Home Region:  Arabia (Southwest Asia)

Yemen - Tahirid Dynasty

D G SC WF HS PT EQ 2020  ye_tahirid_dyn / YeTahir

Preceding:
1229 CE 1453 CE Rasulid Dynasty (ye_resulid_dyn)    [None]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
No Polity found. Add one here.

The Tahirid dynasty occupied and ruled modern-day Yemen between 1454 and 1517 CE, establishing a capital in al-Miqrãnah and maintaining the winter capital in Zabid as had the previous Rasulid sultans who were overthrown by the Tahirids. [1] Prominent builders, the Tahirids created schools, mosques, massive irrigation systems, roads, and bridges. [2] The polity was characterized by several battles, skirmishes, and seizures between the Zaydis and Tahirids, beginning in 1460 in Radm. Tensions culminated in 1501 when Tahirid sultan Amir commenced his four-year-long campaign to conquer the northern territories held by the Zaydi dynasty. [3]
No population estimates were found in the consulted literature; however, the water supply in al-Miqrãnah could support 100,000 people, though it is unclear how many people lived there or in the polity. [4]
Political organization was comprised of a 4-tiered settlement hierarchy, with the capital in Zabid followed by towns of various sizes. [5] The polity was led by a sultan, who headed a central government which was then followed by a provincial line. [1]

[1]: (Bosworth 2014) Clifford Edmund Bosworth. 2014. The New Islamic Dynasties. Edinburgh University Press. Edinburgh.

[2]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 183, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/

[3]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, pp. 111-115, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/

[4]: Venetia Porter, ‘THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE TĀHIRID DYNASTY OF THE YEMEN’, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, Vol. 19, Proceedings of the Twenty Second SEMINAR FOR ARABIAN STUDIES held at Oxford on 26th - 28th July 1988 (1989), p. 105

[5]: (Stookey 1978, 122) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Original Name:
Yemen - Tahirid Dynasty  
Capital:
Zabid  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[1,454 CE ➜ 1,517 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Succeeding Entity:
TrOttm3  
Preceding Entity:
Preceding:   Rasulid Dynasty (ye_resulid_dyn)    [None]  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Semitic  
Language Genus:
Afro-Asiatic  
Language:
Arabic  
Religion
Religious Tradition:
Islam  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
-  
Polity Territory:
-  
Polity Population:
-  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4  
Religious Level:
[3 to 4]  
Administrative Level:
5  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
inferred present  
Merit Promotion:
inferred present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
inferred present  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
inferred present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
inferred present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
unknown  
Bridge:
inferred present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
inferred present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Precious Metal:
inferred present  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
present  
Article:
inferred present  
Information / Postal System
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
unknown  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
inferred present  
  Iron:
inferred present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
inferred present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
inferred present  
  Sling:
present  
  Self Bow:
inferred present  
  Javelin:
unknown  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present  
  Crossbow:
inferred present  
  Composite Bow:
inferred present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
inferred present  
  Polearm:
inferred present  
  Dagger:
inferred present  
  Battle Axe:
inferred present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
unknown  
  Donkey:
unknown  
  Camel:
present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
inferred present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
unknown  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
inferred present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
unknown  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
inferred present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Yemen - Tahirid Dynasty (ye_tahirid_dyn) was in:
 (1454 CE 1517 CE)   Yemeni Coastal Plain
Home NGA: Yemeni Coastal Plain

General Variables
Identity and Location
Original Name:
Yemen - Tahirid Dynasty

"After 1454, the Yemen was under the rule of a new dynasty, the Tahirids, who, like their Rasulid predecessors, had their winter capital in Zabid, close by the Red Sea coast." [1]
Language

[1]: (Salibi 2006) Kamal S Salibi. 2006. The Modern History of Jordan. I.B. Tauris. London.


Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[1,454 CE ➜ 1,517 CE]

Rasulid Yemen ends when the Rasulid amir of Aden surrenders to the Tahirids and the last Rasulid Sultan, Salah al-Din b. Ismail III, fled to Mecca. [1]

[1]: (Bosworth 2014) Clifford Edmund Bosworth. 2014. The New Islamic Dynasties. Edinburgh University Press. Edinburgh.


Political and Cultural Relations

Preceding Entity:
YeRasul [ye_resulid_dyn] ---> Yemen - Tahirid Dynasty [ye_tahirid_dyn]

Degree of Centralization:
unitary state

Religion


Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
-

Inhabitants. The capital was al-Miqrãnah and it is said the water supply could support 100,000 people, but it is unclear how many people lived there in reality [1]

[1]: Venetia Porter, ‘THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE TĀHIRID DYNASTY OF THE YEMEN’, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, Vol. 19, Proceedings of the Twenty Second SEMINAR FOR ARABIAN STUDIES held at Oxford on 26th - 28th July 1988 (1989), p. 105




Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4

levels. This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as ’Sultan ’Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier’ [1]
1. Capital - Zabid
2. Large town - e.g. Aden3. Town4. Small town / Tribal capital"retreated to al-Mukhairif, the tribal capital, where the governor presently pursued him with a military force". [2]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 4 Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/

[2]: (Stookey 1978, 122) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.


Religious Level:
[3 to 4]

levels. This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as ’Sultan ’Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier’ [1]
The first Rasulid Sultan, Nur al-Din, caused "prayers to be said in his name in the mosques" although he sought and gained "formal authentication of his rule from the Abbasid caliph." [2]
1. Abbasid Caliph
2. Rasulid Sultan3. Imam4. ?

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 4 Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/

[2]: (Stookey 1978, 108) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.


Administrative Level:
5

levels. This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as ’Sultan ’Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier’ [1]
1. Sultan
Sultans. [2] "Ayyubid traditions remained strong in the new state, seen for example in their royal titulature." [2] The first Rasulid Sultan, Nur al-Din, "proclaimed himself sultan of Yemen with the title al-Mansur." [3]
[4]
_Central government_
2. Council of Notables"Reflecting the orthodox Muslim respect for the community consensus, the proclamation was issued by the council of notables of the realm, not as the sovereign’s personal act. The Rasulids sought at least the appearance of public support for major decisions. The opinion of high state officials, it is recorded, was unanimous as to the accession of al-Ashraf II upon his father’s death." [5]
2. WezirTop administrative official? "al-Ashraf I ordered his minister" who is referred to as a "wezir". [6]
3."an official in his chancery". [6]
The Rasulids had a "public administration" with a "body of functionaries" that attempted to extract "as much revenue as practicable from their domain." [4]
3.4. Tax collector5. Deputy tax collector"Al-Ashraf II abolished an oppressive tax on cotton introduced by a deputy tax collector in the days of the sultan’s predecessor." [7]
_Provincial line_
2. Chief JudgeProvinces had a chief judge who could get into disputes with the provincial governor. [6]
2. AmirRuler of region (or city?). e.g. Amir of Aden [2] and "governor of Sanaa". [8]
Deputy governor worked under a provincial governor. [9]
3. Deputy governorAl-Khazraji "dates the ruin of the Tihama to the year 1353, and ascribes it to the malevolence of a deputy governor at Fashal". [9]
3. Town official"and furthermore wrote to officials in the chief towns". [5]
4. Customs inspectorCustoms inspectors e.g. at Aden. [7]
Difference between Rasulids and Zaidi Imamate: "the Zaidi imam al-Hadi’s officials were simple, and derived solely from the Koran and hadith; under the imam’s close guidance, a fairly rudimentary knowledge sufficed for their interpretation and application. Rasulid officials had a much more complex tax system to administer. While the core of the rules had roots in the shari’a, many other regulations were introduced for the sake of uniformity and increasing revenue." [4]
Upper and Lower Yemen: "For two centuries the two regions coexisted in a state of mutual hostility, under sharply contrasting styles of leadership." [10]
[11]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 4 Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/

[2]: (Bosworth 2014) Clifford Edmund Bosworth. 2014. The New Islamic Dynasties. Edinburgh University Press. Edinburgh.

[3]: (Stookey 1978, 108) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

[4]: (Stookey 1978, 112) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

[5]: (Stookey 1978, 119) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

[6]: (Stookey 1978, 114) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

[7]: (Stookey 1978, 113) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

[8]: (Stookey 1978, 110) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

[9]: (Stookey 1978, 122) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

[10]: (Stookey 1978, 124) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

[11]: (Stookey 1978, 125) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

Sultan’s army at the attack on San’a "The sultan took to the field and marched to the said city of San’ a with his army, in which there were three thousand horsemen, sons of Christians, as black as Moors [ie Ethiopians]. They were those of Prester John, whom they purchased at the age of eight or nine years, and had them trained to arms. These constituted his own guard, because they were worth more than the rest" [1]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, pp. 111-113, Available at Durham E-Theses Online:


Professional Priesthood:
present

Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Mint present for producing coins [1]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 166, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/


Merit Promotion:
present

This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as ’Sultan ’Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier’ [1]
Ayyubid period: "In the generation after Saladin, the Mamelukes had become household armies of individual Ayyubid princes, each contingent on maintaining a separate identity through endogamous marriage, with advancement in rank determined by proved merit." [2]
"Such endowments normally provided for the subsistence and education of a specified number of orphans or other poor children. This implies that education and employment in public service provided an avenue to upward mobility for the less privileged strata of Yemeni society." [3]
"Within the bureaucracy, mobility was lateral as well. As indicated by the content of the biographical dictionaries pertaining to the period and the obituaries interspersed in the chronicles, a judge or administrator might serve in up to a half-dozen posts throughout Lower Yemen during his career." [3]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 4 Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/

[2]: (Stookey 1978, 104) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

[3]: (Stookey 1978, 114) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as ’Sultan ’Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier’ [1]
The Rasulids had a "public administration" with a "body of functionaries" that "had many of the attributes of a bureaucracy: the requirement of specialized training; a complex code of regulations; the opportunity for social mobility; and a well-developed sense of prerogative." [2]
"Prosperity depends upon orderly, centralized administration, and by providing such a service, the Rasulids, in their best days, fostered among the people some notion of the role of their political system in the satisfaction of their needs." [3]
"Within the bureaucracy, mobility was lateral as well. As indicated by the content of the biographical dictionaries pertaining to the period and the obituaries interspersed in the chronicles, a judge or administrator might serve in up to a half-dozen posts throughout Lower Yemen during his career." [4]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 4 Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/

[2]: (Stookey 1978, 112) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

[3]: (Stookey 1978, 124) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

[4]: (Stookey 1978, 114) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.


Examination System:
unknown

Not mentioned in sources.


Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown



This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as ’Sultan ’Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier’ [1]
"Within the bureaucracy, mobility was lateral as well. As indicated by the content of the biographical dictionaries pertaining to the period and the obituaries interspersed in the chronicles, a judge or administrator might serve in up to a half-dozen posts throughout Lower Yemen during his career." [2]
Provinces had a chief judge who could get into disputes with the provincial governor. [2]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 4 Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/

[2]: (Stookey 1978, 114) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.


Formal Legal Code:
present

This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as ’Sultan ’Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier’ [1]
Terms of tenant-landholder agreements were "a matter of legislation." [2]
The Rasulid state "developed minutely detailed regulations for customs administration." [3]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 4 Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/

[2]: (Stookey 1978, 112-113) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

[3]: (Stookey 1978, 113) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.


This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as ’Sultan ’Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier’ [1]
Education was "prerequisite to service in the civil administration as well as in the court system." [2]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 4 Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/

[2]: (Stookey 1978, 114) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Pavillions, trading houses and fortifications are recorded in Aden. [1]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 174, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/


Irrigation System:
present

This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as ’Sultan ’Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier’ [1] . "Muslim dynasties followed each other including the Rasulids ... when Yemen excelled in the arts and sciences. However, millennia of deforestation and irrigation of crops had subjected the fertile lands to erosion and salinization." [2] "Agriculture flourished: special officials supervised irrigation and one of the princes even wrote a scientific treatise on the culture of cereals." [3]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 4 Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/

[2]: (Stanton 2003, 159) William Stanton. 2003. The Rapid Growth of Human Populations, 1750-2000: Histories, Consequences, Issues, Nation by Nation. Multi-Science Publishing.

[3]: (Bidwell 1983, 14) Robin Leonard Bidwell. 1983. The Two Yemens. Longman.


Food Storage Site:
present

’In 905/1499 Ahmad al-Dhayh bought all the food which was in the royal storehouse (for grain) [1] .

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 154 Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/


Drinking Water Supply System:
present

‘The water is taken through pipes laid alongside the road and then through another pipe fixed in the side of the bridge. This has an outlet on the Aden side at about a league from the city, from where it is fetched by camel.’ [1]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 183, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/


Transport Infrastructure

This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as ’Sultan ’Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier’ [1] .

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 4 Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/


Aden was the principal port [1]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 178, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/



Bridge:
present

This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as ’Sultan ’Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier’ [1] . There was a Rasulid bridge at Damt. [2]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 4 Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/

[2]: (Lamprakos 2016) Michele Lamprakos. 2016. Building a World Heritage City: Sanaa, Yemen. Routledge.


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as ’Sultan ’Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier’ [1] .

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 4 Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Account from 1472 AD by a historian ‘Then after the Qur’an I studied the Quranic readings, individually and collectively, under my maternal uncle ... Then I studied Arabic under my maternal uncle and others. I studied also in particular under him arithmetic, algebra, anatomy, surveying, God’s ordinances and fiqb with the result that I derived benefit from all these disciplines’ [1]

[1]: G. REX SMITH, ‘THE TAHIRID SULTANS OF THE YEMEN (858-923/1454-1517) AND THEIR HISTORIAN IBN AL-DAYBA’, ‘’Journal of Semitic Studies’’, Volume XXIX, Issue 1, 1 March 1984, p. 151


Script:
present

Account from 1472 AD by a historian‘Then after the Qur’an I studied the Quranic readings, individually and collectively, under my maternal uncle ... Then I studied Arabic under my maternal uncle and others. I studied also in particular under him arithmetic, algebra, anatomy, surveying, God’s ordinances and fiqb with the result that I derived benefit from all these disciplines’ [1]

[1]: G. REX SMITH, ‘THE TAHIRID SULTANS OF THE YEMEN (858-923/1454-1517) AND THEIR HISTORIAN IBN AL-DAYBA’, ‘’Journal of Semitic Studies’’, Volume XXIX, Issue 1, 1 March 1984, p. 151


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

Arabic.


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Mathematics and anatomy etc. Account from 1472 AD ‘Then after the Qur’an I studied the Quranic readings, individually and collectively, under my maternal uncle ... Then I studied Arabic under my maternal uncle and others. I studied also in particular under him arithmetic, algebra, anatomy, surveying, God’s ordinances and fiqb with the result that I derived benefit from all these disciplines’ [1]

[1]: G. REX SMITH, ‘THE TAHIRID SULTANS OF THE YEMEN (858-923/1454-1517) AND THEIR HISTORIAN IBN AL-DAYBA’, ‘’Journal of Semitic Studies’’, Volume XXIX, Issue 1, 1 March 1984, p. 151


Sacred Text:
present

Quran studied. Account from 1472 AD ‘Then after the Qur’an I studied the Quranic readings, individually and collectively, under my maternal uncle ... Then I studied Arabic under my maternal uncle and others. I studied also in particular under him arithmetic, algebra, anatomy, surveying, God’s ordinances and fiqb with the result that I derived benefit from all these disciplines’ [1]

[1]: G. REX SMITH, ‘THE TAHIRID SULTANS OF THE YEMEN (858-923/1454-1517) AND THEIR HISTORIAN IBN AL-DAYBA’, ‘’Journal of Semitic Studies’’, Volume XXIX, Issue 1, 1 March 1984, p. 151


Religious Literature:
present

’Quranic Readings’ studied. Account from 1472 AD ‘Then after the Qur’an I studied the Quranic readings, individually and collectively, under my maternal uncle ... Then I studied Arabic under my maternal uncle and others. I studied also in particular under him arithmetic, algebra, anatomy, surveying, God’s ordinances and fiqb with the result that I derived benefit from all these disciplines’ [1]

[1]: G. REX SMITH, ‘THE TAHIRID SULTANS OF THE YEMEN (858-923/1454-1517) AND THEIR HISTORIAN IBN AL-DAYBA’, ‘’Journal of Semitic Studies’’, Volume XXIX, Issue 1, 1 March 1984, p. 151


Practical Literature:
present

Surveying, anatomy etc. Account from 1472 AD ‘Then after the Qur’an I studied the Quranic readings, individually and collectively, under my maternal uncle ... Then I studied Arabic under my maternal uncle and others. I studied also in particular under him arithmetic, algebra, anatomy, surveying, God’s ordinances and fiqb with the result that I derived benefit from all these disciplines’ [1]

[1]: G. REX SMITH, ‘THE TAHIRID SULTANS OF THE YEMEN (858-923/1454-1517) AND THEIR HISTORIAN IBN AL-DAYBA’, ‘’Journal of Semitic Studies’’, Volume XXIX, Issue 1, 1 March 1984, p. 151


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Anatomy studied, so must have needed these. Account from 1472 AD ‘Then after the Qur’an I studied the Quranic readings, individually and collectively, under my maternal uncle ... Then I studied Arabic under my maternal uncle and others. I studied also in particular under him arithmetic, algebra, anatomy, surveying, God’s ordinances and fiqb with the result that I derived benefit from all these disciplines’ [1]

[1]: G. REX SMITH, ‘THE TAHIRID SULTANS OF THE YEMEN (858-923/1454-1517) AND THEIR HISTORIAN IBN AL-DAYBA’, ‘’Journal of Semitic Studies’’, Volume XXIX, Issue 1, 1 March 1984, p. 151


History:
present

IBN Al-Dayba was writing a history under the Tahirids [1]

[1]: G. REX SMITH, ‘THE TAHIRID SULTANS OF THE YEMEN (858-923/1454-1517) AND THEIR HISTORIAN IBN AL-DAYBA’, ‘’Journal of Semitic Studies’’, Volume XXIX, Issue 1, 1 March 1984, p. 151


Fiction:
present

This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as ’Sultan ’Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier’ [1] . The sultans were "munificent patrons of Arabic literature, with not a few of the sultans themselves proficient authors." [2]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 4 Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/

[2]: (Bosworth 2014) Clifford Edmund Bosworth. 2014. The New Islamic Dynasties. Edinburgh University Press. Edinburgh.


Calendar:
present

This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as ’Sultan ’Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier’ [1]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 4 Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/


Information / Money
Precious Metal:
present

This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as ’Sultan ’Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier’ [1] . Aden was an exceptionally busy international port where all sorts of exchanges likely too place.

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 4 Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/


Paper Currency:
absent

This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as ’Sultan ’Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier’ [1]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 4 Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/


Indigenous Coin:
present

‘The currency system of the Yemen during the Tahirid period was silver based as it had been under the Rasulids.’ [1] mint present for producing coins [2]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 153, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/

[2]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 166, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/


Foreign Coin:
present

The gold coins were foreign ‘That foreign coins are being referred to is clear, but whether they were Venetian ducats which had been in circulation in trade until the Mamluk coinage reform of 830/1425, ^ or coins from the pre-Islamic era cannot be known.’ [1]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 160, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/


Article:
present

This is based on the codes for the Rasulids as ’Sultan ’Amir also appears to have been emulating the high period of Rasulid power a hundred years earlier’ [1] . Aden was an exceptionally busy international port where all sorts of exchanges likely too place.

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 4 Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/


Information / Postal System
Courier:
present

An embassy from Yemen to China is recorded from this period. [1]

[1]: (Bosworth 2014) Clifford Edmund Bosworth. 2014. The New Islamic Dynasties. Edinburgh University Press. Edinburgh.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications

Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown

Stone Walls Mortared:
present

Fort walls are often mentioned, but only sources from the Portuguese give clues about their construction, stating in general: ’Turning now to the physical appearance of Aden, Albuquerque notes that the houses, which were tall and built of stone and mortar, were the most beautiful he had seen in the east.’ so it is clear mortared stone walls were in use. [1]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 180, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

Varthema saw the Tãhirid capital al-Miqrãnah, fifteen years before it was plundered by the Egyptian army in 923/ 1517 and this is how he described it:1 It is situated on the top of a mountain, the ascent to which is seven miles and to which only two persons can go abreast on account of the narrowness of the path. [1] ‘Aden was heavily fortified. There was a string of fortresses along the top of the mountain ^ ... He also mentions that there were two towers on Huqqat bay equiped with artillery and a catapult.^’ [2]

[1]: Venetia Porter, ‘THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE TĀHIRID DYNASTY OF THE YEMEN’, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, Vol. 19, Proceedings of the Twenty Second SEMINAR FOR ARABIAN STUDIES held at Oxford on 26th - 28th July 1988 (1989), p. 105

[2]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 180, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/


Modern Fortification:
absent

Although cannons were present, it does not appear to be a star fort, which is too late for this period anyhow ‘Aden was heavily fortified. There was a string of fortresses along the top of the mountain ^ ... He also mentions that there were two towers on Huqqat bay equiped with artillery and a catapult.^’ [1]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 180, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/






Complex Fortification:
absent

Based on this description it seems these were not complex fortifications ‘Aden was heavily fortified. There was a string of fortresses along the top of the mountain ^ ... He also mentions that there were two towers on Huqqat bay equiped with artillery and a catapult.^’ [1]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 180, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/



Military use of Metals

Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate [1] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.

[1]: Nicolle, D. 2011. Saladin. Osprey Publishing.


Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate [1] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.

[1]: Nicolle, D. 2011. Saladin. Osprey Publishing.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE: Mangonels. [1]

[1]: (O’Kane 2009, 21) B O’Kane. 2009. Creswell Photographs Re-examined: New Perspectives on Islamic Architecture. American University in Cairo Press.


Sling Siege Engine:
present

Mangonel used to destroy city walls [1] Changed to inferred on basis it is unknown if this is a true sling siege engine - but we believe it most likely is. Depending on the design it also might also qualify as a tension siege engine.

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, pp. 57-62, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/


The others (these are presumably the Tihamah tribesmen)... They all also generally carry a sling for the purpose of throwing stones wound around their heads, and under this sling they carry a piece of wood, a span in length which is called mesuech [Ar.miswajc] with which they clean their teeth and generally from forty or fifty downwards they wear two horns made of their own hair, so that they look like young kids.^ [1]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, pp. 111-113, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/


Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate [1] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.

[1]: (Nicolle 1996, 159-181) D Nicolle. 1996. Medieval Warfare Source Book, Volume 2: Christian Europe and its Neighbours. Arms and Armour Press. London.


Ayyubid Sultanate [1] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE used them.

[1]: Nicolle, D. 2011. Saladin. Osprey Publishing.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

In 1517 AD ‘firearms were seen for the first time in the Yemen, and they undoubtedly contributed greatly to the defeat of the Tahirids.’ [1]

[1]: G. REX SMITH, ‘THE TAHIRID SULTANS OF THE YEMEN (858-923/1454-1517) AND THEIR HISTORIAN IBN AL-DAYBA’, ‘’Journal of Semitic Studies’’, Volume XXIX, Issue 1, 1 March 1984, p. 142


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present

The vast Tahirid army (whether 170,000 or 80,000) made its way to San’a and laid siege to it for 6 months. Sultan’Amir started his siege of Sari a on 29 Rabi"n, poimding the city with mangonels and canon (manianiqat gharadat and madafi’. [1]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, pp. 111-115, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/


Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate [1] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.

[1]: Nicolle, D. 2011. Saladin. Osprey Publishing.



New World weapon.


Handheld weapons

"In 844/1440, 40 Ma’azibah were clubbed to death by the sultan’s forces. Later in the year the sultan sent a new governor to al-Mahjam who was murdered. This, says the author of the Ghayah. marked the end of Rasulid control over Tihamah." [1]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 25, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/


"The others (these are presumably the Tihamah tribesmen) ... They also carry in their hand a dart and a short broad sword and wear a cloth vest of red or some other colour stuffed with cotton which protects them from the cold and also from their enemies. They make use of this when they go out to fight." [1]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, pp. 111-113, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/


Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate [1] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.

[1]: D Nicolle. 1986. Saladin and the Saracens. Osprey Publishing Ltd. Oxford.


Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate [1] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.

[1]: D Nicolle. 1986. Saladin and the Saracens. Osprey Publishing Ltd. Oxford.


Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate [1] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.

[1]: D Nicolle. 1986. Saladin and the Saracens. Osprey Publishing Ltd. Oxford.


Battle Axe:
present

Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate [1] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.

[1]: D Nicolle. 1986. Saladin and the Saracens. Osprey Publishing Ltd. Oxford.


Animals used in warfare

Al-Mujahid and his cavalry attacked those Ma’azibah opposite them and put them to flight. The sultan’s forces killed 12 of them; one of the sultan’s troups, Muhammad b, Hazim who was a brave man, but who had given bad advice, was captured and put to death by the relatives of the dead Ma’azibah. Then al-Mujahid raided the Ma^zibah as far as Mahjariyyah, a village in Wadi Rima’, and defeated them. He killed one of their cavalrymen Mufrih b, Junaydah,^ The Bughvah gives slightly varying detail; 200 instead of 100 horses; al-Mujahid cut off the heads of 7 of the Ma’azibah and he does not include the reference to Muhammad b, Hazim giving bad advice,^’ [1] Sultan’s army at the attack on San’a "The sultan took to the field and marched to the said city of San’ a with his army, in which there were three thousand horsemen, sons of Christians, as black as Moors [ie Ethiopians]. They were those of Prester John, whom they purchased at the age of eight or nine years, and had them trained to arms. These constituted his own guard, because they were worth more than the rest" [2]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, pp. 45-46 , Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/

[2]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, pp. 111-113, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/




Camels used for carrying military supplies [1] "The said sultan also takes with his army five thousand camels laden with tents, all of cotton and also ropes of cotton ".^ [2]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, pp. 65-66 , Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/

[2]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, pp. 111-113, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

Shields. Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate [1] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.

[1]: D Nicolle. 1986. Saladin and the Saracens. Osprey Publishing Ltd. Oxford.


"the others(these are presumably the Tihamah tribesmen) were all naked with the exception of a piece of linen worn like a mantle. When they enter into battle they tise a kind of round shield, made up of two pieces of cow hide or ox fastened together. In the centre of the said round shields there are four rods, which keep them straight These shields are painted, so that they appear to those who see them to be the handsomest and best that could be made. They are about as large as the bottom of a tub, and the handle consists of a piece of wood of a size that can be grasped by the hand, fastened by two nails. [1]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, pp. 111-113, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/


Scaled Armor:
unknown

The Ayyubids had "fully armoured" cavalry. [1] Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate [2] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.

[1]: (Nicolle 1986, 18) Nicolle, D. 1986. Saladin and the Saracens. Osprey Publishing Ltd. Oxford.

[2]: D Nicolle. 1986. Saladin and the Saracens. Osprey Publishing Ltd. Oxford.



Limb Protection:
present

Illustration of Ayyubid cavalryman shows mail limb protection. [1] Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate [2] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE. ♥

[1]: (Nicolle 1986, Plate D) Nicolle, D. 1986. Saladin and the Saracens. Osprey Publishing Ltd. Oxford.

[2]: D Nicolle. 1986. Saladin and the Saracens. Osprey Publishing Ltd. Oxford.


Leather Cloth:
present

Shaykh Abd al-Malik stated after fighting with the Mamluks " I fought on the day of al-Mazhaf wearing a coat of mail, underneath which was an oil cloth. The bullets and arrows hit me, they pierced the coat of mail and when they attained the oil cloth they were smothered because of the wax. When the fighting was over I put off the coat of mail, I took out the oil cloth and shook it and then bullets and arrows, eighteen all told tumbled out of it"! [1] "The others (these are presumably the Tihamah tribesmen) ... They also carry in their hand a dart and a short broad sword and wear a cloth vest of red or some other colour stuffed with cotton which protects them from the cold and also from their enemies. They make use of this when they go out to fight." [2]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 127, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/

[2]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, pp. 111-113, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/


Laminar Armor:
unknown

The Ayyubids had "fully armoured" cavalry. [1] Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate [2] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.

[1]: (Nicolle 1986, 18) Nicolle, D. 1986. Saladin and the Saracens. Osprey Publishing Ltd. Oxford.

[2]: D Nicolle. 1986. Saladin and the Saracens. Osprey Publishing Ltd. Oxford.


Steel helmets? Code inferred from Ayyubid Sultanate [1] which occupied Yemen between 1175-1128 CE.

[1]: D Nicolle. 1986. Saladin and the Saracens. Osprey Publishing Ltd. Oxford.


Chainmail:
present

Shaykh Abd al-Malik stated after fighting with the Mamluks Shaykh Abd al-Malik " I fought on the day of al-Mazhaf wearing a coat of mail, underneath which was an oil cloth. The bullets and arrows hit me, they pierced the coat of mail and when they attained the oil cloth they were smothered because of the wax. When the fighting was over I put off the coat of mail, I took out the oil cloth and shook it and then bullets and arrows, eighteen all told tumbled out of it"! [1]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 127, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/



Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

Naval battle recorded, with ships being boarded by soldiers and supplies, although it is not mentioned if the sips were specialized for war [1]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, pp. 65-66 , Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

Naval battle recorded [1]

[1]: Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, pp. 65-66 , Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown

Naval battle recorded but the pressing of merchant ships into service is not mentioned



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions