Home Region:  Southern South Asia (South Asia)

Sunga Empire

EQ 2020  in_sunga_emp / InSunga

This period begins with the ascension of Puṣyamitra Shunga in 187 BCE.
The Shunga Empire territory was about 4 million km2, encompassing central and eastern India. The polity population is considered to be anywhere between 18 and 100 million at varying times, while the population of the largest settlement, likely the imperial capital of Pataliputra, may have up to 270 thousand inhabitants.
There were four main settlement types during this period: the imperial capital of Pataliputra, large secondary centres such as Taxila, Mathura, Brita, smaller town-like settlements, and villages.
The main religion practiced in this polity was Hinduism. Shunga rulers in particular are said to have practiced an ‘aggressive’ Vedic Hinduism, which according to Buddhist sources, led to their monks being persecuted.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Capital:
Vidisha  
Pataliputra  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[187 BCE ➜ 65 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Degree of Centralization:
uncoded  
Language
Language:
Sanskrit  
Prakrit  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Hinduism  
Religion Family:
Vedic Traditions  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[50,000 to 270,000] people  
Polity Territory:
4,000,000 km2  
Polity Population:
[18,000,000 to 100,000,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4  
Professions
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
inferred present  
Law
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Food Storage Site:
inferred present  
Transport Infrastructure
Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
inferred present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Information / Postal System
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
inferred present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
inferred present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
inferred present  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
inferred present  
  Ditch:
inferred present  
  Complex Fortification:
inferred absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
inferred present  
  Self Bow:
inferred present  
  Javelin:
inferred present  
  Composite Bow:
present  
absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
inferred present  
  Spear:
inferred present  
  Polearm:
inferred present  
  Dagger:
inferred present  
  Battle Axe:
inferred present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
present  
  Shield:
inferred present  
  Scaled Armor:
inferred present  
  Plate Armor:
inferred present  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
inferred present  
  Helmet:
inferred present  
  Breastplate:
inferred present  
Naval technology
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Sunga Empire (in_sunga_emp) was in:
 (187 BCE 65 BCE)   Middle Ganga
Home NGA: Middle Ganga

General Variables
Identity and Location
Capital:
Vidisha

"[T]he Purāṇas name the city of Vidisha as the capital of the Śuṅgas." [1] "The principal inheritors of the Mauryan power seem to be the Sungas who ruled from Pataliputra but do not appear to have retained the former Magadhan control of even the core of northern India. In Central India, their power did not extend beyond eastern Malwa which had Vidisa as its capital; southward their control ended on the Narmada. North-East from Pataliputra, Kosala with its principal centre of Ayodhya, was under the Sunga control, and so presumably was Ahichchhatra of north Panchala. The Sunga control also extended up to Panjab and the Indus." [2]

[1]: (Bhandare 2006, 70) Shailendra Bhandare. 2006. ’Numismatics and History: The Maurya-Gupta Interlude in the Gangetic Plain’ in Between the Empires: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE, edited by Patrick Olivelle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[2]: (Chakrabarti 2010, 38) Dilip Chakrabarti. 2010. ’The Shift of the Focus to Orissa, the Deccan, and Malwa’ in The Geopolitical Orbits of Ancient India: The Geographical Frames of the Ancient Indian Dynasties, edited by Dilip Chakrabarti. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Capital:
Pataliputra

"[T]he Purāṇas name the city of Vidisha as the capital of the Śuṅgas." [1] "The principal inheritors of the Mauryan power seem to be the Sungas who ruled from Pataliputra but do not appear to have retained the former Magadhan control of even the core of northern India. In Central India, their power did not extend beyond eastern Malwa which had Vidisa as its capital; southward their control ended on the Narmada. North-East from Pataliputra, Kosala with its principal centre of Ayodhya, was under the Sunga control, and so presumably was Ahichchhatra of north Panchala. The Sunga control also extended up to Panjab and the Indus." [2]

[1]: (Bhandare 2006, 70) Shailendra Bhandare. 2006. ’Numismatics and History: The Maurya-Gupta Interlude in the Gangetic Plain’ in Between the Empires: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE, edited by Patrick Olivelle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[2]: (Chakrabarti 2010, 38) Dilip Chakrabarti. 2010. ’The Shift of the Focus to Orissa, the Deccan, and Malwa’ in The Geopolitical Orbits of Ancient India: The Geographical Frames of the Ancient Indian Dynasties, edited by Dilip Chakrabarti. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[187 BCE ➜ 65 BCE]

"The date of ascension of Puṣyamitra is fixed at 187 BCE on the basis of various years which the Purāṇas ascribe to Aśoka and his successors. Puṣyamitra is said to have been succeeded by nine other kings, and the Śuṅga reigns as mentioned in the Purāṇas are: Puṣyamitra 36 years; Agnimitra 8 years; Vasujyeṣṭha (Sujyeṣṭha) 7 years—disagreement whether he was also called; Vasumitra (Sumitra) 10 years; Odraka (many variants such as Andhraka, etc.) 2 or 7 years; Pulindaka 3 years; Ghoṣa 3 years; Vajramitra 9 or 7 years; Bhāga (Bhagavata) 32 years; Devabhūti 10 years" [1] "They represent the most interesting case of reactions to internal developments and external influences. The Śuṅgas did away with the last Maurya king about 150 BCE." [2]

[1]: (Bhandare 2006, 70) Shailendra Bhandare. 2006. ’Numismatics and History: The Maurya-Gupta Interlude in the Gangetic Plain’ in Between the Empires: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE, edited by Patrick Olivelle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[2]: (Witzel 2006, 465) Michael Witzel. 2006. ’Brahmanical Reactions to Foreign Influences and to Social and Religious Change’ in Between the Empires: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE, edited by Patrick Olivelle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Political and Cultural Relations
Degree of Centralization:
uncoded

"[I]t would be worthwhile to assess whether the evidence at our disposal really indicates that any such “Śuṅga” empire existed in this time. The only reason for this belief has been the puranic mentions of Puṣyamitra and his exploits, supported weakly by two inscriptional mentions, viz., the reckoning of one of the Pabhosa inscription in the tenth year of a so-called Śuṅga ruler Odraka/Udāka, and two words at the beginning of one of the Bhārhut inscriptions which roughly translate as “during the Śuṅga rule.” None of this evidence is critically attested—the first has been widely contested, especially for the meaning of the word “Udāka,” and the second is too scanty to prove any point even after the words are regarded as they are. Coins of one of the rulers mentioned in same Bharhut inscription, viz., Agarāju, are known, and they conform to the regiospecific series of one of the urban centers in Vatsa. Coins of two rulers in the Pabhosa inscription are known, viz., Vangapāla and Bahasatimita—one of them conforms to the Pāñchāla series and the other to the Kausambi/Vatsa realm. None of them suggest any “Śuṅga” connection. The name of a “Senāpati Puṣyamitra” does occur in the Ayodhya inscription of Dhana(deva) but here too, the inference that he was an imperial overlord of any sort is entirely conjectural. [...] In short, the puranic mentions are nothing but a series of details confused in time and space. “Śuṅgas,” if they ever existed, were probably as localized as the rest of the groups we know from coins in terms of their political prowess. Coins offer an entirely different picture of the post-Mauryan fragmentation, which links two singularly important phenomena of ancient Indian history—the fall of an empire and a concomitant spurt in urbanization with an increase in localized money economy. They also hint a probable non sequitur—the fall of historical jargon that makes random use of terms like “Śuṅga supremacy” and “Śuṅga art.”" [1]

[1]: (Bhandare 2006, 97) Shailendra Bhandare. 2006. ’Numismatics and History: The Maurya-Gupta Interlude in the Gangetic Plain’ in Between the Empires: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE, edited by Patrick Olivelle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Language
Language:
Sanskrit

[1]

[1]: (Witzel 2006, 472) Michael Witzel. 2006. ’Brahmanical Reactions to Foreign Influences and to Social and Religious Change’ in Between the Empires: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE, edited by Patrick Olivelle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Language:
Prakrit

[1]

[1]: (Witzel 2006, 472) Michael Witzel. 2006. ’Brahmanical Reactions to Foreign Influences and to Social and Religious Change’ in Between the Empires: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE, edited by Patrick Olivelle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.



Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[50,000 to 270,000] people

Inhabitants. Data from Mauryan Empire. The Sunga Dynasty was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19). [1]

[1]: (Roy 2015: 19) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/35K9MMUW.


Polity Territory:
4,000,000 km2

km2. Estimated from known area of territory said to be controlled by Mauryan Empire, roughly equivalent to that of the Sunga Dynasty. The Sunga was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19). [1] "For the finer elements of historical detail, scholars of the textual school have turned to other texts, the chief of which are Harṣacharitam of Bana, the play Mālavikāgnimitra of Kālidāsa, and the Grammatik of Patañjali named Mahābhāṣya. These confine the Śuṅga realm to the “central part of Mauryan Empire,” i.e., the provinces of Kosala, Vidisha, and Magadha." [2] "The principal inheritors of the Mauryan power seem to be the Sungas who ruled from Pataliputra but do not appear to have retained the former Magadhan control of even the core of northern India. In Central India, their power did not extend beyond eastern Malwa which had Vidisa as its capital; southward their control ended on the Narmada. North-East from Pataliputra, Kosala with its principal centre of Ayodhya, was under the Sunga control, and so presumably was Ahichchhatra of north Panchala. The Sunga control also extended up to Panjab and the Indus." [3]

[1]: (Roy 2015: 19) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/35K9MMUW.

[2]: (Bhandare 2006, 70) Shailendra Bhandare. 2006. ’Numismatics and History: The Maurya-Gupta Interlude in the Gangetic Plain’ in Between the Empires: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE, edited by Patrick Olivelle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[3]: (Chakrabarti 2010, 38) Dilip Chakrabarti. 2010. ’The Shift of the Focus to Orissa, the Deccan, and Malwa’ in The Geopolitical Orbits of Ancient India: The Geographical Frames of the Ancient Indian Dynasties, edited by Dilip Chakrabarti. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Polity Population:
[18,000,000 to 100,000,000] people

People. Data from Mauryan Empire. The Sunga Dynasty was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19). [1]

[1]: (Roy 2015: 19) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/35K9MMUW.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4

levels. (1) Imperial Capital (Pataliputra); (2) Large secondary centres (Taxila, Mathura, Brita); (3) Smaller settlements; (4) Villages. Inferred from Mauryan Empire. The Sunga Dynasty was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19). [1] [2] [3]

[1]: (Singh 2008: 118) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/VUIEUHVK.

[2]: (Allchin 1995: 209)

[3]: (Roy 2015: 19) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/35K9MMUW.


Professions
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

The Arthaśāstra, which "probably arose in the first half of the first millennium AD" but probably largely "derive[s] from older handbooks" includes instructions for the proper layout of cities, including "public edifices such as treasuries, storehouses for material and food, arsenals, and prisons". [1]

[1]: (Schlingloff 2013: 15) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DAMFF2NV.


Law
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Food Storage Site:
present

The Arthaśāstra, which "probably arose in the first half of the first millennium AD" but probably largely "derive[s] from older handbooks" includes instructions for the proper layout of cities, including "public edifices such as treasuries, storehouses for material and food, arsenals, and prisons". [1]

[1]: (Schlingloff 2013: 15) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DAMFF2NV.


Transport Infrastructure
Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

The Arthashastra, religious writings.


Script:
present

Bramhi and Kharoṣṭhī [1]

[1]: Salomon, Richard. "On the origin of the early Indian scripts." Journal of the American Oriental Society (1995): 271-279.


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

Brāhmī is an abugida language,as each letter represents a consonant, while vowels are written with obligatory diacritics called mātrās, excluding when a vowel begins a word. [1]

[1]: Daniels, Peter T., "Fundamentals of Grammatology", Journal of the American Oriental Society 119 (4): 727-731 (1990)


Nonwritten Record:
present

The Arthashastra, religious writings.


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

Brāhmī is a phonetic system. [1]

[1]: Salomon, Richard. "On the origin of the early Indian scripts." Journal of the American Oriental Society (1995): 271-279.


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

"More by good luck than by design and by prominence, a few other texts have come down from the period between the empires. There are, to be sure, such texts of the Śuṅga/Kāṇva and the early Kushana periods, including the older parts of Arthaśāstra (which has additions up to the first century CE), early medicine (Caraka, Suśruta), some early astronomical texts (Yavanajātaka of Sphujidhvaja, ed. Pingree 1978, Paulīṣa, Romaka, etc.), the Bhāratīya Nāṭyaṣāstra (in part, first century CE), and some early Sanskrit poetry such as Aśvaghoṣa’s Buddhacarita and Saundarānanda, Bhāsa’s dramas, etc." [1]

[1]: (Witzel 2006, 482) Michael Witzel. 2006. ’Brahmanical Reactions to Foreign Influences and to Social and Religious Change’ in Between the Empires: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE, edited by Patrick Olivelle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Sacred Text:
present

Jain, Buddhist and Hindu canons.


Religious Literature:
present

Jain, Buddhist and Hindu canons.


Practical Literature:
present

The Arthaśāstra, which "probably arose in the first half of the first millennium AD" but probably largely "derive[s] from older handbooks" includes instructions for the proper layout of cities, including "public edifices such as treasuries, storehouses for material and food, arsenals, and prisons". [1]

[1]: (Schlingloff 2013: 15) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DAMFF2NV.


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Inferred for pe


Fiction:
present

"More by good luck than by design and by prominence, a few other texts have come down from the period between the empires. There are, to be sure, such texts of the Śuṅga/Kāṇva and the early Kushana periods, including the older parts of Arthaśāstra (which has additions up to the first century CE), early medicine (Caraka, Suśruta), some early astronomical texts (Yavanajātaka of Sphujidhvaja, ed. Pingree 1978, Paulīṣa, Romaka, etc.), the Bhāratīya Nāṭyaṣāstra (in part, first century CE), and some early Sanskrit poetry such as Aśvaghoṣa’s Buddhacarita and Saundarānanda, Bhāsa’s dramas, etc." [1]

[1]: (Witzel 2006, 482) Michael Witzel. 2006. ’Brahmanical Reactions to Foreign Influences and to Social and Religious Change’ in Between the Empires: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE, edited by Patrick Olivelle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Calendar:
present

Kautilya’s Arthasastra contains a chapter title "Measurement of Space and Time." [1] The Arthaśāstra "probably arose in the first half of the first millennium AD" but probably largely "derive[s] from older handbooks". [2]

[1]: (Subramaniam 2001, 79) Subramaniam, V. in Farazmand, Ali. ed. 2001. Handbook of Comparative and Development Public Administration. CRC Press.

[2]: (Schlingloff 2013: 15) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DAMFF2NV.


Information / Money
Indigenous Coin:
present

"The Sungas issued only copper coins. Their state economy was either independent of a safe currency, or was affected by a shortage of precious metals. None of the local contemporary dynasties issued a silver coinage. We get the impression that indirect commerce using a high-value currency as a means of exchange was less favored by indigenous rulers." [1]

[1]: (Falk 2006, 153) Harry Falk. 2006. ’The Tidal Waves of Indian History: Between the Empires and Beyond’ in Between the Empires: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE, edited by Patrick Olivelle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Information / Postal System
Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

Inferred from the preceding Mauryans: According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist): at this time in India fortifications were mostly made of wood. According to Megasthenes the Mauryan capital was protected by a wooden wall. [1] Warfare in South Asia. Routledge. Abingdon.; Kautilya’s Arthashastra discourages use of timber for walls, although timber was used at Pataliputra (period not stated). [2]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 220) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies Of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[2]: (Allchin 1995, 223) F R Allchin. 1995. The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Stone Walls Mortared:
present

Inferred from the preceding Mauryans: Kautilya’s Arthashastra recommended walls made of stone. Depended on resources available at location. Some are known at Rajgir (period not stated). [1]

[1]: (Allchin 1995, 223) F R Allchin. 1995. The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.




Inferred from the preceding Mauryans: "In The Arthashastra, Kautilya (Art. II, 3 (21)) recommends surrounding a fortress with three ditches (parikha) filled with water. ... This was an ideal scheme but it was rarely put into practice." [1]

[1]: (Nossov 2006, 14) Konstantin S Nossov. 2006. Indian Castles 1206-1526: The Rise and Fall of the Delhi Sultanate. Osprey Publishing.



Earth Rampart:
present

Inferred from the preceding Mauryans: Kautilya’s Arthashastra discusses "earth ramparts faced with burnt brick or stone." One known at Kausambi (period not stated). [1]

[1]: (Allchin 1995, 223) F R Allchin. 1995. The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Ditch:
present

Inferred from the preceding Mauryans: Kautilya’s Arthashastra mentions ditches (Book X, Relating to War).


Complex Fortification:
absent

Referring to a period of time that appears to begin with the Mauryan era and include the first millennium CE:"The royal residence is designated with an old name the “interior city” (antaḥpura) and is described as being just as fortified as the city itself. There are even expressions where the palace wall is confused with the city wall and the castle gate with the city gate. Nonetheless, it would be a false conclusion were one to consider the royal residence, on the strength of this description, to be a citadel. We know from the narrative literature that it was easy to negotiate the moat and wall of the king’s palace by means of a pole or rope. The palace wall formed a police and not a military protection. Once besiegers had breached the city wall, the city lay at their feet. There was no last stand for the palace."". [1]

[1]: (Schlingloff 2013: 47) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DAMFF2NV.


Military use of Metals

Indian iron smiths invented the ’wootz’ method of steel creation between 550-450 BCE. The Greek physician Ctesias of Cnidus commented on an Indian steel sword (or a sword of Indian steel?) in the possession of Artaxerxes II of Persia (c400 BCE). [1] At Naikund in Maharashtra: knowledge of steeling and hardening from 700 BCE. [2] Historical records show Indian steel was exported to Abyssinia in 200 BCE. (Biggs et al. 2013 citing Tripathi and Upadhyay 2009, p. 123). [3]

[1]: (Singh 1997, 102) Sarva Daman Singh. 1997. Ancient Indian Warfare: With Special Reference to the Vedic Period. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. Delhi.

[2]: (Deshpande and Dhokey 2008) P P Deshpande. N B Dhokey. April 2008. Metallographical investigations of iron objects in ancient Vidharbha region of Maharashtra. Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals. Volume 61. Issue 2-3. Springer. pp. 135-137.

[3]: Lynn Biggs. Berenice Bellina. Marcos Martinon-Torres. Thomas Oliver Pryce. January 2013. Prehistoric iron production technologies in the Upper Thai-MalayPeninsula: metallography and slag inclusion analyses of ironartefacts from Khao Sam Kaeo and Phu Khao Thong. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences. Springer.


Mauryans used iron for cuirasses or breastplates. [1] [2]

[1]: Singh, Sarva Daman. Ancient Indian Warfare: With Special Reference to the Vedic Period p. 116

[2]: (Roy 2016, 19) Kaushik Roy. 2016. Military Manpower, Armies and Warfare in South Asia. Routledge. Abingdon.




Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist) the Mauryans used "catapults, ballistas, battering rams, and other siege engines." [1] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity . [2]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 220) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies Of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[2]: (Roy 2016, 19) Kaushik Roy. 2016. Military Manpower, Armies and Warfare in South Asia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Self Bow:
present

According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist): "The Indian bow was made of bamboo, was between five and six feet long, and fired a long cane arrow with metal or bone tips. ... The arrow fired from the bamboo bow could penetrate any armor." [1] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity . [2]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 219) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies Of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[2]: (Roy 2016, 19) Kaushik Roy. 2016. Military Manpower, Armies and Warfare in South Asia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Javelin:
present

According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist) the Mauryan army used the bronze leaf-point javelin. [1] [2] According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist) the Indian cavalry of the time did not (much?) use the bow and relied on lance and javelin. [3] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity . [2]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 212) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies Of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[2]: (Roy 2016, 19) Kaushik Roy. 2016. Military Manpower, Armies and Warfare in South Asia. Routledge. Abingdon.

[3]: (Gabriel 2002, 219) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies Of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Introduced later by the Kushans and used for a brief period thereafter. According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist) the Mauryan army infantry also used a composite bow called the sarnga in small numbers. [1] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity . [2]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 219) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies Of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[2]: (Roy 2016, 19) Kaushik Roy. 2016. Military Manpower, Armies and Warfare in South Asia. Routledge. Abingdon.

Introduced later by the Kushans and used for a brief period thereafter. According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist) the Mauryan army infantry also used a composite bow called the sarnga in small numbers. [1] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity . [2]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 219) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies Of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[2]: (Roy 2016, 19) Kaushik Roy. 2016. Military Manpower, Armies and Warfare in South Asia. Routledge. Abingdon.


New World weapon.


Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

Inferred from use in Mauryan Empire. The Sunga Dynasty was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19). [1] According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist) the Mauryan army used the club and mace. [2]

[1]: (Roy 2015: 19) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/35K9MMUW.

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 212) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies Of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Sword:
present

Inferred from use in Mauryan Empire. The Sunga Dynasty was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19). [1] According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist) the Mauryan army used the sickle-sword and sword. Heavy infantry used the two-handed nistrimsa, slashing sword. [2]

[1]: (Roy 2015: 19) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/35K9MMUW.

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 212, 219) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies Of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Spear:
present

Inferred from use in Mauryan Empire. The Sunga Dynasty was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19). [1] According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist) the Mauryan army used the iron-tipped spear. Elephant riders carried a very long lance called the tomara. [2] According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist) the Mauryan infantry used the lance, javelin and bow. [3]

[1]: (Roy 2015: 19) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/35K9MMUW.

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 212, 219) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies Of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[3]: (Gabriel 2002, 219) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies Of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Polearm:
present

Inferred from use in Mauryan Empire. The Sunga Dynasty was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19). [1] According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist) the Mauryan army used the dagger axe (which from the illustration looks like a battle axe, although it is probably not drawn to scale so it could be a polearm? and there is another weapon called the ’battle-axe’). [2]

[1]: (Roy 2015: 19) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/35K9MMUW.

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 212) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies Of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Dagger:
present

According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist) the Mauryan army used the trident dagger. [1] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity . [2]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 212) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies Of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[2]: (Roy 2016, 19) Kaushik Roy. 2016. Military Manpower, Armies and Warfare in South Asia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Battle Axe:
present

Inferred from use in Mauryan Empire. The Sunga Dynasty was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19). [1] According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist) the Mauryan army used the dagger axe (which from the illustration looks like a battle axe, although it is probably not drawn to scale so it could be a polearm?), the battle axe and the crescent axe. [2]

[1]: (Roy 2015: 19) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/35K9MMUW.

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 212) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies Of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Animals used in warfare

According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist): "Indian armies of this period had within them a basic unit called the patti, a mixed platoon comprised of one elephant carrying three archers, or spearman and a mahout, three horse cavalymen armed with javelins, round buckler, and spear, and five infantry soldiers armed with shield and broad sword or bow." [1] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity . [2]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 218) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies Of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[2]: (Roy 2016, 19) Kaushik Roy. 2016. Military Manpower, Armies and Warfare in South Asia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Elephant:
present

According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist): "Indian armies of this period had within them a basic unit called the patti, a mixed platoon comprised of one elephant carrying three archers, or spearman and a mahout, three horse cavalymen armed with javelins, round buckler, and spear, and five infantry soldiers armed with shield and broad sword or bow." [1] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity . [2]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 218) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies Of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[2]: (Roy 2016, 19) Kaushik Roy. 2016. Military Manpower, Armies and Warfare in South Asia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist): Mauryan infantry used a long narrow shield of raw oxhide over a wooden or wicker frame. [1] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity . [2]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 219) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies Of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[2]: (Roy 2016, 19) Kaushik Roy. 2016. Military Manpower, Armies and Warfare in South Asia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Shield:
present

Inferred from use in Mauryan Empire. The Sunga Dynasty was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19). [1] According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist): Mauryan infantry used a long narrow shield of raw oxhide over a wooden or wicker frame. [2]

[1]: (Roy 2015: 19) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/35K9MMUW.

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 219) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies Of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Scaled Armor:
present

According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist): scale plate armour for horses and elephants became more widespread after the Macedonian invasion of India. [1] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity . [2]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 219-220) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies Of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[2]: (Roy 2016, 19) Kaushik Roy. 2016. Military Manpower, Armies and Warfare in South Asia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Plate Armor:
present

According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist): "What evidence we have suggests that from Vedic times until the coming of the Greeks, only slight use was made of body armor, and most of that was of the leather or textile variety." [1] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity . [2] This quotation does not rule out use of body armour or metal armour, and the Sunga Empire post-dates the Greek invasion.

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 219) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies Of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[2]: (Roy 2016, 19) Kaushik Roy. 2016. Military Manpower, Armies and Warfare in South Asia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Limb Protection:
present

Inferred from use in Mauryan Empire. The Sunga Dynasty was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19). [1]

[1]: (Roy 2015: 19) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/35K9MMUW.


Leather Cloth:
present

According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist): Mauryan infantry used a long narrow shield of raw oxhide over a wooden or wicker frame. [1] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity . [2]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 219) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies Of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[2]: (Roy 2016, 19) Kaushik Roy. 2016. Military Manpower, Armies and Warfare in South Asia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Laminar Armor:
present

According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist): lamellar armour "became more widespread" after the Macedonian invasion of India. [1] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity . [2]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 219) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies Of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[2]: (Roy 2016, 19) Kaushik Roy. 2016. Military Manpower, Armies and Warfare in South Asia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Helmet:
present

Inferred from use in Mauryan Empire. The Sunga Dynasty was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19). [1] According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist): "The helmet did not come into wide use until well after the Common Era, and for most of the ancient period the soldier relied mostly upon the thick folds of his turban to protect his head." [2] While the quotation does not rule out the earlier use of metal helmets the turban is enough to code present for helmets.

[1]: (Roy 2015: 19) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/35K9MMUW.

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 220) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies Of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Breastplate:
present

Inferred from use in Mauryan Empire. The Sunga Dynasty was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19). [1]

[1]: (Roy 2015: 19) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/35K9MMUW.


Naval technology

Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.