Home Region:  Archipelago (Southeast Asia)

Medang Kingdom

EQ 2020  id_medang_k / IdMedng

The Medang, or Mataram, Kingdom, is the first well-attested Hindu-Buddhist kingdom in central Java. In 732 CE, in an inscription written in Sanskrit, a local ruler called Sanjaya made the ’first definite claim to kingship’ known from the region. [1] Over the next few centuries, his successors would extend their influence over areas suitable for irrigated rice agriculture in upland central Java. The Medang Kingdom is famous for its large-scale sacred construction projects, such as the Buddhist pilgrimage site of Borobudur (a series of ascending stone terraces decorated with stone reliefs and topped with stupas) and Prambanan, a Hindu temple complex. [2]
A long-standing debate about dynastic succession in late 1st-millennium CE central Java is still unresolved, [3] showing that there are still many gaps in our understanding of the kingdom. Some scholars hold that there were two competing dynasties, the Buddhist Sailendras and the Shaivite descendants of King Sanjaya, while others believe that the rulers mentioned in inscriptions were two branches of the same family. In the early 10th century CE, the centre of royal power shifted from the high volcanic plains of central Java to the east of the island, signalling the increased importance of maritime trade to the polity. [4]
Population and political organization
King Sanjaya and his successors drew their legitimacy from Indic religious concepts, sometimes devoting themselves to Hindu deities (especially Shiva) and sometimes favouring Buddhist practices. [5] [6] They gathered courtly entourages about them and drew their wealth from the taxation of rice and other goods and the use of corvée labour. [7] Local lords, known as rakrayan, and temple foundations could be granted the right to collect taxes from the population within a given parcel of land: these sima tax-grants were a useful way for the Medang kings to reward and ensure loyalty. [8] [9]
Secure population estimates for the Medang Kingdom are lacking, but in the early 11th century CE, the East Javanese settlements of Cane, Patakan and Baru each had populations of over 1000 people. [10] The demographer Peter McDonald believes the population of the island as a whole in the 14th century could have been as high as five million. [11] Evidence from Javanese inscriptions suggests that by this time, the population levels of East Javanese states had been rising ‘fairly consistently’ since the early 10th century. [12]

[1]: (Reid 2015, 36) Reid, Anthony. 2015. A History of Southeast Asia: Critical Crossroads. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RF6M65Q8.

[2]: (Hall 2010, 135) Hall, Kenneth R. 2010. A History of Early Southeast Asia: Maritime Trade and Societal Development, 100-1500. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/ZMR59WPU.

[3]: John Miksic 2016, personal communication.

[4]: (Hall 2010, 137) Hall, Kenneth R. 2010. A History of Early Southeast Asia: Maritime Trade and Societal Development, 100-1500. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/ZMR59WPU.

[5]: (Klokke 2008, 155) Klokke, Marijke I. 2008. “The Buddhist Temples of the Śailendra Dynasty in Central Java.” Arts Asiatiques, no. 63: 154-67. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JJGM87CV.

[6]: (Sundberg 2003, 176) Sundberg, Jeffrey Roger. 2003. “A Buddhist Mantra Recovered from the Ratu Baka Plateau: A Preliminary Study of Its Implications for Sailendra-Era Java.” Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land- En Volkenkunde 159 (1): 163-88. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/D8NSQ36W.

[7]: (Hall 1992, 206-08) Hall, Kenneth R. 1992. “Economic History of Early Southeast Asia.” In The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, Vol. I: From Early Times to C. 1800, edited by Nicholas Tarling, 183-275. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/87P3WM2E.

[8]: (Zakharov 2012, 86) Zakharov, Anton O. 2012. “Epigraphy, Political History, and Collective Action in Ancient Java.” In Connecting Empires and States: Selected Papers from the 13th International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists, edited by Mai Lin Tjoa-Bonatz, Andreas Reinecke, and Dominik Bonatz, 82-89. Singapore: NUS Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/HAW7WMKC.

[9]: (van Naerssen 1977, 53) Naerssen, F. H. van. 1977. “The Economic and Administrative History of Early Indonesia.” In The Economic and Administrative History of Early Indonesia, by F. H. van Naerssen and R. C. de Iongh, 1-84. Leiden: Brill. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/I7TSZH8T.

[10]: (Wisseman Christie 1991, 28-29) Wisseman Christie, Jan. 1991. “States without Cities: Demographic Trends in Early Java.” Indonesia 52: 23-40. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/D57DW4VN.

[11]: (McDonald 1980, cited in Wisseman Christie 1991, 29) Wisseman Christie, Jan. 1991. “States without Cities: Demographic Trends in Early Java.” Indonesia 52: 23-40. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/D57DW4VN.

[12]: (Wisseman Christie 1991, 34) Wisseman Christie, Jan. 1991. “States without Cities: Demographic Trends in Early Java.” Indonesia 52: 23-40. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/D57DW4VN.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
49 M  
Original Name:
Medang Kingdom  
Capital:
Wwatan  
Watu Galuh  
Mamrati  
Mataram  
Poh Pitu  
Tamwlang  
Alternative Name:
Sailendra Kingdom  
Mataram Kingdom  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
850 CE  
Duration:
[732 CE ➜ 1,019 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Succeeding Entity:
Kahuripan Kingdom  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Kalingga Kingdom  
Degree of Centralization:
nominal  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Austronesian  
Language:
Sanskrit  
Old Javanese  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
1,000 people  
Polity Territory:
[100,000 to 150,000] km2  
Polity Population:
[250,000 to 350,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[2 to 3]  
Religious Level:
[1 to 2]  
Military Level:
[4 to 5]  
Administrative Level:
3 732 CE 899 CE
4 899 CE 1019 CE
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
inferred present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Formal Legal Code:
inferred present  
Court:
inferred present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
unknown  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
unknown  
Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
unknown  
Information / Money
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
absent 732 CE 800 CE
present 800 CE 1019 CE
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
inferred present  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
inferred present  
  Complex Fortification:
unknown  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
unknown  
  Sling Siege Engine:
unknown  
  Sling:
inferred absent  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
unknown  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
unknown  
  Composite Bow:
unknown  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
inferred present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
present  
  Donkey:
absent  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
inferred present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
unknown  
  Limb Protection:
unknown  
  Leather Cloth:
inferred present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
inferred present  
  Chainmail:
inferred present  
  Breastplate:
unknown  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Medang Kingdom (id_medang_k) was in:
 (732 CE 1019 CE)   Central Java
Home NGA: Central Java

General Variables
Identity and Location


Capital:
Wwatan

The phrase "Mdaŋ i Bhûmi Matarâm" found in inscriptions means "Medang in the land of Mataram", which means the kingdom name is Medang with its capital in Mataram. [1] The capital was in the mid-ninth century moved to another site in Central Java, Mamrati, and then again around half a century later to Poh Pitu. [2] When Medang moved to East Java around 929, the capital was placed firstly at Tamwlang for a very short time, and then moved to Watu Galuh. [3] It finally moved to Wwatan. [4]

[1]: (Muljana 2005, 84)

[2]: (Poesponegoro and Notosusanto 2008, 159)

[3]: (Brown 2004, 68)

[4]: (Boechari 1976, 14)

Capital:
Watu Galuh

The phrase "Mdaŋ i Bhûmi Matarâm" found in inscriptions means "Medang in the land of Mataram", which means the kingdom name is Medang with its capital in Mataram. [1] The capital was in the mid-ninth century moved to another site in Central Java, Mamrati, and then again around half a century later to Poh Pitu. [2] When Medang moved to East Java around 929, the capital was placed firstly at Tamwlang for a very short time, and then moved to Watu Galuh. [3] It finally moved to Wwatan. [4]

[1]: (Muljana 2005, 84)

[2]: (Poesponegoro and Notosusanto 2008, 159)

[3]: (Brown 2004, 68)

[4]: (Boechari 1976, 14)

Capital:
Mamrati

The phrase "Mdaŋ i Bhûmi Matarâm" found in inscriptions means "Medang in the land of Mataram", which means the kingdom name is Medang with its capital in Mataram. [1] The capital was in the mid-ninth century moved to another site in Central Java, Mamrati, and then again around half a century later to Poh Pitu. [2] When Medang moved to East Java around 929, the capital was placed firstly at Tamwlang for a very short time, and then moved to Watu Galuh. [3] It finally moved to Wwatan. [4]

[1]: (Muljana 2005, 84)

[2]: (Poesponegoro and Notosusanto 2008, 159)

[3]: (Brown 2004, 68)

[4]: (Boechari 1976, 14)

Capital:
Mataram

The phrase "Mdaŋ i Bhûmi Matarâm" found in inscriptions means "Medang in the land of Mataram", which means the kingdom name is Medang with its capital in Mataram. [1] The capital was in the mid-ninth century moved to another site in Central Java, Mamrati, and then again around half a century later to Poh Pitu. [2] When Medang moved to East Java around 929, the capital was placed firstly at Tamwlang for a very short time, and then moved to Watu Galuh. [3] It finally moved to Wwatan. [4]

[1]: (Muljana 2005, 84)

[2]: (Poesponegoro and Notosusanto 2008, 159)

[3]: (Brown 2004, 68)

[4]: (Boechari 1976, 14)

Capital:
Poh Pitu

The phrase "Mdaŋ i Bhûmi Matarâm" found in inscriptions means "Medang in the land of Mataram", which means the kingdom name is Medang with its capital in Mataram. [1] The capital was in the mid-ninth century moved to another site in Central Java, Mamrati, and then again around half a century later to Poh Pitu. [2] When Medang moved to East Java around 929, the capital was placed firstly at Tamwlang for a very short time, and then moved to Watu Galuh. [3] It finally moved to Wwatan. [4]

[1]: (Muljana 2005, 84)

[2]: (Poesponegoro and Notosusanto 2008, 159)

[3]: (Brown 2004, 68)

[4]: (Boechari 1976, 14)

Capital:
Tamwlang

The phrase "Mdaŋ i Bhûmi Matarâm" found in inscriptions means "Medang in the land of Mataram", which means the kingdom name is Medang with its capital in Mataram. [1] The capital was in the mid-ninth century moved to another site in Central Java, Mamrati, and then again around half a century later to Poh Pitu. [2] When Medang moved to East Java around 929, the capital was placed firstly at Tamwlang for a very short time, and then moved to Watu Galuh. [3] It finally moved to Wwatan. [4]

[1]: (Muljana 2005, 84)

[2]: (Poesponegoro and Notosusanto 2008, 159)

[3]: (Brown 2004, 68)

[4]: (Boechari 1976, 14)


Alternative Name:
Sailendra Kingdom

Mataram Kingdom is a name used to refer to the period in which the kingdom’s capital was located in Central Java, between 732 and 918. This name cannot be used in reference to the later period, when the capital shifts to East Java. It must also be distinguished from the much later Islamic polity, the Mataram Sultanate. [1]

[1]: (Miksic in Ooi 2004, 864)

Alternative Name:
Mataram Kingdom

Mataram Kingdom is a name used to refer to the period in which the kingdom’s capital was located in Central Java, between 732 and 918. This name cannot be used in reference to the later period, when the capital shifts to East Java. It must also be distinguished from the much later Islamic polity, the Mataram Sultanate. [1]

[1]: (Miksic in Ooi 2004, 864)


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
850 CE

The period between 732 and 918 is said to be a golden age of Javanese culture - height of temple building projects and thus the flourishing of art and architecture. [1]

[1]: (Miksic in Ooi 2004, 863)


Duration:
[732 CE ➜ 1,019 CE]

The definitive end of Medang seems to have come with military defeat in 1006. [1] but it seems there was then a period of fragmentation and turmoil before Airlangga consolidated power beginning in 1019. [2] There are two hypotheses regarding Medang. One suggests that the founder of the Sanjaya dynasty was actually founder of the Sailendra dynasty, which was initially Shivaist Hindu, and changed to Mahāyāna Buddhism on the conversion of his son Panangkaran. [3] The other theory is that there were two competing dynasties within the same polity and the Sailendra gradually assumed dominance. [4]

[1]: (Coedes 1968)

[2]: (Sedyawati in Ooi 2004, 131)

[3]: (Poerbatjaraka 1958, 254-264)

[4]: (De Casparis 1956, 180-184)


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]

732-800 C.E.: alliance Dharaindra (rr. 780-800) ascended to become the Maharajah of Srivijaya. The nature of the Sailendra’s close relationship with the neighbouring Srivijaya empire is complex. It seems that in earlier times, the Sailendra family was within the Srivijayan mandala (sphere of influence), and that later the Sailendra’s monarch rose to become the head of Srivijaya. It is uncertain as to whether this was due to a military campaign or close alliance. [1] It seems that over the course of the ninth century, however, any alliance broke down, as in 990 Medang launched a campaign against Srivijaya, leading ultimately to the downfall of Medang in 1006. [2]

[1]: (Muljana 2006, 209)

[2]: (Muljana 2006, 246)


Supracultural Entity:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI

No supracultural entity as such, but definitely interaction with other cultures, not least trade with Chinese, Indian, and Arab-speaking peoples. [1] Also evidence of cultural exchange with the Philippines - Laguna copperplate inscriptions from around 900 C.E. discovered in Manila suggests that officials of the Medang Kingdom had connections in regions as far away as the Philippines. [2]

[1]: Much of what is known about historical Javanese culture is drawn from the reports and chronicles of foreign diplomats, traders, and travelers, mainly from Chinese, Indian, and Arab sources.

[2]: (Antoon 1990, 200)


Succeeding Entity:
Kahuripan Kingdom

Airlangga managed to reunite central and eastern Java after its disintegration into several petty kingdoms following the destruction of the Medang capital in 1006. [1]

[1]: (Jordaan 2007, 326)


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

Sanjaya, founder of the Medang Kingdom, was great-grandson of the famous Kalingga monarch Queen Shima. (EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://historian-sholeh.blogspot.co.uk/2011/01/medang-kingdom.html )



Degree of Centralization:
nominal

Political centralization hard to achieve, despite the lack of geographical barriers, due to the influence of local elites in eco-regions. The main political actors were the leaders of eco-region water boards who coordinated the planting of rice. "Kingdoms" began to form on the rice plains through alliance structures. [1]

[1]: (Hall in Tarling 1993, 205)


Language

Language:
Sanskrit

Śailendra — Sanskrit for ‘Lord of the Mountain" (EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://www.borobudur.tv/history_2.htm ). The translations of Hindu epic Ramayana and Mahabharata into old Javanese language took place during the era of the Medang and Kediri Kingdoms. (EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://southofvoice.blogspot.co.uk/2011/11/javanese-people.html )

Language:
Old Javanese

Śailendra — Sanskrit for ‘Lord of the Mountain" (EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://www.borobudur.tv/history_2.htm ). The translations of Hindu epic Ramayana and Mahabharata into old Javanese language took place during the era of the Medang and Kediri Kingdoms. (EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://southofvoice.blogspot.co.uk/2011/11/javanese-people.html )


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
1,000 people

Inhabitants. The settlements of Cane, Patakan, and Baru, lying just to the south of Surabaya, each appear to have supported populations exceeding a thousand persons by the early eleventh century. [1]

[1]: (Christie 1991, 28-29)


Polity Territory:
[100,000 to 150,000] km2

km2
Based in Java. Majority of area of Indonesia as a whole at this time covered by another polity, Srivijaya. EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/seasia/xsrivijaya.html


Polity Population:
[250,000 to 350,000] people

People.
Estimates for Indonesia (less West New Guinea): 2.8m in 700 CE, 3.0m in 800 CE, 3.4m in 900 CE, 3.75m in 1000 CE. [1]
Majority of area of Indonesia at this time covered by Srivijaya.EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/seasia/xsrivijaya.html Total area of Indonesia (less West New Guinea) 1,500,000 km2. [1] Medang had about 10% of this area. On basis of area we could estimate for Medang: 280,000 in 700 CE, 300,000 in 800 CE, 340,000 in 900 CE, 375,000 in 1000 CE.

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 196-201) McEvedy, Colin. Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd. London.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[2 to 3]

levels.
1. Large town (1000 people)
The settlements of Cane, Patakan, and Baru, lying just to the south of Surabaya, each appear to have supported populations exceeding a thousand persons by the early eleventh century. [1]
2. VillageSmall towns(?)

[1]: (Christie 1991, 28-29)


Religious Level:
[1 to 2]

levels.
The Sailendra court attracted Buddhist scholars from afar and was a major international centre of Buddhist pilgrimage and learning. [1]
Three major temple complexes - Borobudur (Buddhist, built around 825), Prambanan (Hindu - Shivaist, built around 850), and Dieng (Hindu - Shivaist, completed between the mid-seventh century and the end of the eighth century). Many smaller temples were in addition built by regional coalitions, and each local constituent contributed parts of the temple. [2]

[1]: (Miksic 1993-1994 cited in Hall 2011, 123)

[2]: (Hall in Tarling 1993, 204)


Military Level:
[4 to 5]

levels.
We can infer the presence of a well-organized military. There is evidence for armour [1] and noble cavalry [2] which suggest specialization, and a military campaign was launched against Srivijaya. [3] Elephants were used in warfare [2] and their riders were called maliman. [4]
1. King
2. General inferreda military campaign was launched against Srivijaya. [3]
3. Officers inferred - could be more than one levelThere is evidence for armour [1] and noble cavalry [2] which suggest specialization
4. Individual soldierElephants were used in warfare [2] and their riders were called maliman. [4]

[1]: (Draeger 1972, 23)

[2]: (Gaukroger and Scott 2009, 134)

[3]: (Muljana 2006, 246)

[4]: Hall 2000, 65)


Administrative Level:
3
732 CE 899 CE

levels.
1. King

_Court government_
2.As the kingdom grew in the tenth century, during the reign of Baltigung, more state officials created more administrative levels. [1]
3.4.
_Provincial government_
2. Dispersed wanua (regional landlords)
3. Village leaders?

[1]: (Rahardjo 2002, 111)

Administrative Level:
4
899 CE 1019 CE

levels.
1. King

_Court government_
2.As the kingdom grew in the tenth century, during the reign of Baltigung, more state officials created more administrative levels. [1]
3.4.
_Provincial government_
2. Dispersed wanua (regional landlords)
3. Village leaders?

[1]: (Rahardjo 2002, 111)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

Full-time specialists. We can infer the presence of a well-organized military. There is evidence for armour [1] and noble cavalry [2] which suggest specialization, and a military campaign was launched against Srivijaya. [3] Elephants were used in warfare [2] and their riders were called maliman. [4]

[1]: (Draeger 1972, 23)

[2]: (Gaukroger and Scott 2009, 134)

[3]: (Muljana 2006, 246)

[4]: Hall 2000, 65)


Professional Priesthood:
present

The Sailendra court attracted Buddhist scholars from afar and was a major international centre of Buddhist pilgrimage and learning. [1]

[1]: (Miksic 1993-1994 cited in Hall 2011, 123)


Professional Military Officer:
present

Full-time specialists. We can infer the presence of a well-organized military. There is evidence for armour [1] and noble cavalry [2] which suggest specialization, and a military campaign was launched against Srivijaya. [3]

[1]: (Draeger 1972, 23)

[2]: (Gaukroger and Scott 2009, 134)

[3]: (Muljana 2006, 246)


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

As the kingdom grew in the tenth century, during the reign of Baltigung, more state officials created more administrative levels. [1]

[1]: (Rahardjo 2002, 111)


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

Full-time specialists [1]

[1]: (Rahardjo 2002, 111)



Law
Formal Legal Code:
present

Airlangga was said to be the first to codify Javanese law in the period after Medang, although there are written legal documents available from the ninth century. [1] Written legal documents strongly implies there was a formal law process.

[1]: (Christie 1991, 25)


Court:
present

Borobudur reliefs depict the stepped roof type pendopo which once sheltered the institutions of ancient Javanese kingdoms, such as law courts, clergy, palaces, and for public appearances of the king and his ministers. [1]

[1]: (Schoppert et al 1997)


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Relationship between village producers and international traders mediated by four layers of merchants and markets: rice, salt, beans, and dyestuffs were taken by the producers to the farmers’ market; merchants bought the produce and passed it to intermediary wholesalers; then passed on to merchants on the coast who delivered it to ports; then delivered to international merchants. [1]

[1]: (Hall in Tarling 1993, 203)


Irrigation System:
present

Network of drainage systems. [1]

[1]: (Christie 1991, 28)


Food Storage Site:
unknown

Must have had storage sites at very least to carry out trade.


Transport Infrastructure

[1]

[1]: (Hall in Tarling 1993, 206)


Relationship between village producers and international traders mediated by four layers of merchants and markets: rice, salt, beans, and dyestuffs were taken by the producers to the farmers’ market; merchants bought the produce and passed it to intermediary wholesalers; then passed on to merchants on the coast who delivered it to ports; then delivered to international merchants. [1]

[1]: (Hall in Tarling 1993, 203)


Bridge:
present

[1]

[1]: (Hall in Tarling 1993, 206)


Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Legal documents preserved on copperplate or stone remain the best source of data relating to demographic and economic development. [1]

[1]: (Christie 1991, 24)



Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

Sanskrit is phonetic - the spoken and the written always match. (EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://www.sanskritsounds.com/about-sanskrit/46/index.html )


Nonwritten Record:
present

Legal documents preserved on copperplate or stone remain the best source of data relating to demographic and economic development. [1]

[1]: (Christie 1991, 24)



Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Sacred Text:
present

Translations of Hindu-Buddhist into Old Javanese sacred texts e.g. the Ramayana. [1]

[1]: (Hooykaas 1955)


Religious Literature:
present

The oldest religious tract and treatise can be dated back to the tenth century - it is a compilation of Mahayana texts, called Sang Hyang Kamahayanikan. [1] .

[1]: (De Casparis and Mabbett in Tarling 1993, 278)


Practical Literature:
unknown

Literate culture.


Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown

Literate culture.


Fiction:
present

Old Javanese texts contain major poetical works and prose literature. Examples are not specified. [1]

[1]: (De Casparis and Mabbett in Tarling 1993, 278)


Calendar:
unknown

Literate culture.


Information / Money
Paper Currency:
absent

[1]

[1]: (Miksic 1988, 3)


Indigenous Coin:
absent
732 CE 800 CE

’The appearance of a silver Sandalwood Flower coinage in south central Java at the end of the eighth century provides the earliest indication of monetized transactions in insular Southeast Asia’. [1] Currency name = Masa and tahil. [2]

[1]: (Wicks 1992, 243) Robert S. Wicks. 1992. Money, Markets, and Trade in Early Southeast Asia: The Development of Indigenous Monetary Systems to AD 1400. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Southeast Asia Program.

[2]: (Wicks 1992, 268)

Indigenous Coin:
present
800 CE 1019 CE

’The appearance of a silver Sandalwood Flower coinage in south central Java at the end of the eighth century provides the earliest indication of monetized transactions in insular Southeast Asia’. [1] Currency name = Masa and tahil. [2]

[1]: (Wicks 1992, 243) Robert S. Wicks. 1992. Money, Markets, and Trade in Early Southeast Asia: The Development of Indigenous Monetary Systems to AD 1400. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Southeast Asia Program.

[2]: (Wicks 1992, 268)



Information / Postal System


Courier:
unknown

As the kingdom grew in the tenth century, during the reign of Baltigung, more state officials created more administrative levels. [1] This isn’t evidence for specialist couriers but an administrative system might well have used them.

[1]: (Rahardjo 2002, 111)


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

’The people make fortifications of wood...’ [1] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’fortress’ and ’siege’. [2]

[1]: (Coedes 1968, 126)

[2]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown

Ratu Boko had stone walls as defensive structure. [1] Borobudur stone laid without mortar - this was a temple. (EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://syukranmuhaiya.blogspot.co.uk/2010/10/borobudur.html )

[1]: (Millet in Miksic 2003, 74)


Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown

Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’fortress’ and ’siege’. [1]

[1]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

Convenience and pressures to reduce social tensions appear to have over-ridden considerations of defence in the location of housing from the early tenth century. [1] Ratu Boko - a palace compound converted into a hilltop fortress with defensive structures. [2]

[1]: (Christie 1991, 35)

[2]: (Soertano 2002, 67)



Ratu Boko had a dry moat as a defensive structure [1]

[1]: (Millet in Miksic 2003, 74)



Earth Rampart:
present

Reference suggested a code of ’present’ [1] but no description was provided to explain why. Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’fortress’ and ’siege’. [2] "’In this country they have made the city walls of piled-up bricks, the wall has double gates and watch-towers,’ wrote a Chinese voyager who went to Java fourteen centuries ago." [3]

[1]: (Millet in Miksic 2003, 74)

[2]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.

[3]: Hickman Powell. 1936. Bali: The Last Paradise. Dodd, Mead & Company.


Ditch:
present

Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’fortress’ and ’siege’. [1] Ratu Boko had a dry moat as a defensive structure [2]

[1]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.

[2]: (Millet in Miksic 2003, 74)


Complex Fortification:
unknown

Ratu Boko - a palace compound converted into a hilltop fortress with defensive structures. [1] - did it have more than one ring of defenses?

[1]: (Soertano 2002, 67)


Military use of Metals

Historical records show "good quality Indian steel" was reaching Ethiopia in 200 BCE [1] - did they also export across the Bay of Bengal? Island South East Asia: ’Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [2]

[1]: (Biggs et al. 2013 citing Tripathi and Upadhyay 2009, p. 123) Lynn Biggs. Berenice Bellina. Marcos Martinon-Torres. Thomas Oliver Pryce. January 2013. Prehistoric iron production technologies in the Upper Thai-Malay Peninsula: metallography and slag inclusion analyses of iron artefacts from Khao Sam Kaeo and Phu Khao Thong. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences. Springer.

[2]: (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.


“Iron tools, best evidenced in Southern Vietnam, West Malaysia, and Java, were attached to handles (presum- ably wooden) via tangs, sockets, or shaft holes." [1] Island South East Asia: ’Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [2]

[1]: (Bulbeck in Peregrine and Ember 2000, 86)

[2]: (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.


Copper:
present

Island South East Asia: ’Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [1]

[1]: (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.


Bronze:
present

“Bronze metallurgy was practiced in at least Southern Vietnam, the islands surrounding the Sulu and Sulawesi seas, West Malaysia, South Sumatra, and especially Java and Bali." [1] Island South East Asia: ’Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [2]

[1]: (Bulbeck in Peregrine and Ember 2000, 85)

[2]: (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
unknown

Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’fortress’ and ’siege’. [1]

[1]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Sling Siege Engine:
unknown

Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’fortress’ and ’siege’. [1]

[1]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [1] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc." [2] In southern India at this time (Rashtrakuta dynasty) military technology included "the sword, the trident or spear, the javelin, the battleaxe, the shield, etc." [3] ; while their predecessors had "swords, shields, spears, clubs, lances, bows and arrows etc." [4]

[1]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[2]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.

[3]: (Ramachandra Murthy 1994, 116) N S Ramachandra Murthy. 1994. Military Administration of the Rashtrakutas in the Telugu Country. B R Gopal. ed. The Rashtrakutas of Malkhed.

[4]: (Sreenivasa Murthy and Ramakrishnan 1975, 93) H V Sreenivasa Murthy and R Ramakrishnan. 1975. A History of Karnataka. Vivek Prakashan.


Self Bow:
present

Borobudur and Prambanan temples contain murals showing the weaponry of early times - swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, clubs, knives, halberds. The Plaosan temple group 3 miles from Prambanan depicts stone carved gate guards armed with clubs and swords. [1]

[1]: (Draeger 1972, 23, 27)


Javelin:
unknown

Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [1]

[1]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.



Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Cannon was not used in siege warfare until the seventeenth century. [1]

[1]: (Charney 2004, 93)


Crossbow:
unknown

Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [1] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc." [2] In southern India at this time (Rashtrakuta dynasty) military technology included "the sword, the trident or spear, the javelin, the battleaxe, the shield, etc." [3] ; while their predecessors had "swords, shields, spears, clubs, lances, bows and arrows etc." [4]

[1]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[2]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.

[3]: (Ramachandra Murthy 1994, 116) N S Ramachandra Murthy. 1994. Military Administration of the Rashtrakutas in the Telugu Country. B R Gopal. ed. The Rashtrakutas of Malkhed.

[4]: (Sreenivasa Murthy and Ramakrishnan 1975, 93) H V Sreenivasa Murthy and R Ramakrishnan. 1975. A History of Karnataka. Vivek Prakashan.


Composite Bow:
unknown

Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [1] In southern India the Chalukyas had "swords, shields, spears, clubs, lances, bows and arrows etc." [2]

[1]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[2]: (Sreenivasa Murthy and Ramakrishnan 1975, 93) H V Sreenivasa Murthy and R Ramakrishnan. 1975. A History of Karnataka. Vivek Prakashan.



Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

Borobudur and Prambanan temples contain murals showing the weaponry of early times - swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, clubs, knives, halberds. The Plaosan temple group 3 miles from Prambanan depicts stone carved gate guards armed with clubs and swords. [1] Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [2]

[1]: (Draeger 1972, 23, 27)

[2]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.


Borobudur and Prambanan temples contain murals showing the weaponry of early times - swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, clubs, knives, halberds. The Plaosan temple group 3 miles from Prambanan depicts stone carved gate guards armed with clubs and swords. [1] Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [2]

[1]: (Draeger 1972, 23, 27)

[2]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.


Borobudur and Prambanan temples contain murals showing the weaponry of early times - swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, clubs, knives, halberds. The Plaosan temple group 3 miles from Prambanan depicts stone carved gate guards armed with clubs and swords. [1] Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [2]

[1]: (Draeger 1972, 23, 27)

[2]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.


Polearm:
present

Halberds. [1]

[1]: (Draeger 1972, 23)


Dagger:
present

Borobudur and Prambanan temples contain murals showing the weaponry of early times - swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, clubs, knives, halberds. The Plaosan temple group 3 miles from Prambanan depicts stone carved gate guards armed with clubs and swords. [1] Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [2]

[1]: (Draeger 1972, 23, 27)

[2]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.


Battle Axe:
present

Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [1] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc." [2] In southern India at this time (Rashtrakuta dynasty) military technology included "the sword, the trident or spear, the javelin, the battleaxe, the shield, etc." [3] ; while their Chalukya predecessors had "swords, shields, spears, clubs, lances, bows and arrows etc." [4]

[1]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[2]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.

[3]: (Ramachandra Murthy 1994, 116) N S Ramachandra Murthy. 1994. Military Administration of the Rashtrakutas in the Telugu Country. B R Gopal. ed. The Rashtrakutas of Malkhed.

[4]: (Sreenivasa Murthy and Ramakrishnan 1975, 93) H V Sreenivasa Murthy and R Ramakrishnan. 1975. A History of Karnataka. Vivek Prakashan.


Animals used in warfare

Noble cavalry. [1] Experts with horses were called makuda. [2]

[1]: (Gaukroger and Scott 2009, 134)

[2]: (Hall)


Elephant:
present

Elephants were used in warfare. [1] Their riders were called maliman. [2]

[1]: (Gaukroger and Scott 2009, 134)

[2]: (Hall 2000, 65)


Not specified in list of animals used in warfare. [1]

[1]: (Hall 2000, 65)


Not specified in list of animals used in warfare. [1]

[1]: (Hall 2000, 65)


Not specified in list of animals used in warfare. [1]

[1]: (Hall 2000, 65)


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

Based on the fact that the Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds. [1] Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [2] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’armour, shield, helmet’. [3]

[1]: (Draeger 1972, 23) D F Draeger. 1972. Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia. Tuttle Publishing.

[2]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[3]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Shield:
present

Borobudur and Prambanan temples contain murals showing the weaponry of early times - swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, clubs, knives, halberds. The Plaosan temple group 3 miles from Prambanan depicts stone carved gate guards armed with clubs and swords. [1] Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [2] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’armour, shield, helmet’. [3] In southern India at this time the Rashtrakuta dynasty used the shield. [4] Their Chalukya predecessors also had shields. [5]

[1]: (Draeger 1972, 23, 27)

[2]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[3]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.

[4]: (Ramachandra Murthy 1994, 116) N S Ramachandra Murthy. 1994. Military Administration of the Rashtrakutas in the Telugu Country. B R Gopal. ed. The Rashtrakutas of Malkhed.

[5]: (Sreenivasa Murthy and Ramakrishnan 1975, 93) H V Sreenivasa Murthy and R Ramakrishnan. 1975. A History of Karnataka. Vivek Prakashan.


Scaled Armor:
unknown

Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [1] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’armour, shield, helmet’. [2]

[1]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[2]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Plate Armor:
unknown

Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [1] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’armour, shield, helmet’. [2]

[1]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[2]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Limb Protection:
unknown

Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [1] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’armour, shield, helmet’. [2]

[1]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[2]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Leather Cloth:
present

Based on the fact that the Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds - these were the types used later. [1] Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [2] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’armour, shield, helmet’. [3]

[1]: (Draeger 1972, 23)

[2]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[3]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Laminar Armor:
unknown

Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [1] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’armour, shield, helmet’. [2]

[1]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[2]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Helmet:
present

Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [1] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’armour, shield, helmet’. [2]

[1]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[2]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Chainmail:
present

Based on the fact that the Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds - these were the types used later. [1] Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [2] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’armour, shield, helmet’. [3]

[1]: (Draeger 1972, 23)

[2]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[3]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Breastplate:
unknown

Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [1] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’armour, shield, helmet’. [2]

[1]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[2]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

Based on the fact that a military campaign was launched against Srivijaya. [1]

[1]: (Muljana 2006, 246)



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.