Home Region:  Anatolia-Caucasus (Southwest Asia)

Lysimachus Kingdom

EQ 2020  tr_lysimachus_k / TrLysim

The Thracian kingdom under Lysimachus constituted only a short period in the history of the area. The Odrysian Kingdom was present in Thrace before it was conquered by Philip II, then ruled by Alexander the Great until his death in 323 BCE. Lysimachus, one of Alexander’s Successors, took over governorship of the area and eventually declared himself king in 306 BCE. Lysimachus ruled with an expansionist policy, and extended the kingdom to its furthest reaches by around 300 BCE. [1] His reign was however, very short lived. He was defeated at the Battle of Corupedium by Seleucus (ruler of the Seleucid Empire) in 281 BCE and his territories became part of the Seleucid Empire.
The evidence of Lysimachus’ reign is very limited and, “There is almost no direct information as to Lysimachus’ administration, nor do we know the site of his headquarters before Lysimacheia’s walls rose in 309 BCE.” [2] There is however a certain amount of continuity with the Odrysian Kingdom before the Macedonain conquest which may provide some proxy information on Thrace under Lysimachus. In addition, there is some evidence that Thracian rulers continued to rule under or with Lysimachus, although the exact nature of their relationship is not clear. The earlier reigns of Philip II and Alexander, and the subsequent reign of Seleucus, have not been coded on this page as those polities have separate pages. It was only under Lysimachus that the area was ruled relatively independently, and only during this time that the boundaries were extended to include the Konya Plain.

[1]: (Dimitrov 2011, 13) K Dimitrov. 2011. Economic, Social and Political Structures on the Territory of the Odrysian Kingdom in Thrace (5th - first half of the 3rd century BC). ORPHEUS. Journal of IndoEuropean and Thracian Studies. 18, p. 4-24.

[2]: (Lund 1992, 21) H S Lund. 1992. Lysimachus: A study in early Hellenistic kingship. Routledge: London and New York.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
35 T  
Original Name:
Kingdom of Lysimachus  
Capital:
Lysimacheia  
Alternative Name:
Thrace  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[306 BCE ➜ 281 BCE]  
Duration:
[323 BCE ➜ 281 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
vassalage to [---]  
personal union with [---]  
alliance with [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
Greek  
Succeeding Entity:
Seleucid Empire  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Macedonian Empire  
Degree of Centralization:
loose  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
Greek  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Hellenistic Religions  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
420,000 km2 300 BCE
Polity Population:
[2,000,000 to 3,000,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3  
Religious Level:
2  
Military Level:
[5 to 7]  
Administrative Level:
4  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
inferred present  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Formal Legal Code:
inferred present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
inferred present  
Irrigation System:
inferred present  
Food Storage Site:
inferred present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
inferred present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
inferred present  
Port:
present  
Bridge:
inferred present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
inferred present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
inferred present  
Sacred Text:
inferred present  
Religious Literature:
inferred present  
Practical Literature:
inferred present  
Philosophy:
inferred present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
inferred present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
inferred present  
Calendar:
inferred present  
Information / Money
Paper Currency:
inferred absent  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
General Postal Service:
inferred absent  
Courier:
inferred present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
present  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
present  
  Complex Fortification:
inferred present  
Military use of Metals
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
unknown  
  Sling Siege Engine:
unknown  
  Sling:
present  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
inferred absent  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
inferred absent  
Handheld weapons
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
inferred present  
  Limb Protection:
present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
inferred present  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred present  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Lysimachus Kingdom (tr_lysimachus_k) was in:
 (300 BCE 282 BCE)   Konya Plain
Home NGA: Konya Plain

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Kingdom of Lysimachus

Capital:
Lysimacheia

Lysimacheia: 309-281 BCE [1] [2]

[1]: Hadley, R. A. (1974) Royal Propaganda of Seleucus I and Lysimachus. The Journal of Hellenistic Studies. Vol.94. p55

[2]: Lund, H. S. (1992) Lysimachus: A study in early Hellenistic kingship. Routledge: London and New York. p21, 42



Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[306 BCE ➜ 281 BCE]

These dates correspond to the rule of Lysimachus from when he declared himself king in 306 BCE to when the kingdom was conquered by the Seleucid Empire in 281 BCE. [1]

[1]: Lund, H. S. (1992) Lysimachus: A study in early Hellenistic kingship. Routledge: London and New York. p107


Duration:
[323 BCE ➜ 281 BCE]

The starting date corresponds with the death of Alexander the Great and the beginning of Lysimachus’ governorship of the Thracian territories. The end date is when Lysimachus’ kingdom was taken over by the Seleucid Empire. [1]

[1]: Lund, H. S. (1992) Lysimachus: A study in early Hellenistic kingship. Routledge: London and New York.


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
vassalage to [---]

323 BCE: vassalage; 323-281 BCE: personal union; alliance; 281 BCE: vassalage The Thracian territory was part of Alexander’s empire until his death in 323 BCE. Thrace was then ruled by Lysimachus (and Seuthes?). The two rulers seem to have come to an arrangement with each other, but the exact nature of this relationship is unclear. Lysimachus created personal unions with other ruling families through marriage, and allied Thrace with other Diadoch polities at various times. The Thracian territory was once again taken over by an expanding empire in 281 BCE when Lysimachus was defeated by Seleucus of the Seleucid Empire. [1] [2]

[1]: Dimitrov, K. (2011) Economic, Social and Political Structures on the Territory of the Odrysian Kingdom in Thrace (5th - first half of the 3rd century BC). ORPHEUS. Journal of IndoEuropean and Thracian Studies. 18, p. 4-24.

[2]: Lund, H. S. (1992) Lysimachus: A study in early Hellenistic kingship. Routledge: London and New York.

Suprapolity Relations:
personal union with [---]

323 BCE: vassalage; 323-281 BCE: personal union; alliance; 281 BCE: vassalage The Thracian territory was part of Alexander’s empire until his death in 323 BCE. Thrace was then ruled by Lysimachus (and Seuthes?). The two rulers seem to have come to an arrangement with each other, but the exact nature of this relationship is unclear. Lysimachus created personal unions with other ruling families through marriage, and allied Thrace with other Diadoch polities at various times. The Thracian territory was once again taken over by an expanding empire in 281 BCE when Lysimachus was defeated by Seleucus of the Seleucid Empire. [1] [2]

[1]: Dimitrov, K. (2011) Economic, Social and Political Structures on the Territory of the Odrysian Kingdom in Thrace (5th - first half of the 3rd century BC). ORPHEUS. Journal of IndoEuropean and Thracian Studies. 18, p. 4-24.

[2]: Lund, H. S. (1992) Lysimachus: A study in early Hellenistic kingship. Routledge: London and New York.

Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]

323 BCE: vassalage; 323-281 BCE: personal union; alliance; 281 BCE: vassalage The Thracian territory was part of Alexander’s empire until his death in 323 BCE. Thrace was then ruled by Lysimachus (and Seuthes?). The two rulers seem to have come to an arrangement with each other, but the exact nature of this relationship is unclear. Lysimachus created personal unions with other ruling families through marriage, and allied Thrace with other Diadoch polities at various times. The Thracian territory was once again taken over by an expanding empire in 281 BCE when Lysimachus was defeated by Seleucus of the Seleucid Empire. [1] [2]

[1]: Dimitrov, K. (2011) Economic, Social and Political Structures on the Territory of the Odrysian Kingdom in Thrace (5th - first half of the 3rd century BC). ORPHEUS. Journal of IndoEuropean and Thracian Studies. 18, p. 4-24.

[2]: Lund, H. S. (1992) Lysimachus: A study in early Hellenistic kingship. Routledge: London and New York.






Degree of Centralization:
loose

It is unclear how much influence Lysimachus had on all parts of Thrace, particularly as the role of the Thracian ruler Seuthes is unclear. However: “Some poleis were accorded internal autonomy and the right to form alliances, but under the supervision of a strategos of the King as attested by the Ionian League. Similar organizations may to some extent even have the freedom to follow a foreign policy of their own.” [1]

[1]: Dimitrov, K. (2011) Economic, Social and Political Structures on the Territory of the Odrysian Kingdom in Thrace (5th - first half of the 3rd century BC). ORPHEUS. Journal of IndoEuropean and Thracian Studies. 18, p. 4-24. p15


Language

Language:
Greek

Lysimachus was Macedonian.


Religion
Religion Genus:
Hellenistic Religions



Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
420,000 km2
300 BCE

in squared kilometers. Estimated using Google Area Calculator and the territory shown on the map (above) of Lysimachus’ kingdom around 300 BCE.


Polity Population:
[2,000,000 to 3,000,000] people

Lysimachus’ kingdom covered approximately 50% of modern Turkey and all of Bulgaria.
Turkey as a whole had an estimated 4.5 million in 300 BCE. [1]
Turkey-in-Europe had about 100,000 in 300 BCE. [2]
Bulgaria had approximately 200,000 in 300 BCE. [2]

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 135) McEvedy, Colin. Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd. London.

[2]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 113) McEvedy, Colin. Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd. London.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3

levels.
At least three.
1. City
2. Town3.


Religious Level:
2

At least 2.
Similar to Macedonian Empire?
For the Macedonian Empire, the king was the chief priest and religious leader. Phillip II believed in "his special relationship with Zeus, maintained the cult of the Temenid family, and worshipped his his ancestor, Herakles, the son of Zeus." [1] After Alexander III, divine worship of king emerged. [2]

[1]: (Gabriel 2010, 21)

[2]: (Christesen and Murray 2010)


Military Level:
[5 to 7]

This is the code for the preceding Macedonian Empire -
1. King
Supreme commander [1]
2. BodyguardsCalled somatophylakes. An honor, not literal bodyguards, as they commanded units. [1]
2. Companion Corpshetairoi Companions [2]
pezhetairoi Foot Companions (phalanx) [2]
3. asthetairoiCalled asthetairoi. Under Phillip II had 800 officers. [3]
4. Lochoi (100)- Lochoi (100) - Dekades (10) (probable organization) [2]
5. Dekades (10)6. Individual soldier
2. SquadronCalled Ilai (eight of them), commanded by Ilarches [2]
3. Lochoi, commanded by LochagosCalled Lochoi, commanded by Lochagos. In 331 CE there were 2 lochoi to an Ilai. [2]
4. Dekades?5. Individual soldier
Hypaspistani were elite infantry. [2]
Alternative: [4]
1. King
Alexander
2. Army SecretariatEumenes of Cardia.
2. Royal SecretariesOne for each section of the empire. Not active in field.
3. Secretary of GroupsSecretary of Cavalry Secretary of Mercenaries.
4. Divisions called moirai5. taxiarches commanded taxisforce of 1,536
5? Chiliarchyforce of 1,024
5? Pentakosiarchyforce of 512
6. Lochosforce of 256
7. Dekasforce of 10
8. Individual soldier

[1]: (King 2010, 373-391)

[2]: (Sekunda 2010, 446-471)

[3]: (Gabriel 2010, 11)

[4]: (Sheppard 2008)


Administrative Level:
4

levels. At least four.
“The state of Lysimachos was a typical Hellenistic “personal monarchy” (generally: Burnstein 1980; 1986; Lund 1992: 107-183; Делев 2004: 170-171; 329-353). It was ruled by a Macedonian ruler and aristocracy with the participation of some locals such as Bytis and Paris, citizens of Lysimacheia, supposed to be of Thracian or Thracian-Phrygian origin. The royal domains and the subjected poleis were governed by strategoi or epistat appointed by the King.” [1]
“In Asia Minor, the Hellespont and Thrace, from the 280s BC, at least, the strategos’ authority extended to the Greek cities lying within the satrapy; his intervention might take various forms and is often beneficent in effect.” [2] Lysimachus’ strategos of the Ionians: “Until recently, only one incumbent of the post was known to us, the Milesian Hippostratus, philos of the king and recipient in 289-8 BC of conspicuous honours awarded by the cities of the Ionian koinon. Now, another strategos, Hippodamus, also from Miletus, has stepped out of the shadows, courtesy of a recently published inscription from Chios.” [3]
It is likely that there were administrative levels beneath the strategos, but evidence from this time is sparse.
(2) King
(1) Strategos
Under Macedonian Empire may have had -
1. Diadochi
Military general2. Provinces ruled by Macedonian Satraps or Strategoi3. Local districtsInferred. Within the Achaemenid Empire, a "five-level hierarchical structure," there was at least one administrative level below the provincial, possibly two ("provincial sub-satraps and local districts").
4. Village headmen

[1]: Dimitrov, K. (2011) Economic, Social and Political Structures on the Territory of the Odrysian Kingdom in Thrace (5th - first half of the 3rd century BC). ORPHEUS. Journal of IndoEuropean and Thracian Studies. 18, p. 4-24. p14

[2]: Lund, H. S. (1992) Lysimachus: A study in early Hellenistic kingship. Routledge: London and New York. p141

[3]: Lund, H. S. (1992) Lysimachus: A study in early Hellenistic kingship. Routledge: London and New York. p142


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

Present for Macedonian Empire.


Professional Priesthood:
present

"At Didyma, the obvious parallel, it is clear that Lysimachus allowed the Milesians to administer the shrine and its resources without interference.” [1]

[1]: Lund, H. S. (1992) Lysimachus: A study in early Hellenistic kingship. Routledge: London and New York. p136


Professional Military Officer:
present

Present for Macedonian Empire.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Lysimachus began striking coins at his capital Lysimacheia after the Battle of Ipsis (306 BCE) [1] and he established or used mints in fifteen cities to produce his coins. [2]

[1]: Hadley, R. A. (1974) Royal Propaganda of Seleucus I and Lysimachus. The Journal of Hellenistic Studies. Vol.94. p55

[2]: Lund, H. S. (1992) Lysimachus: A study in early Hellenistic kingship. Routledge: London and New York. p131-132



Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

Lysimachus began striking coins at his capital Lysimacheia after the Battle of Ipsis (306 BCE) [1] and he established or used mints in fifteen cities to produce his coins. [2]

[1]: Hadley, R. A. (1974) Royal Propaganda of Seleucus I and Lysimachus. The Journal of Hellenistic Studies. Vol.94. p55

[2]: Lund, H. S. (1992) Lysimachus: A study in early Hellenistic kingship. Routledge: London and New York. p131-132



Law
Formal Legal Code:
present

royal ordinances (prostagmata) "…it is true that the Successors, like Alexander before them, represented the ultimate source of law for the cities. While epigraphic evidence suggests that the kings were not quite so prone to flaunt these powers as the literary tradition would have it - royal ordinances (prostagmata) for example, are enshrined in the city laws by means of popular decree, at the tactful request, rather than the order, of the king - the fact remains that their powers of intervention in this sphere were very wide; nor did they hesitate to use them when necessary." [1]

[1]: Lund, H. S. (1992) Lysimachus: A study in early Hellenistic kingship. Routledge: London and New York. p138


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

The Macedonians used the agora as a market place. [1]

[1]: (Girtzi-Bafas 2009, 136-144)


Irrigation System:
present

Maintenance of Persian networks and expansion under the Greeks. [1]

[1]: Tarn, William Woodthorpe. The Greeks in Bactria and India. Cambridge University Press, 2010. pp. 101-105



Drinking Water Supply System:
present

There were public fountains in the Greek Kingdoms of Central Asia [1] Something referred to as a "fountain building" in earlier Macedonia. [2]

[1]: Bernard, Paul. "The Greek Kingdoms of Central Asia." History of civilizations of Central Asia 2 (1994): pp. 99-129.. pp. 110-113

[2]: (Girtzi-Bafas 2009, 136-144)


Transport Infrastructure

Lysimachus’ marriage to Amastris “gave him possession of a port which would facilitate communications with Thrace, and command of the route which would bring Seleucus from the east.” [1]

[1]: Lund, H. S. (1992) Lysimachus: A study in early Hellenistic kingship. Routledge: London and New York. p75



Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System

Script:
present

"While the ancient Thracians were a non-literary people and no domestic historical sources are known, a number of Greek and Roman authors give information on the region and the local tribes. Ancient writings provide some possibility to study Thracian political history, culture, religion and society, but, on the other hand, they do not contain sufficient data to enable those studying Thrace to draw comprehensive conclusions and to reconstruct the whole situation." [1]

[1]: Theodossiev, N. (2011) Ancient Thrace during the First Millennium BC. In, Tsetskhladze, G. R. (ed.) The Black Sea, Greece, Anatolia and Europe in the First Millennium BC. Peeters: Leuven, Paris, Walpole, pp1-60)p5





Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Greek intellectual world.




Practical Literature:
present

government + literacy


Philosophy:
present

Greek intellectual world.


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

government + literacy


History:
present

“While the ancient Thracians were a non-literary people and no domestic historical sources are known, a number of Greek and Roman authors give information on the region and the local tribes. Ancient writings provide some possibility to study Thracian political history, culture, religion and society, but, on the other hand, they do not contain sufficient data to enable those studying Thrace to draw comprehensive conclusions and to reconstruct the whole situation.” [1]

[1]: Theodossiev, N. (2011) Ancient Thrace during the First Millennium BC. In, Tsetskhladze, G. R. (ed.) The Black Sea, Greece, Anatolia and Europe in the First Millennium BC. Peeters: Leuven, Paris, Walpole, pp1-60)p5


Fiction:
present

Greek intellectual world.


Calendar:
present

government + literacy


Information / Money

Indigenous Coin:
present

[1] Lysimachus, like Seleucus and Alexander, minted coins as a form of propaganda. [2]

[1]: Dimitrov, K. (2011) Economic, Social and Political Structures on the Territory of the Odrysian Kingdom in Thrace (5th - first half of the 3rd century BC). ORPHEUS. Journal of IndoEuropean and Thracian Studies. 18, p. 4-24. p7

[2]: Hadley, R. A. (1974) Royal Propaganda of Seleucus I and Lysimachus. The Journal of Hellenistic Studies. Vol.94.


Foreign Coin:
present

"The coin bulk came from different centers and trade routes. The coins found on the territory of the Kingdom were of various denominations struck after several standards: Phokean (the cyzikeni), Attic (tetradrachms of Athens), light Thracian-Macedonian (staters and drachms of the Thasos-type and ¼ drachms of Thasos), Chian-Rhodian (drachms of Parion and of Apollonia Pontica) and the local standard (the Odrysian royal issues and the Thasos-type bronzes)...” [1]

[1]: Dimitrov, K. (2011) Economic, Social and Political Structures on the Territory of the Odrysian Kingdom in Thrace (5th - first half of the 3rd century BC). ORPHEUS. Journal of IndoEuropean and Thracian Studies. 18, p. 4-24. p7



Information / Postal System


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

Lysimachus built a fortified camp near Dorylaeum that was fortified with a "deep ditch and three lines of palisades". [1]

[1]: (Champion 2014, 155) Jeff Champion. 2014. Antigonus the One-Eyed: Greatest of the Successors. Pen & Sword. Barnsley.


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown

Lysimachus defeated Thracian cities with dry-stone walls, including Odessus, defeated during the revolt of 313 BCE by Lysimachus. [1] This was essentially an earth rampart with stone facing (Waterfield’s quote contains more detail) so am coding it as mortared. A true non-mortared defensive wall should be self-supporting without any other material (mortar). This one was directly backed by earth which helped bind the stones together. Maybe it can be coded both ways, coding suspected unknown for now.

[1]: Lund, H. S. (1992) Lysimachus: A study in early Hellenistic kingship. Routledge: London and New York. p40


Stone Walls Mortared:
present

Ephesus, which was relocated and rebuilt: "drystone walls with their substantial, quarried limestone blocks were carefully fitted onto the bedrock and followed the contours of the countryside wherever they led for about ten kilometers ... protecting the harbor and surrounding the city at some distance, to allow for expansion and the emergency evacuation of the rural population. The entire length of the wall consisted of two faces, inner and outer, with rubble and soil infill between, and an average width of almost three meters ..." [1]

[1]: (Waterfield 2011, 78) Robin Waterfield. 2011. Dividing the Spoils: The War for Alexander the Great’s Empire. Oxford University Press. Oxford.



Modern Fortification:
absent

Inferred as occurred later.



Fortified Camp:
present

The preceding Macedonians under Alexander the Great built fortified camps. [1] Lysimachus built a fortified camp near the Phyrgian city of Abassium on a campaign against Antigonus. [2]

[1]: (Buckley 1996, 383) Terry Buckley.1996. Aspects of Greek History, 750-323 BC: A Source-based Approach. London. Routledge.

[2]: (Champion 2014, 155) Jeff Champion. 2014. Antigonus the One-Eyed: Greatest of the Successors. Pen & Sword. Barnsley.


Earth Rampart:
present

Ephesus, which was relocated and rebuilt: "drystone walls with their substantial, quarried limestone blocks were carefully fitted onto the bedrock and followed the contours of the countryside wherever they led for about ten kilometers ... protecting the harbor and surrounding the city at some distance, to allow for expansion and the emergency evacuation of the rural population. The entire length of the wall consisted of two faces, inner and outer, with rubble and soil infill between, and an average width of almost three meters ..." [1] This is essentially an earth rampart with stone facing.

[1]: (Waterfield 2011, 78) Robin Waterfield. 2011. Dividing the Spoils: The War for Alexander the Great’s Empire. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Lysimachus built a fortified camp near Dorylaeum that was fortified with a "deep ditch and three lines of palisades". [1]

[1]: (Champion 2014, 155) Jeff Champion. 2014. Antigonus the One-Eyed: Greatest of the Successors. Pen & Sword. Barnsley.


Complex Fortification:
present

Lysimachus built a fortified camp near Dorylaeum that was fortified with a "deep ditch and three lines of palisades". [1] “No excavations in Lysimacheia have been undertaken up to now, the only particular building we know about is the temple renamed Lysimacheion after the death of Lysimachos. There the King was buried and certainly venerated as an oikist (App. Syr. 341; ИTM: 330). One may expect impressive fortifications to have defended the new foundation with the sites of older Kardia and Paktia.” [2]

[1]: (Champion 2014, 155) Jeff Champion. 2014. Antigonus the One-Eyed: Greatest of the Successors. Pen & Sword. Barnsley.

[2]: Dimitrov, K. (2011) Economic, Social and Political Structures on the Territory of the Odrysian Kingdom in Thrace (5th - first half of the 3rd century BC). ORPHEUS. Journal of IndoEuropean and Thracian Studies. 18, p. 4-24. p15


Military use of Metals

[1] “Odrysian Cavalry javelins were 1.5 to 1.8 metres in length, and tipped with iron or bronze heads. They could be thrown immediately before contact or used as a thrusting weapon.” [2]

[1]: Webber, C. (2003) Odrysian Cavalry, Army, Equipment and Tactics. Bar International Series 1139, pp. 529-554. p537

[2]: Webber, C. (2003) Odrysian Cavalry, Army, Equipment and Tactics. Bar International Series 1139, pp. 529-554. p549


Copper:
present

used to make bronze “Odrysian Cavalry javelins were 1.5 to 1.8 metres in length, and tipped with iron or bronze heads. They could be thrown immediately before contact or used as a thrusting weapon.” [1]

[1]: Webber, C. (2003) Odrysian Cavalry, Army, Equipment and Tactics. Bar International Series 1139, pp. 529-554. p549


Bronze:
present

“Odrysian Cavalry javelins were 1.5 to 1.8 metres in length, and tipped with iron or bronze heads. They could be thrown immediately before contact or used as a thrusting weapon.” [1]

[1]: Webber, C. (2003) Odrysian Cavalry, Army, Equipment and Tactics. Bar International Series 1139, pp. 529-554. p549


Projectiles


[1] Many ancient armies used slingers. Vulnerable to counter-attacks, slinger units were usually small and used at the start of the battle. Because of the training required to produce an effective slinger they were often hired mercenaries. [2]

[1]: Webber, C. (2003) Odrysian Cavalry, Army, Equipment and Tactics. Bar International Series 1139, pp. 529-554. p549

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 31) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Self Bow:
present

[1] "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders." [2] Bows were used by the Greeks and Romans but they didn’t place much emphasis on the bow as a weapon preferring instead infantry combat. [3]

[1]: Webber, C. (2003) Odrysian Cavalry, Army, Equipment and Tactics. Bar International Series 1139, pp. 529-554. p549

[2]: Sergey A Nefedov, RAN Institute of History and Archaeology, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. January 2018.

[3]: (Gabriel 2002, 29) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Javelin:
present

“Odrysian Cavalry javelins were 1.5 to 1.8 metres in length, and tipped with iron or bronze heads. They could be thrown immediately before contact or used as a thrusting weapon.” [1]

[1]: Webber, C. (2003) Odrysian Cavalry, Army, Equipment and Tactics. Bar International Series 1139, pp. 529-554. p549




Crossbow:
absent

Not at this time: "the hand-held crossbow was invented by the Chinese, in the fifth century BC, and probably came into the Roman world in the first century AD, where it was used for hunting." [1] The crossbow also developed after the Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE. [2]

[1]: (Nicholson 2004, 99) Helen Nicholson. 2004. Medieval Warfare: Theory and Practice of War in Europe, 300-1500. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[2]: (Keyser and Irby-Massie 2006, 260) Paul T Keyser. Georgia Irby-Massie. Science, Medicine, And Technology. Glenn R Bugh. ed. 2006. The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Composite Bow:
present

"Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders." [1] Bows were used by the Greeks and Romans but they didn’t place much emphasis on the bow as a weapon preferring instead infantry combat. [2]

[1]: Sergey A Nefedov, RAN Institute of History and Archaeology, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. January 2018.

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 29) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Atlatl:
absent

New World weapon


Handheld weapons

“Thracian cavalry, however, are always shown on metalwork, tomb paintings, and reliefs with long, straight swords (probably the xiphos) from around the 3rd century onwards.” [1] "All armies after the seventeenth century B.C.E. carried the sword, but in none was it a major weapon of close combat; rather, it was used when the soldier’s primary weapons, the spear and axe, were lost or broken." [2]

[1]: Webber, C. (2003) Odrysian Cavalry, Army, Equipment and Tactics. Bar International Series 1139, pp. 529-554. p550

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 26-27) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


[1] Spear-using phalanx first used in Sumer 2500 BCE. The phalanx was in use until the 1st century BCE. [2]

[1]: Webber, C. (2003) Odrysian Cavalry, Army, Equipment and Tactics. Bar International Series 1139, pp. 529-554. p549

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 25) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Dagger:
present

“Swords were most often only secondary weapons and to begin with, only nobles could afford them; the rest of the troops made do with curved daggers.” [1]

[1]: Webber, C. (2003) Odrysian Cavalry, Army, Equipment and Tactics. Bar International Series 1139, pp. 529-554. p550


Animals used in warfare

[1] “Horse riding epitomised the Thracians. Euripides and Homer called the Thracians “a race of horsemen”, and Thrace, “the land of the Thracian horsemen”.20 This description seems justified, as even though the cavalry onlymade up a small proportion of their army, they were quite numerous. For instance, although Sitalkes’ army was only one-third cavalry, this represented about 50,000men.” [2]

[1]: Lund, H. S. (1992) Lysimachus: A study in early Hellenistic kingship. Routledge: London and New York. p24-5

[2]: Webber, C. (2003) Odrysian Cavalry, Army, Equipment and Tactics. Bar International Series 1139, pp. 529-554. p530


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

Pelte shields were made with wood or wicker, and leather. [1]

[1]: Webber, C. (2003) Odrysian Cavalry, Army, Equipment and Tactics. Bar International Series 1139, pp. 529-554. p541


Shield:
present

The fourth century Thracian army:“Light cavalry was now likely to have the basic protection of helmet and shield, while heavy cavalry took to wearing iron helmets and composite corselets.” [1]

[1]: Webber, C. (2003) Odrysian Cavalry, Army, Equipment and Tactics. Bar International Series 1139, pp. 529-554. p537



Plate Armor:
present

By 600 BCE early Greeks and Romans had introduced the bronze cast bell muscle cuirass. [1]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Limb Protection:
present

Greaves were worn by Thracian cavalry after the 4th century BCE. [1] By the time of ’Etruscan Rome’ (400 BCE?) - here I believe the author is referring to ancient armies in general - "bronze greaves to protect the shins and forearms of the soldier were standard items of military equipment." [2]

[1]: Webber, C. (2003) Odrysian Cavalry, Army, Equipment and Tactics. Bar International Series 1139, pp. 529-554. p549

[2]: (Gabriel and Metz 1991, 51) Richard A Gabriel. Karen S Metz. 1991. The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Leather Cloth:
present

Leather small shields, or pelte, were used by the cavalry before 300 BCE. [1]

[1]: Webber, C. (2003) Odrysian Cavalry, Army, Equipment and Tactics. Bar International Series 1139, pp. 529-554. p540-1


Laminar Armor:
unknown

Possible. Already introduced by the Assyrians.


Helmet:
present

The fourth century Thracian army:“Light cavalry was now likely to have the basic protection of helmet and shield, while heavy cavalry took to wearing iron helmets and composite corselets.” [1]

[1]: Webber, C. (2003) Odrysian Cavalry, Army, Equipment and Tactics. Bar International Series 1139, pp. 529-554. p537


Chainmail:
present

“Thracian troops of the Thracian client-kingdom were equipped “in the Roman style”, which may have meant that they wore Roman mail shirts and helmets, and carried Roman shields. They continued to use these when they became Thracian auxiliaries in Roman service.” [1] Gabriel (2002) says iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples. [2] That’s close to this time.

[1]: Webber, C. (2003) Odrysian Cavalry, Army, Equipment and Tactics. Bar International Series 1139, pp. 529-554. p540

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Breastplate:
present

The fourth century Thracian army:“Light cavalry was now likely to have the basic protection of helmet and shield, while heavy cavalry took to wearing iron helmets and composite corselets.” [1]

[1]: Webber, C. (2003) Odrysian Cavalry, Army, Equipment and Tactics. Bar International Series 1139, pp. 529-554. p537


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

Under Lysimachus: “The maritime centers provided the King with a fleet required for military expeditions.” [1]

[1]: Dimitrov, K. (2011) Economic, Social and Political Structures on the Territory of the Odrysian Kingdom in Thrace (5th - first half of the 3rd century BC). ORPHEUS. Journal of IndoEuropean and Thracian Studies. 18, p. 4-24. p14


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

boats had been in use for thousands of years in this NGA



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.