Home Region:  Mongolia (Central and Northern Eurasia)

Rouran Khaganate

EQ 2020  mn_rouran_khaganate / MnRourn

The Orkhon Valley lies either side of the Orkhon River, in north-central Mongolia. Between about 300 and 550 CE, it was under the control of the Rouran. Though these began as nomadic pastoralists like their predecessors the Xianbei and Xiongnu, there is evidence that by the sixth century CE they had transitioned to a settled, agricultural way of life, and from shamanism to Buddhism. [1] At their peak, they ruled over an empire comprising around 4,000,000 squared kilometers, [2] with a population of no less than 500,000. [3] This empire was divided into an eastern and a western wing, each ruled by a silifa, who were subordinate to the paramount ruler or khagan. [4] For ease of organisation, both the population and the army were divided into groups of hundreds and thousands. [5]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)

[2]: (Rogers 2012, 220-221)

[3]: (Kradin 2005, 165)

[4]: (Kradin 2005, 162)

[5]: (Kradin 2005, 154-155)

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
NO_VALID_VALUE  
Original Name:
Rouran Khaganate  
Capital:
Mumocheng  
Alternative Name:
Jujan  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[402 CE ➜ 429 CE]  
Duration:
[300 CE ➜ 555 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
uncoded [---]  
Succeeding Entity:
First Turk Khaganate  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Xianbei Confederation  
Degree of Centralization:
confederated state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Mongolic  
Language:
Rouran  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Buddhism  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
4,000,000 km2  
Polity Population:
[500,000 to 1,000,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[1 to 2]  
Religious Level:
1 300 CE 499 CE
2 500 CE 551 CE
Military Level:
4  
Administrative Level:
4  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred present  
Professional Priesthood:
inferred present  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown 300 CE 500 CE
inferred present 501 CE 551 CE
Merit Promotion:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
inferred absent  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent  
Judge:
absent  
Formal Legal Code:
inferred absent  
Court:
absent  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
inferred absent  
Irrigation System:
unknown  
Food Storage Site:
absent 300 CE 499 CE
present 300 CE 499 CE
inferred present 500 CE 555 CE
Drinking Water Supply System:
inferred absent  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
unknown  
Port:
inferred absent  
Canal:
unknown  
Bridge:
unknown  
Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
inferred absent 300 CE 499 CE
inferred present 500 CE 555 CE
Script:
inferred absent 300 CE 499 CE
inferred present 500 CE 555 CE
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
inferred absent  
Nonwritten Record:
inferred present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
inferred absent 300 CE 499 CE
inferred present 500 CE 555 CE
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
unknown  
Sacred Text:
inferred absent 300 CE 499 CE
inferred present 500 CE 555 CE
Religious Literature:
inferred absent 300 CE 499 CE
inferred present 500 CE 555 CE
Practical Literature:
inferred absent 300 CE 499 CE
inferred present 500 CE 555 CE
Philosophy:
unknown  
Lists Tables and Classification:
inferred absent 300 CE 499 CE
inferred present 500 CE 555 CE
History:
unknown  
Fiction:
inferred absent 300 CE 499 CE
present 500 CE 555 CE
absent 500 CE 555 CE
Calendar:
inferred absent 300 CE 499 CE
inferred present 500 CE 555 CE
Information / Money
Token:
absent  
Precious Metal:
absent  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
absent  
Foreign Coin:
absent  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
inferred absent  
General Postal Service:
inferred absent  
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
unknown  
  Ditch:
inferred present  
  Complex Fortification:
present  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
inferred absent  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
inferred present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
unknown  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
unknown  
  Javelin:
unknown  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
unknown  
  Composite Bow:
inferred present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
unknown  
  Sword:
unknown  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
unknown  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
unknown  
  Elephant:
unknown  
  Donkey:
unknown  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
unknown  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
inferred present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
unknown  
  Limb Protection:
unknown  
  Leather Cloth:
inferred present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
unknown  
  Chainmail:
unknown  
  Breastplate:
unknown  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred absent  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Rouran Khaganate (mn_rouran_khaganate) was in:
 (300 CE 551 CE)   Orkhon Valley
Home NGA: Orkhon Valley

General Variables
Identity and Location


Capital:
Mumocheng

"Historical documents make reference to Jujan permanent settlements, including palaces and a capital (Mumocheng)." [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 224)



Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[402 CE ➜ 429 CE]

[402-429 CE]; [521-552 CE] "Two main peaks of Rouran might may be pinpointed: (a) the initial ascent during the reign of Shelun, the founder of the empire, and his immediate successors in 402-429, and (b) the rise and progress of the process of Sinicisation under the rule of Anagui in 521-552." [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2005, 156)



Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
uncoded [---]

"Displeased, the Chinese had him interned; he died in Lo-yang in 524, and A-na-kui remained the sole ruler of the Juan-juan. It is difficult to know how much real power he wielded, but he skilfully exploited the internal difficulties of the rapidly disintegrating W ei state. He established matrimonial relations with both the Eastern and Western Wei, and at times was an effective power broker between contending Chinese factions." [1] The Rouran tended to raid the Wei, with periods of alliance. There were several strategic marriage alliances between the two polities. However, this might be too unstable (because of the raiding) to code as ’alliance’?

[1]: (Sinor 1990, 295)


Succeeding Entity:
First Turk Khaganate

"Consequently, there was no evidence of any feudal civil strife until 552, when the Rouran, at the peak of their might, suffered defeat from the Turks. [...] In 555, the ruler of the Western Wei empire handed over the remaining few thousand Rouran to the Turks, all of whom (except children under sixteen) were put to cruel death." [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2005, 166)


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

"Subsequent to the death of Tanshikhuai, his brother came to power, followed by a nephew, and then an unrelated leader (Kebineng), but unity was ephemeral and by A.D. 235 the Xianbei broke into a series of smaller polities, eventually reemerging as the Toba (northern) Wei polity." [1] "Given their Tung-hu-Hsien-pi origins, it is presumed that the Jou-Jan were Mongolic in speech." [2]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 223)

[2]: (Golden 1992, 77)


Preceding Entity:
Xianbei Confederation

Degree of Centralization:
confederated state

"The Jujan polity emerged in the central portion of Inner Asia under a powerful leader (Shelun) who forged a confederation of several local groups that lasted 175 years." [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 224)


Language

Language:
Rouran

"Since, as we shall see, the Turk state replaced that of the Juan-juan, it would be tempting - and probably correct - to assume that the Juan-juan language continued in use among the subjects of the newly formed Turk empire. Unfortunately we do not know what Juan-juan was like. In spite of repeated attempts to reconstruct them on the basis of Chinese transcriptions, Juan- juan proper names show no trace of being Turkic, nor can they consistently be explained from Mongol. It is probably safe to say that within the perimeter of the Juan-juan state a number of partly unrelated languages were in use, and that the Turks, together with the political power, inherited the linguistic status quo. Scattered but convincing data support such a hypothesis." [1]

[1]: (Sinor 1990, 290-291)



Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
4,000,000 km2

in squared kilometers. "At its height, Jujan geographical boundaries were similar to those of the Xiongnu (Kradin 2005b, p. 155)." [1] "At its height the Xiongnu empire controlled a region encompassing all of Mongolia and extending south to the Ordos region in the loop of the Yellow River in northern China (Fig. 1). In the north control extended to the boreal forests of Siberia, including Tuva and Buriatia in the Russian Federation (Kradin 2005a). Based on a variety of maps and geographical information on the location of different groups, at its height the Xiongnu empire encompassed a region on the order of 4,000,000 km2." [2]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 224)

[2]: (Rogers 2012, 220-221)


Polity Population:
[500,000 to 1,000,000] people

People. Not less than 500,000.
"Undoubtedly, the Rouran khaganate was a multi-tribal confederation. Its total population (based on the approximately known size of the army) was not less than 500 thousand people." [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2005, 165)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[1 to 2]

levels.
c500 CE and after
"It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [1]
"It is also known from the sources that the number of nomadic bu could vary from one thousand tents (i.e. about 4-5 thousand people) to several tens of thousands of people (Taskin 1984, pp. 275-276, 294). Chapter 103 of the Wei shu reports that the Rouran had 10 "nomads’ camps" in 521." [2]
"From Chinese chronicles: "They do not have towns surrounded with inner and outer walls, but herd livestock, going from place to place in search of water and grass. Their homes are felt tents, which they take to the place where they stop." " [1]
"the Hsiung-nu Huns in China were changing their society ... as attested by the discovery of a city built by them in northwestern China’s Shaanxi Province in the fifth century C.E." [3]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)

[2]: (Kradin 2005, 162)

[3]: (Waldman and Mason 2006, 396) Carl Waldman. Catherine Mason. 2006. Encyclopedia of European Peoples, Volume 2. Facts On File. New York.


Religious Level:
1
300 CE 499 CE

levels. Shamans. [1] Buddhism was also present, probably more levels: "The Juan-juan khagans and nobles were well acquainted with Buddhist teachings and were probably Buddhists as early as the beginning of the sixth century. It is known that in 511 they sent a Buddhist monk and preacher to China with the gift of an image of the Buddha ornamented with pearls for the emperor." [2]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)

[2]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)

Religious Level:
2
500 CE 551 CE

levels. Shamans. [1] Buddhism was also present, probably more levels: "The Juan-juan khagans and nobles were well acquainted with Buddhist teachings and were probably Buddhists as early as the beginning of the sixth century. It is known that in 511 they sent a Buddhist monk and preacher to China with the gift of an image of the Buddha ornamented with pearls for the emperor." [2]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)

[2]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)


Military Level:
4

levels. "The Wei shu reports that early in the 5th century, Shelun introduced the so-called decimal system: "For the first time, military laws were established according to which 1000 people formed a detachment (run), and at the head of a detachment a military leader was placed. 100 people formed a banner (zhuang) and a chief stood at the head of a banner" (WS 103: 3a; Taskin 1984, p. 269). A term run can be translated as ’military head’, while shawu as ’leader or commander’." [1]
1. Khagan
2. Head of detachment (1000 men)3. Chief of a banner (100 men)4. Soldier

[1]: (Kradin 2005, 155)


Administrative Level:
4

levels. Decimal structure like previous and following polities. "He radically reorganised the military-administrative structure of the Rouran society, dividing the population-army into hundreds and thousands, introduced the obligatory registration of available warriors, established strict rules of behaviour in battle and the penalties for their violation [...]." [1] "It was divided into western and eastern wings, but, as we know, the dual organisation was recorded already during the pre-empire period. Initially, the ruler of the eastern wing was considered to have the higher status (WS 103: 1b-2a; Taskin 1984, p. 267) but later this, seemingly, changed (Taskin 1984, pp. 273, 278, 285)." [2]
The administrative structure is not mentioned, but Kradin refers to the following elite hierarchy:
1. Khagan
2. Rulers of empire wings (silifa)3. Dignitaries - ruling elite, chiefs, elders [3] 4. Tribal chiefs and clan elders (commanders of 1000 and 100 horsemen)
"The social organisation of the Rouran was slightly different from the public organisation of other nomads in Eurasia, and it was a complex hierarchical multi-level system." [4]

[1]: (Kradin 2005, 154)

[2]: (Kradin 2005, 154-155)

[3]: (Kradin 2005, 161-162)

[4]: (Kradin 2005, 162)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

"The Wei shu reports that early in the 5th century, Shelun introduced the so-called decimal system: "For the first time, military laws were established according to which 1000 people formed a detachment (run), and at the head of a detachment a military leader was placed. 100 people formed a banner (zhuang) and a chief stood at the head of a banner" (WS 103: 3a; Taskin 1984, p. 269). A term run can be translated as ’military head’, while shawu as ’leader or commander’." [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2005, 155)


Professional Priesthood:
present

A female shaman is mentioned: "Ch’ou-nu kaghan (508-20) - his position shaken because of his attachment to a female shaman - was murdered, apparently on the orders of his own mother, who then had her younger son A-na-kui enthroned." [1] Buddhist monks/priests probably present: "The Juan-juan khagans and nobles were well acquainted with Buddhist teachings and were probably Buddhists as early as the beginning of the sixth century. It is known that in 511 they sent a Buddhist monk and preacher to China with the gift of an image of the Buddha ornamented with pearls for the emperor." [2]

[1]: (Sinor 1990, 294)

[2]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)


Professional Military Officer:
present

"The Wei shu reports that early in the 5th century, Shelun introduced the so-called decimal system: "For the first time, military laws were established according to which 1000 people formed a detachment (run), and at the head of a detachment a military leader was placed. 100 people formed a banner (zhuang) and a chief stood at the head of a banner" (WS 103: 3a; Taskin 1984, p. 269). A term run can be translated as ’military head’, while shawu as ’leader or commander’." [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2005, 155)


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown
300 CE 500 CE

Suspected unknown at least for the period up to 500 CE.
c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [1]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)

Specialized Government Building:
present
501 CE 551 CE

Suspected unknown at least for the period up to 500 CE.
c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [1]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)



Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent

"However, it would be incorrect to consider these innovations as evidence of the emergence among the Rouran of a bureaucratic organisation of administration resembling the Chinese one. Most likely, it was only an outward similarity with Chinese institutions, its main aim was the preservation of steppe traditions. This is evident from the chronicler’s list of posts (chamberlain, etc.) that were related to the way of life of the ruler and his court rather than to record keeping and the administration of the central or regional institutions of power. Shunyu Tan, grandiloquently called a principal clerk, judging by the context, was the only official of his department, moreover, he also held the most important post of chamberlain." [1] "There are actually no data of any specialised functionaries (professional bureaucrats), who were present in almost every early state (Claessen-Skalnik 1978, p. 580). The sole exception is the above-mentioned Shunyu Tan who was appointed principal clerk by Anagui." [2]

[1]: (Kradin 2005, 163-164)

[2]: (Kradin 1995, 165)



Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent

"Unlike the Xianbei, they established a more centralized imperial confederation with systematic warrior registration and rules of behavior. However, there was no written legal system or functionaries to administer laws beyond the military." [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 224)


"Unlike the Xianbei, they established a more centralized imperial confederation with systematic warrior registration and rules of behavior. However, there was no written legal system or functionaries to administer laws beyond the military." [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 224)


Formal Legal Code:
absent

"Unlike the Xianbei, they established a more centralized imperial confederation with systematic warrior registration and rules of behavior. However, there was no written legal system or functionaries to administer laws beyond the military." [1] "As regards rights and laws, we have no data whatsoever on courts, appeals, written law, the existence of a penal code, specialised functionaries overseeing the obersvation of law in the Rouran khaganate." [2]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 224)

[2]: (Kradin 2005, 166)


"Unlike the Xianbei, they established a more centralized imperial confederation with systematic warrior registration and rules of behavior. However, there was no written legal system or functionaries to administer laws beyond the military." [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 224)


Specialized Buildings: polity owned

Irrigation System:
unknown

c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [1]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)


Food Storage Site:
absent
300 CE 499 CE

c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [1]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)

Food Storage Site:
present
300 CE 499 CE

c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [1]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)

Food Storage Site:
present
500 CE 555 CE

c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [1]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)



Transport Infrastructure

c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [1]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)


No water transport known.



Bridge:
unknown

c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [1]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)


Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent
300 CE 499 CE

"Historical sources report that by A.D. 500 the Jujan were actively adopting a variety of Chinese influences, including the use of written Chinese for official records. " [1] c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [2] "the early steppe peoples would not have been a promising vehicle for the diffusion of complicated, textually based knowledge; according to the Northern Wei dynastic history, the Rouran were illiterates whose leaders at first kept records of their troop numbers by piling up sheep turds as counters but eventually graduated to scratching simple marks onto pieces of wood. Not surprisingly, there is no evidence of the transmission of Chinese military theories and texts to the West by way of the Avars, other steppe nomads, Silk Road caravans, or any other channel prior to the activities of the Jesuit missionaries in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries." [3]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 224)

[2]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)

[3]: (Graff 2016, 146) David A Graff. 2016. The Eurasian Way of War. Military practice in seventh-century China and Byzantium. Routledge. Abingdon.

Written Record:
present
500 CE 555 CE

"Historical sources report that by A.D. 500 the Jujan were actively adopting a variety of Chinese influences, including the use of written Chinese for official records. " [1] c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [2] "the early steppe peoples would not have been a promising vehicle for the diffusion of complicated, textually based knowledge; according to the Northern Wei dynastic history, the Rouran were illiterates whose leaders at first kept records of their troop numbers by piling up sheep turds as counters but eventually graduated to scratching simple marks onto pieces of wood. Not surprisingly, there is no evidence of the transmission of Chinese military theories and texts to the West by way of the Avars, other steppe nomads, Silk Road caravans, or any other channel prior to the activities of the Jesuit missionaries in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries." [3]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 224)

[2]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)

[3]: (Graff 2016, 146) David A Graff. 2016. The Eurasian Way of War. Military practice in seventh-century China and Byzantium. Routledge. Abingdon.


Script:
absent
300 CE 499 CE

"Historical sources report that by A.D. 500 the Jujan were actively adopting a variety of Chinese influences, including the use of written Chinese for official records. " [1] "the early steppe peoples would not have been a promising vehicle for the diffusion of complicated, textually based knowledge; according to the Northern Wei dynastic history, the Rouran were illiterates whose leaders at first kept records of their troop numbers by piling up sheep turds as counters but eventually graduated to scratching simple marks onto pieces of wood. Not surprisingly, there is no evidence of the transmission of Chinese military theories and texts to the West by way of the Avars, other steppe nomads, Silk Road caravans, or any other channel prior to the activities of the Jesuit missionaries in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries." [2]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 224)

[2]: (Graff 2016, 146) David A Graff. 2016. The Eurasian Way of War. Military practice in seventh-century China and Byzantium. Routledge. Abingdon.

Script:
present
500 CE 555 CE

"Historical sources report that by A.D. 500 the Jujan were actively adopting a variety of Chinese influences, including the use of written Chinese for official records. " [1] "the early steppe peoples would not have been a promising vehicle for the diffusion of complicated, textually based knowledge; according to the Northern Wei dynastic history, the Rouran were illiterates whose leaders at first kept records of their troop numbers by piling up sheep turds as counters but eventually graduated to scratching simple marks onto pieces of wood. Not surprisingly, there is no evidence of the transmission of Chinese military theories and texts to the West by way of the Avars, other steppe nomads, Silk Road caravans, or any other channel prior to the activities of the Jesuit missionaries in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries." [2]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 224)

[2]: (Graff 2016, 146) David A Graff. 2016. The Eurasian Way of War. Military practice in seventh-century China and Byzantium. Routledge. Abingdon.


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent

Coded for Chinese, not (Turkic?) Juan-juan language. "Historical sources report that by A.D. 500 the Jujan were actively adopting a variety of Chinese influences, including the use of written Chinese for official records. " [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 224)


Nonwritten Record:
present

"They had no written alphabet, so that they could not keep written records, but later they learnt to make records well by making notches in wood..." [1] "the early steppe peoples would not have been a promising vehicle for the diffusion of complicated, textually based knowledge; according to the Northern Wei dynastic history, the Rouran were illiterates whose leaders at first kept records of their troop numbers by piling up sheep turds as counters but eventually graduated to scratching simple marks onto pieces of wood. Not surprisingly, there is no evidence of the transmission of Chinese military theories and texts to the West by way of the Avars, other steppe nomads, Silk Road caravans, or any other channel prior to the activities of the Jesuit missionaries in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries." [2] to place, wherever he could find water and grass"

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 316)

[2]: (Graff 2016, 146) David A Graff. 2016. The Eurasian Way of War. Military practice in seventh-century China and Byzantium. Routledge. Abingdon.


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent
300 CE 499 CE

Coded for Chinese, not (Turkic?) Juan-juan language. "Historical sources report that by A.D. 500 the Jujan were actively adopting a variety of Chinese influences, including the use of written Chinese for official records. " [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 224)

Non Phonetic Writing:
present
500 CE 555 CE

Coded for Chinese, not (Turkic?) Juan-juan language. "Historical sources report that by A.D. 500 the Jujan were actively adopting a variety of Chinese influences, including the use of written Chinese for official records. " [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 224)


Information / Kinds of Written Documents

Sacred Text:
absent
300 CE 499 CE

c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [1]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)

Sacred Text:
present
500 CE 555 CE

c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [1]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)


Religious Literature:
absent
300 CE 499 CE

c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [1]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)

Religious Literature:
present
500 CE 555 CE

c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [1]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)


Practical Literature:
absent
300 CE 499 CE

"Historical sources report that by A.D. 500 the Jujan were actively adopting a variety of Chinese influences, including the use of written Chinese for official records." [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 224)

Practical Literature:
present
500 CE 555 CE

"Historical sources report that by A.D. 500 the Jujan were actively adopting a variety of Chinese influences, including the use of written Chinese for official records." [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 224)


Philosophy:
unknown

"Buddhist learning flourished." [1]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)


Lists Tables and Classification:
absent
300 CE 499 CE

c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [1]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)

Lists Tables and Classification:
present
500 CE 555 CE

c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [1]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)


History:
unknown

Not mentioned by sources, though by the beginning of the sixth century the Rouran were a literate society.


Fiction:
absent
300 CE 499 CE

c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [1]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)

Fiction:
present
500 CE 555 CE

c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [1]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)

Fiction:
absent
500 CE 555 CE

c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [1]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)


Calendar:
absent
300 CE 499 CE

c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [1]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)

Calendar:
present
500 CE 555 CE

c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [1]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)


Information / Money

According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Precious Metal:
absent

According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Paper Currency:
absent

According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Indigenous Coin:
absent

According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Foreign Coin:
absent

According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Article:
present

According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Information / Postal System


Courier:
unknown

c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [1]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications


Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown

From Chinese chronicles: "They do not have towns surrounded with inner and outer walls, but herd livestock, going from place to place in search of water and grass. Their homes are felt tents, which they take to the place where they stop." [1] The Chinese chronicles on this matter seem to be lacking in detail and therefore suspect. They might be referring to the condition of the majority of the Rouran so it might not preclude the existence of a capital town/city that is fortified. "Early in the 6th century, probably under Anagui’s reign, the Rouran built their capital city, the town of Mumocheng, encircled with two walls constructed by Liang shu (LS 54: 47a-47b; Taskin 1984, p. 290)." [2] "However, no trace of the town has been found to date and historians argue about its location." [2] Qarshi, built by Kebek of the Chagatai Khaganate is an example "typical of Mongolian and south Siberian cities from the Xiongnu period onwards."; it was "bounded by a strong wall, 4.5 m thick, surrounded by a deep defensive ditch, 8-10 m wide and 3.5-4 m deep, and had four gates. The original layout of the city (before Timurid additions) included one central fortress/palace surrounded by an open spaced designed for the erection of tents." [3]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)

[2]: (Kradin 2005, 163)

[3]: (Biran 2013, 271-272) Michal Biran. Rulers and City Life in Mongal Central Asia (1220-1370) David Durand-Guedy. Turko-Mongol Rulers, Cities and City Life. BRILL. Leiden.



Modern Fortification:
absent

Not in use until much later.




Earth Rampart:
unknown

From Chinese chronicles: "They do not have towns surrounded with inner and outer walls, but herd livestock, going from place to place in search of water and grass. Their homes are felt tents, which they take to the place where they stop." [1] The Chinese chronicles on this matter seem to be lacking in detail and therefore suspect. They might be referring to the condition of the majority of the Rouran so it might not preclude the existence of a capital town/city that is fortified. "Early in the 6th century, probably under Anagui’s reign, the Rouran built their capital city, the town of Mumocheng, encircled with two walls constructed by Liang shu (LS 54: 47a-47b; Taskin 1984, p. 290)." [2] "However, no trace of the town has been found to date and historians argue about its location." [2] Qarshi, built by Kebek of the Chagatai Khaganate is an example "typical of Mongolian and south Siberian cities from the Xiongnu period onwards."; it was "bounded by a strong wall, 4.5 m thick, surrounded by a deep defensive ditch, 8-10 m wide and 3.5-4 m deep, and had four gates. The original layout of the city (before Timurid additions) included one central fortress/palace surrounded by an open spaced designed for the erection of tents." [3]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)

[2]: (Kradin 2005, 163)

[3]: (Biran 2013, 271-272) Michal Biran. Rulers and City Life in Mongal Central Asia (1220-1370) David Durand-Guedy. Turko-Mongol Rulers, Cities and City Life. BRILL. Leiden.


Ditch:
present

From Chinese chronicles: "They do not have towns surrounded with inner and outer walls, but herd livestock, going from place to place in search of water and grass. Their homes are felt tents, which they take to the place where they stop." [1] The Chinese chronicles on this matter seem to be lacking in detail and therefore suspect. They might be referring to the condition of the majority of the Rouran so it might not preclude the existence of a capital town/city that is fortified. "Early in the 6th century, probably under Anagui’s reign, the Rouran built their capital city, the town of Mumocheng, encircled with two walls constructed by Liang shu (LS 54: 47a-47b; Taskin 1984, p. 290)." [2] "However, no trace of the town has been found to date and historians argue about its location." [2] Qarshi, built by Kebek of the Chagatai Khaganate is an example "typical of Mongolian and south Siberian cities from the Xiongnu period onwards."; it was "bounded by a strong wall, 4.5 m thick, surrounded by a deep defensive ditch, 8-10 m wide and 3.5-4 m deep, and had four gates. The original layout of the city (before Timurid additions) included one central fortress/palace surrounded by an open spaced designed for the erection of tents." [3]

[1]: (Kyzlasov 1996, 317)

[2]: (Kradin 2005, 163)

[3]: (Biran 2013, 271-272) Michal Biran. Rulers and City Life in Mongal Central Asia (1220-1370) David Durand-Guedy. Turko-Mongol Rulers, Cities and City Life. BRILL. Leiden.


Complex Fortification:
present

"Early in the 6th century, probably under Anagui’s reign, the Rouran built their capital city, the town of Mumocheng, encircled with two walls constructed by Liang shu (LS 54: 47a-47b; Taskin 1984, p. 290)." [1] "However, no trace of the town has been found to date and historians argue about its location." [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2005, 163)



Military use of Metals

No steel of a high quality until later By the seventh century the "Sogdians and Turkic peoples "had their own sophisticated metallurgical industries." [1] "The other peoples who were heavily involved with arms production and trade with the Tibetans were the Turkic peoples and especially the Karluks, allies of the Tibetans during the eighth and early ninth centuries ... The Karluks ... were noted by Islamic geographers as producers and exporters of iron artifacts and weapons to Tibet and China." [2]

[1]: (Clarke 2006, 21-22) John Clarke. A History of Ironworking in Tibet: Centers of Production, Styles, and Techniques. Donald J LaRocca. ed. 2006. Warriors of the Himalayas: Rediscovering the Arms and Armor of Tibet. Yale University Press. New Haven.

[2]: (Clarke 2006, 22) John Clarke. A History of Ironworking in Tibet: Centers of Production, Styles, and Techniques. Donald J LaRocca. ed. 2006. Warriors of the Himalayas: Rediscovering the Arms and Armor of Tibet. Yale University Press. New Haven.


Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region. [1] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [2]

[1]: (Baumer 2012) Baumer, Christoph. 2012. The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors. I.B.Tauris. London.

[2]: (Di Cosmo 2002, 84) Nicola Di Cosmo. 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Copper:
present

long been in use in the region. Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region. [1] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [2]

[1]: (Baumer 2012) Baumer, Christoph. 2012. The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors. I.B.Tauris. London.

[2]: (Di Cosmo 2002, 84) Nicola Di Cosmo. 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Bronze:
present

long been in use in the region. Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region. [1] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [2]

[1]: (Baumer 2012) Baumer, Christoph. 2012. The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors. I.B.Tauris. London.

[2]: (Di Cosmo 2002, 84) Nicola Di Cosmo. 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Projectiles

Sling Siege Engine:
absent

First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon. [1]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.





Handheld Firearm:
absent

"Firearms appeared in Siberia and Mongolia in the 17th century in the form of flintlock rifles. Flintlocks were the only firearms used in most areas until the turn of the 20th century." [1]

[1]: (Atwood 2004, 229)


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Not in use until much later.



Composite Bow:
present

"Among the Avars that followed them, the bow was also complemented by a lance, with a new kind of lance-head." [1]

[1]: (Karasulas 2004, 29)


Weapon of the Americas, extremely unlikely to be present here


Handheld weapons


"Among the Avars that followed them, the bow was also complemented by a lance, with a new kind of lance-head." [1]

[1]: (Karasulas 2004, 29)



Dagger:
present

"Among the steppe riders a dagger was typically carried in all periods, and a number of dagger designs are encountered in the archaeological and artistic record." [1]

[1]: (Karasulas 2004, 28)



Armor

Shield:
present

"Shields were known in all periods and, though they are mentioned in the contemporary literature, they only occasionally appear in artistic representations. They were typically made of leather on a reed frame, and a few rare examples survive." [1]

[1]: (Karasulas 2004, 29)





Leather Cloth:
present

"Shields were known in all periods and, though they are mentioned in the contemporary literature, they only occasionally appear in artistic representations. They were typically made of leather on a reed frame, and a few rare examples survive." [1]

[1]: (Karasulas 2004, 29)






Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

There were rivers, but the Rouran were nomads who did not have permanent settlements so no reason to use boats to travel from point A-B when they have horses to do so. Certainly would not have needed to use river vessels for military use. Half the year the rivers would be frozen.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
absent

Rouran were nomads who did not have permanent settlements so no reason to use boats to travel from point A-B when they have horses to do so.


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent

There were rivers, but the Rouran were nomads who did not have permanent settlements so no reason to use boats to travel from point A-B when they have horses to do so. Certainly would not have needed to use river vessels for military use. Half the year the rivers would be frozen.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.