative philology. The latter remained active well into the second half of Francis Joseph’s reign.” [3]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 29) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[2]: (Kann 1974: 368) Kann, Robert A. 1974. A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918. Los Angeles: University of California Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/RP3JD4UV

[3]: (Kann 1974: 371) Kann, Robert A. 1974. A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918. Los Angeles: University of California Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/RP3JD4UV

Philosophy:
present

“The eighteenth century saw a veritable explosion of published works of literature, science, history, religion, and philosophy in the territories ruled by the Habsburgs.” [1]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 29) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW


Lists Tables and Classification:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

Dictionaries; encyclopeadia. “In 1883 under the patronage of Crown Prince Rudolf, the government of Austria-Hungary initiated a vast project to make visible the diversity and dimensions of empire. The goal was to collect studies of the empire’s highly diverse geology, flora, fauna, and populations in a set of illustrated volumes to be made available for public subscription: the so- called Kronprinzenwerk.” [1] “The work of Josef Jungmann (1773-1847) had more specific philological value in regard to the Czech language. As prefect of the Academic Gymnasium in Prague he wrote a textbook on style in Czech and translated several works by Milton, Pope, Goethe, and Chateaubriand into Czech. Much of his lifework was focused on the compilation of a Czech-German dictionary in five volumes.” [2]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 8) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[2]: (Kann 1974: 385) Kann, Robert A. 1974. A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918. Los Angeles: University of California Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/RP3JD4UV

Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Dictionaries; songbooks. “In Carniola it was largely members of the clergy who had put together the very first “Alpine Slavic” or “Carniolan- language” grammars, dictionaries, schoolbooks, and songbooks in the period 1815–1848.” [1]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 150) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW


History:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

“The eighteenth century saw a veritable explosion of published works of literature, science, history, religion, and philosophy in the territories ruled by the Habsburgs.” [1] . “The purely intellectual contribution of the Austrian Enlightenment was limited. German classicism in literature and philosophy was a powerful stimulating force but its impact headed almost exclusively from outside. Romanticism, on the other hand, in particular in its historical proclivities, in a country deeply conscious of its traditions, developed there into a more original movement with wider social and political implications… Hence we face the cultivation of folklore, sagas, fairy tales, history of the Middle Ages, in other words everything that is dear to the romantic spirit.” [2] “In 1854 the Institute of Austrian Historical Research was founded; next to the École des Chartes in Paris it became the foremost school for training in the auxiliary historical sciences. Its first director, Albert Jäger, and Franz von Krones, an outstanding historiographer of Austrian history at the University of Graz, should be mentioned here.” [3]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 29) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[2]: (Kann 1974: 368) Kann, Robert A. 1974. A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918. Los Angeles: University of California Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/RP3JD4UV

[3]: (Kann 1974: 371) Kann, Robert A. 1974. A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918. Los Angeles: University of California Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/RP3JD4UV

History:
present

“The eighteenth century saw a veritable explosion of published works of literature, science, history, religion, and philosophy in the territories ruled by the Habsburgs.” [1]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 29) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW


Fiction:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

Folklore; fairytales; sagas; plays; operas; comedy; poetry; satire. “The purely intellectual contribution of the Austrian Enlightenment was limited. German classicism in literature and philosophy was a powerful stimulating force but its impact headed almost exclusively from outside. Romanticism, on the other hand, in particular in its historical proclivities, in a country deeply conscious of its traditions, developed there into a more original movement with wider social and political implications… Hence we face the cultivation of folklore, sagas, fairy tales, history of the Middle Ages, in other words everything that is dear to the romantic spirit.” [1] “Typically Austrian, in different ways, were also two contemporary playwrights of high rank, both actors by profession. Ferdinand Raimund (1790-1836), a comedian with romantic-sentimental tendencies, a keen sense of humor, and poetic gifts, wanted to become a classical tragedian. He did not fully succeed because of his limited education. His outstanding achievements as popular, poetical playwright meant little to him. Johann Nestroy (1801-1862), the other comedy writer and actor, was less sentimental and poetic in his inclinations but he was a superlative student of the human character, a social critic, and an outstanding satirist. The antiintellectualism of the pre-March era lent itself particularly well to satire… tendencies, possessed only modest poetic gifts but he introduced the social drama into Austrian literature. Outstanding was the melancholic lyric and writer of grand epics, Nikolaus Lenau (1802-1850), who came from Hungary but developed into a master of the German language. Of all great Austrian poets he was the only true, radical revolutionary. The most outstanding prose writer of the time was Adalbert Stifter (1805-1868). None before him and none after him brought nature to life the way he did. Like Grillparzer’s plays, Stifter’s prose transcends the Austro-German orbit. One of his two novels, Witiko, deals with Czech history in the high Middle Ages.” [2] “In the early eighteenth century the operas and orchestral pieces of the Austrian (Styrian) composer, J. J. Fux, were performed in Prague, among them an opera in celebration of the coronation of Charles VI as king of Bohemia in 1723. A regular Italian opera stagione existed in Prague as early as 1734, but German operas were offered as well.” [3]

[1]: (Kann 1974: 368) Kann, Robert A. 1974. A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918. Los Angeles: University of California Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/RP3JD4UV

[2]: (Kann 1974: 375) Kann, Robert A. 1974. A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918. Los Angeles: University of California Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/RP3JD4UV

[3]: (Kann 1974: 387) Kann, Robert A. 1974. A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918. Los Angeles: University of California Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/RP3JD4UV

Fiction:
present

Poetry; theatre; musicals; opera. “In addition to the symbolism of its imagery, art propagandized in another way, demonstrating the ruler’s wealth and power—but also his cultivation. In Renaissance ideals, the prince was supposed not only to collect and sponsor art, but even to practice it, to develop a taste and facility with painting, music, poetry. Maximilian subscribed to all these ideas, and particularly in his last decade he set about elaborating a cultural legacy that would do him and his family honor.” [1] “Karl had several Italian court poets, the most famous of which was Pietro Metastasio. Johann Joseph Fux was Karl’s court composer and helped stage the extravagant musical performances Karl enjoyed.” [2] “Hence Joseph throughout his rule promoted German art, such as the German national theater in Vienna, as part of his desire to inculcate a unified and unifying public culture in German. A famous example is that Mozart’s opera Die Entführung aus dem Serail was written at Joseph’s behest, thereby giving rise to what has been called one of the first German operas.” [3]

[1]: (Curtis 2013: 69) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92

[2]: (Curtis 2013: 213) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92

[3]: (Curtis 2013: 238) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92



Information / Money
Token:
absent

No mention of Tokens used in the sources consulted.


Precious Metal:
present

Silver; copper. “One reason Tyrol was so valuable to the house was that the ruler’s regalian rights over the mines supplied a substantial income with no need to get the estates’ consent. The actual income from those mines was still never enough to pay all of Maximilian’s expenses. Though his revenues compared favorably with those of the French and Castilian monarchs, he was always short of funds. The mines, therefore, became even more valuable as collateral for loans. Maximilian began the dynasty’s long relationship with the Fugger family of bankers, who attached themselves to the Habsburgs like a parasite to a host. Maximilian essentially gave the Fuggers control over Tyrol’s copper and silver mines. Of revenues from those mines, 50 percent would go to the Fuggers, 18 percent to Maximilian, and 32 percent to the mining contractor.” [1]

[1]: (Curtis 2013: 71) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92


Paper Currency:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

“Gulden banknotes issued by the Bank were printed in German on one side, Hungarian (as Forints) on the other.” [1] “By 1918 tax and non-tax income covered less than 20% of current war expenditures. The war was financed in two main ways: war loans in the form of eight public bond drives covered 53%, and direct credits (with newly printed money) provided via the Austro-Hungarian National Bank and other bank consortia financed another 42% of war costs, imposing a huge burden of hyperinflation on the postwar economy.” [2]

[1]: (Boyer 2022: 176, footnote) Boyer, John W. 2022. Austria, 1867–1955. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/CG3P4KKD

[2]: (Boyer 2022: 536) Boyer, John W. 2022. Austria, 1867–1955. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/CG3P4KKD

Paper Currency:
Transitional (Absent -> Present)

“By 1795 the government was printing paper money to cover the added costs of war, and by 1797—as a result of a panic caused by fears that Napoleon would take Vienna— silver was completely withdrawn from circulation, and state employees and state creditors had to accept paper bills as their payment.” [1]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 90) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW


Indigenous Coin:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

Gold, silver and copper coins such as kreuzers, florins and ducats were minted in Austro-Hungary throughout the period. [1] “From approximately 1750-1940, a number of nations, particularly European colonial powers and commercial traders, minted trade coins to facilitate commerce with the local populace of Africa, the Arab countries, the Indian subcontinental, Southeast Asia and the Far East. Such coins generally circulated at a value based on the weight and fineness of their silver or gold content, rather than their stated denomination. Examples include the sovereigns of Great Britain and the gold ducat issues of Austria, Hungary and the Netherlands. Trade coinage will sometimes be found listed at the end of the domestic issues.” [2]

[1]: (Čuhaj 2012: 83) Čuhaj, George S. ed. 2012. Standard Catalog of World Coins. 1801-1900. Iowa: Krause Publications. http://archive.org/details/standardcatalogo0000unse_n7n9. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/GL3FWWA9

[2]: (Čuhaj 2012: 11) Čuhaj, George S. ed. 2012. Standard Catalog of World Coins. 1801-1900. Iowa: Krause Publications. http://archive.org/details/standardcatalogo0000unse_n7n9. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/GL3FWWA9

Indigenous Coin:
present

“The public debt at the beginning of the reign of Leopold II amounted to 375 million guilders in government bonds. Only after 1796 did they have to be accepted, however, as payment in lieu of cash. At that time paper money was introduced officially as legal tender. The situation soon worsened. By 1809 coins were hoarded. Even copper coins disappeared from circulation. The public debt had risen to nearly 700 million guilders and was to rise further. Private credit was unobtainable. In March, 1811, a decree signed by the emperor a month before it was published, declared in effect state bankruptcy. The value of the paper guilder, officially the full equivalent of the silver coin, amounted in effect (that is, in private trade) only to one-twelfth.” [1]

[1]: (Kann 1974: 241) Kann, Robert A. 1974. A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918. Los Angeles: University of California Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/RP3JD4UV


Article:
absent

No mention of Articles used in the sources consulted.


Store Of Wealth:
present

Banks.


Debt And Credit Structure:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

“Since the founding of an Austrian national bank in 1816, the empire had monopolized the bank’s resources for its own borrowing needs, making it impossible for the bank to meet the credit needs of any but a few other wealthy private clients. The ser vices of some international banking families (Rothschild, Sina, Arnstein Eskeles) were available to Austrian borrowers during this period, but in the 1850s Austria’s finance ministers addressed the problem of capital shortages by creating new banks that could make much larger amounts of credit available to private borrowers.” [1] “The debt of the Austrian State to the Austro-Hungarian Bank in direct loans made by the bank to the State amounted at the end of 1919 to 25,088 millions of kronen", while the debts owed to other the other creditor countries were "2,696 millions of German Reichsmarks; 42.9 millions of Dutch florins; 20.6 millions of Danish kroner; 7.9 millions of Swedish kroner; 3.6 millions of Bulgarian levas.” [2]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 231-232) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[2]: (Mises: “Finance and Banking in the Austrian Empire and the Republic of Austria,”) Mises, Ludwig. “Finance and Banking in the Austrian Empire and the Republic of Austria,” Econlib, accessed September 21, 2022, https://www.econlib.org/library/Mises/msEnc.html. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BWXZTETZ.

Debt And Credit Structure:
Transitional (Absent -> Present)

Banks; private creditors. “Once he came to the throne, Joseph built upon the great successes of Eugène and Marlborough to provide strong leadership for the dynasty’s war aims. He helped shore up the monarchy’s precarious finances by founding the Vienna City Bank in 1706.” [1] “Since the founding of an Austrian national bank in 1816, the empire had monopolized the bank’s resources for its own borrowing needs, making it impossible for the bank to meet the credit needs of any but a few other wealthy private clients. The services of some international banking families (Rothschild, Sina, Arnstein Eskeles) were available to Austrian borrowers during this period, but in the 1850s Austria’s finance ministers addressed the problem of capital shortages by creating new banks that could make much larger amounts of credit available to private borrowers.” [2]

[1]: (Curtis 2013: 199) Curtis, Benjamin. 2013. The Habsburgs: The History of a Dynasty. London; New York: Bloomsbury. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92

[2]: (Judson 2016: 231-232) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

“From schooling to military service to welfare benefits to postal services, the responsibilities of the state increased… When we add to this the massive state- funded expansion of the railway, telegraph, and postal systems (in 1848 there had been ten telegraph stations in Austria, by 1913 there were 7,282), we can see how the state became a more immediate and present actor in people’s lives.” [1]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 335-336) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

Postal Station:
Transitional (Absent -> Present)

“From schooling to military service to welfare benefits to postal ser vices, the responsibilities of the state increased… When we add to this the massive state- funded expansion of the railway, telegraph, and postal systems (in 1848 there had been ten telegraph stations in Austria, by 1913 there were 7,282), we can see how the state became a more immediate and present actor in people’s lives.” [1]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 335-336) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW


General Postal Service:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

“Postal workers and elementary school teachers came to symbolize the empire for the general public, since they represented it in the most common daily life interactions, even in the most out of the way rural settings. As one historian wrote of the Hungarian postal system, it “was the state institution that doubtless created the greatest familiarity among ordinary people.” [1]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 337) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

General Postal Service:
present

“From schooling to military service to welfare benefits to postal ser vices, the responsibilities of the state increased… When we add to this the massive state- funded expansion of the railway, telegraph, and postal systems (in 1848 there had been ten telegraph stations in Austria, by 1913 there were 7,282), we can see how the state became a more immediate and present actor in people’s lives.” [1]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 335-336) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW


Fastest Individual Communication:
0
1867 CE 1918 CE

During this period postal, telegraph and telephone services were available which made some communication almost instant. [1] “By 1911, the Austrian state employed over fifteen thousand women, most of them in the postal, telegraph, and telephone services…” [2]

[1]: (Judson 2016: 336-337, 393) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW

[2]: (Judson 2016: 337) Judson, Pieter M. 2016. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge, USA; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BN5TQZBW


Information / Measurement System
Weight Measurement System:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

In 1871 the metric system was adopted and in 1876 it became compulsory. [1]

[1]: (Cardarelli 2003: 99) Cardarelli, François. 2003. Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights, and Measures: Their SI Equivalences and Origins. London; New York: Springer. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/UWS9ZN34

Weight Measurement System:
present

Old Austrian weight units were “derived from Prussian and German systems.” These included pfund, unze, and gran. [1]

[1]: (Cardarelli 2003: 99) Cardarelli, François. 2003. Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights, and Measures: Their SI Equivalences and Origins. London; New York: Springer. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/UWS9ZN34


Volume Measurement System:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

In 1871 the metric system was adopted and in 1876 it became compulsory. [1]

[1]: (Cardarelli 2003: 99) Cardarelli, François. 2003. Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights, and Measures: Their SI Equivalences and Origins. London; New York: Springer. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/UWS9ZN34

Volume Measurement System:
present

Old Austrian volume units were “derived from Prussian and German systems.” These included fuder, dreiling, pfiff, metzel, and viertel. [1]

[1]: (Cardarelli 2003: 99) Cardarelli, François. 2003. Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights, and Measures: Their SI Equivalences and Origins. London; New York: Springer. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/UWS9ZN34


Time Measurement System:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

Clocks were used. [1]

[1]: Curtis 2013: 142. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TRKUBP92


Length Measurement System:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

In 1871 the metric system was adopted and in 1876 it became compulsory. [1]

[1]: (Cardarelli 2003: 99) Cardarelli, François. 2003. Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights, and Measures: Their SI Equivalences and Origins. London; New York: Springer. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/UWS9ZN34

Length Measurement System:
present

Old Austrian length units were “derived from Prussian and German systems.” These included meile, ruthe, klafter, fuss. [1]

[1]: (Cardarelli 2003: 99) Cardarelli, François. 2003. Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights, and Measures: Their SI Equivalences and Origins. London; New York: Springer. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/UWS9ZN34


Geometrical Measurement System:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

Area Measurement System:
present
1867 CE 1918 CE

In 1871 the metric system was adopted and in 1876 it became compulsory. [1]

[1]: (Cardarelli 2003: 99) Cardarelli, François. 2003. Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights, and Measures: Their SI Equivalences and Origins. London; New York: Springer. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/UWS9ZN34

Area Measurement System:
present

Old Austrian area units were “derived from Prussian and German systems.” These included joch, metze and square klafter. [1]

[1]: (Cardarelli 2003: 99) Cardarelli, François. 2003. Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights, and Measures: Their SI Equivalences and Origins. London; New York: Springer. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/UWS9ZN34



Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Military use of Metals
Projectiles
Handheld weapons
Animals used in warfare
Armor
Naval technology

Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions