Home Region:  Archipelago (Southeast Asia)

Kediri Kingdom

EQ 2020  id_kediri_k / IdKedir

The kingdom of Kediri ruled over a territory roughly corresponding to the modern-day province of East Java, at least based on the locations where its rulers’ inscriptions have been found. [1] Midway through the eleventh century CE, the Javanese monarch Airlangga split his realm into two smaller kingdoms, each to be ruled by one of his sons: one of these kingdoms was likely Kediri [2] . The latter rapidly overshadowed its "twin": it was the first Indonesian kingdom to develop stratified territorial administration, it became known for the organization of its armed forces, and it even introduced bureaucratic officials specifically tasked with the management of the polity’s water resources. [1] Kediri does not appear to have collapsed: rather, in the early thirteenth century, the cente of power shifted to Singhasari, with the foundation of a new dynasty. [3]
Population and political organization
Kediri was ruled by a king, who was assisted by bureaucratic officials. Moreover, as already mentioned, Kediri was the first known Indonesian state to develop stratified territorial administration: more specifically, the polity was organized into three levels, the village, the cluster of villages, and the state. [1] This suggests that there were officials in charge of administrating both village clusters and individual villages.
According to McEvedy and Jones, [4] Indonesia had a population of four million in 1100 CE. Given the fact that Kediri occupied a small portion of the archipelago, it seems reasonable to infer a population size of a few hundred thousands.

[1]: (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (b), 707)

[2]: (Sedyawati in Ooi 2004 (a), 134)

[3]: (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (c), 1208)

[4]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 196-201) McEvedy, Colin. Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd. London.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
49 M  
Original Name:
Kediri Kingdom  
Capital:
Kediri  
Alternative Name:
Pangjalu  
Kadiri  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[1,049 CE ➜ 1,222 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Succeeding Entity:
Singhasari Kingdom  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Kahuripan Kingdom  
Degree of Centralization:
nominal  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Austronesian  
Language:
Sanskrit  
Old Javanese  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[50,000 to 70,000] km2  
Polity Population:
[200,000 to 300,000] people 1100 CE
[250,000 to 350,000] people 1200 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3  
Religious Level:
3  
Military Level:
5  
Administrative Level:
[4 to 5]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Law
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
inferred present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
inferred absent  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Canal:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Religious Literature:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Information / Money
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred absent  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
inferred present  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
inferred present  
  Ditch:
inferred present  
  Complex Fortification:
unknown  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
unknown  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
unknown  
  Sling Siege Engine:
unknown  
  Sling:
inferred absent  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
unknown  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
unknown  
  Composite Bow:
unknown  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
inferred present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
present  
  Donkey:
absent  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
inferred present  
  Shield:
inferred present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
unknown  
  Limb Protection:
unknown  
  Leather Cloth:
inferred present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
inferred present  
  Chainmail:
inferred present  
  Breastplate:
unknown  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
inferred present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Kediri Kingdom (id_kediri_k) was in:
 (1049 CE 1222 CE)   Central Java
Home NGA: Central Java

General Variables
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[1,049 CE ➜ 1,222 CE]

Airlangga’s reign ended in 1049, after which point the kingdom was divided between his two sons. [1] The Singhasari Kingdom began in 1222. [2]

[1]: (Sedyawati in Ooi 2004 (a), 134)

[2]: (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (c), 1208)


Political and Cultural Relations

Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

Airlangga abdicated to become a Hindu ascetic and divided his kingdom between 2 sons, creating two new polities, Kediri and Janggala.. [1]

[1]: (Sedyawati in Ooi 2004 (a), 134)



Degree of Centralization:
nominal

A political structure evolved that despite being decentralised, allowed a flow of income to the central government. [1] . Although this supported a sophisticated level of court life, there was still no centre of power and instead a number of principalities and vassal states vied for dominance. [2]

[1]: (Kinney 2003, 49)

[2]: (Kinney 2003, 83)


Language

Language:
Sanskrit

Kediri = ’Indian Mulberry’ in Sanskrit. (EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: https://visitingjava.wordpress.com/2013/10/31/kediri-city-of-cigarette/ ) The translations of Hindu epic Ramayana and Mahabharata into old Javanese language took place during the era of Medang Kingdom and Kediri kingdom around 9th to 11th century. (EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://southofvoice.blogspot.co.uk/2011/11/javanese-people.html )

Language:
Old Javanese

Kediri = ’Indian Mulberry’ in Sanskrit. (EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: https://visitingjava.wordpress.com/2013/10/31/kediri-city-of-cigarette/ ) The translations of Hindu epic Ramayana and Mahabharata into old Javanese language took place during the era of Medang Kingdom and Kediri kingdom around 9th to 11th century. (EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://southofvoice.blogspot.co.uk/2011/11/javanese-people.html )


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[50,000 to 70,000] km2

in squared kilometers.
"Kadiri was an ancient kingdom on the island of Java." [1]

[1]: (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (b), 707)


Polity Population:
[200,000 to 300,000] people
1100 CE

People.
Estimates for Indonesia (less West New Guinea): 4.0m in 1100 CE. 4.5m in 1200 CE [1]
Total area of Indonesia (less West New Guinea) 1,500,000 km2. [1]
On the basis of territorial extent, Kediri, which was 50,000-70,000 km2 may have had 3-5% of the Indonesian population. 200,000 in 1100 CE, 225,000 in 120,000 CE. Will use these figures for the bottom end of a range that assumes this well-organized polity was more density populated than surrounding regions.

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 196-201) McEvedy, Colin. Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd. London.

Polity Population:
[250,000 to 350,000] people
1200 CE

People.
Estimates for Indonesia (less West New Guinea): 4.0m in 1100 CE. 4.5m in 1200 CE [1]
Total area of Indonesia (less West New Guinea) 1,500,000 km2. [1]
On the basis of territorial extent, Kediri, which was 50,000-70,000 km2 may have had 3-5% of the Indonesian population. 200,000 in 1100 CE, 225,000 in 120,000 CE. Will use these figures for the bottom end of a range that assumes this well-organized polity was more density populated than surrounding regions.

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 196-201) McEvedy, Colin. Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd. London.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3

levels.
1. Large town e.g. capital Kediri/Daha
2. Village3. Hamlet
Ruling class, religious authority, hamlets, non-farming sub-communities, commoners, slaves. Hamlets within villages came to increased prominence and became taxable units within the larger community. Other non-farming sub-communities emerged as regular features of expanded settlement complexes e.g. groups of artisans, small religious establishments, and merchant enclaves. [1]
" [2]

[1]: (Christie 1991, 36)

[2]: (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (b), 707)


Religious Level:
3

levels. No firm data, but inferred on the basis of Majapahit. 1) Buddhist and Saivite clergy (sogata); or 1) Vaisnava clergy (wipra); 2) local religious specialists (resi); 3) residential communities of monks (caturdwija); and 3) rural shamans (jangga). [1]

[1]: (Hall 1996, 102-111)


Military Level:
5

levels.
1. King

2. General inferred
3. Officer of higher group?
4. Unit leader"Every unit had a leader and a certain symbol put on its flag. Most symbols used a figure of an animal." [1]
5. Individual soldier
"Aside from territorial administration, the Kadiri period also saw developments in military organization and mobilization. Troops were divided according to the mastery of different kinds of weapons, such as the club, the arrow, the battle-ax, and the lance, or according to mastery over different serving animals, such as the elephant and the horse." [1]

[1]: (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (b), 707)


Administrative Level:
[4 to 5]

levels.
Increasingly hierarchical state administrative structure. By the tenth and eleventh centuries, royal command passed from the monarch through ’expansive networks of individuals with state and local titles of authority’. [1]
1. King
"The capital, where the king abided in his palace, was called nagara, and the palace itself was called kadatwan. The denomination of the capital may, occasionally, be used as a synonym for the whole country. Based on the location where inscriptions issued by authorities of the Kadiri kingdom have been found, the territory of this kingdom can be identified as within the present-day East Java Province." [2]
_Central government_
2. upper level bureaucrats functioning as intermediaries
3. mid level bureaucrats who needed to go through upper bureaucrats for favours
4. Storehouse manager for rice5. Storehouse worker
village officials managed irrigation system and guaranteed supply of rice to capital in exchange for privileges. [3]
_Provincial government_
2. Several villages (wisaya)"It was the first kingdom known in Indonesia to have developed a stratified territorial administration, consisting of three levels: the village (called thani, which itself consisted of several subdivisions, each having its own name); the coordinated unity, made up of several villages (called wisaya); and the state or kingdom (called bhumi)." [2]
3. Village (thani)
4. officials at central village level
both of which managed irrigation system and guaranteed supply of rice to capital in exchange for privileges. [3]
4. Subdivision of village

[1]: (Hall 2000, 55)

[2]: (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (b), 707)

[3]: (Kinney 2003, 49)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

Military organisations protected outlying regions. [1]

[1]: (Kinney 2003, 49)


Professional Priesthood:
present

Full-time specialists specialists in religious affairs were elevated. [1]

[1]: (Kinney 2003, 49)


Professional Military Officer:
present

Military organisations protected outlying regions. [1]

[1]: (Kinney 2003, 49)


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

There was a multi-tiered administrative structure. [1]

[1]: (Kinney 2003, 49)


Law
Formal Legal Code:
present

Law codified by Airlangga who drew together local traditions, however this is not extant. It is unclear when this codified law fell out of use. [1]

[1]: (Hall in Tarling 1993, 211)


Court:
present

Stepped roof type pendopo once sheltered the institutions of ancient Javanese kingdoms, such as law courts, clergy, palaces, and for public appearances of the king and his ministers. [1]

[1]: (Schoppert et al 1997)


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Markets and the trades associated with them are frequently mentioned in the legal literature. These markets circulated among groups of neighbouring communities at the village rather than hamlet level. [1]

[1]: (Christie 1991, 38)


Irrigation System:
present

Kediri pioneered a system of water management for both transportation and irrigation. [1]

[1]: (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (b), 707)


Food Storage Site:
present

Sedyawati refers to granaries in the rajya, the ’city of the king’. [1]

[1]: (Sedyawati 1994, 11) Edi Sedyawati. 1994. ’The State Formation of Kadiri’, in State and Trade in the Indonesian Archipelago, edited by G. J. Schutte, 7-16. Leiden: KITLV Press.


Drinking Water Supply System:
absent

no mention of drinking water projects: "Initiatives in the Kadiri state formation also including the development of water management (supposedly for both transportation and irrigation purposes). A special government official appointed for this task, the senapati sarwwajala, first appeared during the Kadiri period. A water-related professional that was first mentioned in Kadiri inscriptions was the undahagi lancang, the shipbuilder. Another official that likewise first appeared during the Kadiri period was the sopana, who acted as an intermediary between the king and those who needed the king’s favor." [1]

[1]: (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (b), 707)


Transport Infrastructure

[1]

[1]: (Hall in Tarling 1993, 206)


Kediri pioneered a system of water management for both transportation and irrigation. [1]

[1]: (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (b), 707)


Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Legal literature from ninth century onwards [1]

[1]: (Christie 1991, 30)



Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

Sanskrit is phonetic - the spoken and the written always match. (EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://www.sanskritsounds.com/about-sanskrit/46/index.html )


Nonwritten Record:
present

Legal literature from ninth century onwards [1]

[1]: (Christie 1991, 30)



Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Religious Literature:
present

There was a burgeoning of literature with emerging Old Javanese versions of the Indian Mahabharata. [1]

[1]: (Kinney 2003, 34)


Fiction:
present

Poetic works including Bharatayuddha, Smaradahana, Bhomakawya, and Ghatotkacasraya. [1]

[1]: (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (b), 708)


Information / Money
Indigenous Coin:
present

A mixture of silver, tin, lead, and copper. [1]

[1]: (Hall in Tarling 1993, 215)



Information / Postal System
Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

’The people make fortifications of wood...’ [1] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’fortress’ and ’siege’. [2]

[1]: (Coedes 1968, 126)

[2]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown

Ratu Boko had stone walls as defensive structure. [1] Borobudur stone laid without mortar - this was a temple. (EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://syukranmuhaiya.blogspot.co.uk/2010/10/borobudur.html )

[1]: (Millet in Miksic 2003, 74)


Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown

In Medang period Ratu Boko had stone walls as defensive structure. [1] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’fortress’ and ’siege’. [2]

[1]: (Millet in Miksic 2003, 74)

[2]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
absent

Convenience and pressures to reduce social tensions appear to have over-ridden considerations of defence in the location of housing from the early tenth century. [1]

[1]: (Christie 1991, 35)



Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’fortress’ and ’siege’. [1] In Medang period Ratu Boko had a dry moat as a defensive structure [2]

[1]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.

[2]: (Millet in Miksic 2003, 74)


Fortified Camp:
unknown

Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’fortress’ and ’siege’. [1]

[1]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Earth Rampart:
present

Reference suggested a code of ’present’ for Medang period. [1] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’fortress’ and ’siege’. [2] "’In this country they have made the city walls of piled-up bricks, the wall has double gates and watch-towers,’ wrote a Chinese voyager who went to Java fourteen centuries ago." [3]

[1]: (Millet in Miksic 2003, 74)

[2]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.

[3]: Hickman Powell. 1936. Bali: The Last Paradise. Dodd, Mead & Company.


Ditch:
present

Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’fortress’ and ’siege’. [1] In Medang period Ratu Boko had a dry moat as a defensive structure [2]

[1]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.

[2]: (Millet in Miksic 2003, 74)


Complex Fortification:
unknown

Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’fortress’ and ’siege’. [1]

[1]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Military use of Metals

Historical records show "good quality Indian steel" was reaching Ethiopia in 200 BCE [1] - did they also export across the Bay of Bengal? Island South East Asia: ’Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [2]

[1]: (Biggs et al. 2013 citing Tripathi and Upadhyay 2009, p. 123) Lynn Biggs. Berenice Bellina. Marcos Martinon-Torres. Thomas Oliver Pryce. January 2013. Prehistoric iron production technologies in the Upper Thai-Malay Peninsula: metallography and slag inclusion analyses of iron artefacts from Khao Sam Kaeo and Phu Khao Thong. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences. Springer.

[2]: (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.


“Iron tools, best evidenced in Southern Vietnam, West Malaysia, and Java, were attached to handles (presum- ably wooden) via tangs, sockets, or shaft holes." [1] Island South East Asia: ’Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [2]

[1]: (Bulbeck in Peregrine and Ember 2000, 86)

[2]: (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.


Copper:
present

Island South East Asia: ’Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [1]

[1]: (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.


Bronze:
present

“Bronze metallurgy was practiced in at least Southern Vietnam, the islands surrounding the Sulu and Sulawesi seas, West Malaysia, South Sumatra, and especially Java and Bali." [1] Island South East Asia: ’Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [2]

[1]: (Bulbeck in Peregrine and Ember 2000, 85)

[2]: (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
unknown

Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’fortress’ and ’siege’. [1]

[1]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Sling Siege Engine:
unknown

Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’fortress’ and ’siege’. [1]

[1]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


No mention of slings. Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [1] The switch-over did not occur until the end of the Kediri Kingdom: it was the Singhasari Kingdom that witnessed ’the decline of Hindu culture and civilisation in Java and the succession of Javanese culture.’ [2] Temple reliefs from earlier periods contain murals showing clubs, swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, knives, halberds. [3] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc." [4]

[1]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[2]: (Rao 2005, 213) B V Rao. 2005. History of Asia. Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd. New Dawn Press, Inc. Elgin.

[3]: (Draeger 1972, 23, 27) D F Draeger. 1972. Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia. Tuttle Publishing.

[4]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Self Bow:
present

Coded present on the basis of this reference. [1] Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [2] The switch-over did not occur until the end of the Kediri Kingdom: it was the Singhasari Kingdom that witnessed ’the decline of Hindu culture and civilisation in Java and the succession of Javanese culture.’ [3] Temple reliefs from earlier periods contain murals showing bows and arrows. [4]

[1]: (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (b), 707)

[2]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[3]: (Rao 2005, 213) B V Rao. 2005. History of Asia. Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd. New Dawn Press, Inc. Elgin.

[4]: (Draeger 1972, 23, 27) D F Draeger. 1972. Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia. Tuttle Publishing.


Javelin:
unknown

No mention of thrown spears. Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [1] The switch-over did not occur until the end of the Kediri Kingdom: it was the Singhasari Kingdom that witnessed ’the decline of Hindu culture and civilisation in Java and the succession of Javanese culture.’ [2] Temple reliefs from earlier periods contain murals showing clubs, swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, knives, halberds. [3] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc." [4]

[1]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[2]: (Rao 2005, 213) B V Rao. 2005. History of Asia. Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd. New Dawn Press, Inc. Elgin.

[3]: (Draeger 1972, 23, 27) D F Draeger. 1972. Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia. Tuttle Publishing.

[4]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.



Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Cannon was not used in siege warfare until the seventeenth century. [1]

[1]: (Charney 2004, 93)


Crossbow:
unknown

No mention of crossbows. Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [1] The switch-over did not occur until the end of the Kediri Kingdom: it was the Singhasari Kingdom that witnessed ’the decline of Hindu culture and civilisation in Java and the succession of Javanese culture.’ [2] Temple reliefs from earlier periods contain murals showing clubs, swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, knives, halberds. [3] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc." [4]

[1]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[2]: (Rao 2005, 213) B V Rao. 2005. History of Asia. Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd. New Dawn Press, Inc. Elgin.

[3]: (Draeger 1972, 23, 27) D F Draeger. 1972. Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia. Tuttle Publishing.

[4]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Composite Bow:
unknown

No mention of the composite bow. Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [1] The switch-over did not occur until the end of the Kediri Kingdom: it was the Singhasari Kingdom that witnessed ’the decline of Hindu culture and civilisation in Java and the succession of Javanese culture.’ [2] Temple reliefs from earlier periods contain murals showing clubs, swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, knives, halberds. [3] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc." [4]

[1]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[2]: (Rao 2005, 213) B V Rao. 2005. History of Asia. Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd. New Dawn Press, Inc. Elgin.

[3]: (Draeger 1972, 23, 27) D F Draeger. 1972. Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia. Tuttle Publishing.

[4]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.



Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

Coded present based on this reference. [1] Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [2] The switch-over did not occur until the end of the Kediri Kingdom: it was the Singhasari Kingdom that witnessed ’the decline of Hindu culture and civilisation in Java and the succession of Javanese culture.’ [3] Temple reliefs from earlier periods contain murals showing clubs, swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, knives, halberds. [4] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc." [5]

[1]: (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (b), 707)

[2]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[3]: (Rao 2005, 213) B V Rao. 2005. History of Asia. Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd. New Dawn Press, Inc. Elgin.

[4]: (Draeger 1972, 23, 27) D F Draeger. 1972. Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia. Tuttle Publishing.

[5]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [1] The switch-over did not occur until the end of the Kediri Kingdom: it was the Singhasari Kingdom that witnessed ’the decline of Hindu culture and civilisation in Java and the succession of Javanese culture.’ [2] Temple reliefs from earlier periods contain murals showing clubs, swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, knives, halberds. [3] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc." [4]

[1]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[2]: (Rao 2005, 213) B V Rao. 2005. History of Asia. Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd. New Dawn Press, Inc. Elgin.

[3]: (Draeger 1972, 23, 27) D F Draeger. 1972. Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia. Tuttle Publishing.

[4]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Coded present based on this reference. [1] Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [2] The switch-over did not occur until the end of the Kediri Kingdom: it was the Singhasari Kingdom that witnessed ’the decline of Hindu culture and civilisation in Java and the succession of Javanese culture.’ [3] Temple reliefs from earlier periods contain murals showing clubs, swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, knives, halberds. [4] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc." [5]

[1]: (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (b), 707)

[2]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[3]: (Rao 2005, 213) B V Rao. 2005. History of Asia. Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd. New Dawn Press, Inc. Elgin.

[4]: (Draeger 1972, 23, 27) D F Draeger. 1972. Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia. Tuttle Publishing.

[5]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Polearm:
present

Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [1] The switch-over did not occur until the end of the Kediri Kingdom: it was the Singhasari Kingdom that witnessed ’the decline of Hindu culture and civilisation in Java and the succession of Javanese culture.’ [2] Temple reliefs from earlier periods contain murals showing clubs, swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, knives, halberds. [3] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc." [4]

[1]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[2]: (Rao 2005, 213) B V Rao. 2005. History of Asia. Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd. New Dawn Press, Inc. Elgin.

[3]: (Draeger 1972, 23, 27) D F Draeger. 1972. Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia. Tuttle Publishing.

[4]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Dagger:
present

Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [1] The switch-over did not occur until the end of the Kediri Kingdom: it was the Singhasari Kingdom that witnessed ’the decline of Hindu culture and civilisation in Java and the succession of Javanese culture.’ [2] Temple reliefs from earlier periods contain murals showing clubs, swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, knives, halberds. [3] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc." [4]

[1]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[2]: (Rao 2005, 213) B V Rao. 2005. History of Asia. Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd. New Dawn Press, Inc. Elgin.

[3]: (Draeger 1972, 23, 27) D F Draeger. 1972. Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia. Tuttle Publishing.

[4]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Battle Axe:
present

Coded present based on this reference. [1] Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [2] The switch-over did not occur until the end of the Kediri Kingdom: it was the Singhasari Kingdom that witnessed ’the decline of Hindu culture and civilisation in Java and the succession of Javanese culture.’ [3] Temple reliefs from earlier periods contain murals showing clubs, swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, knives, halberds. [4] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc." [5]

[1]: (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (b), 707)

[2]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[3]: (Rao 2005, 213) B V Rao. 2005. History of Asia. Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd. New Dawn Press, Inc. Elgin.

[4]: (Draeger 1972, 23, 27) D F Draeger. 1972. Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia. Tuttle Publishing.

[5]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Animals used in warfare

[1]

[1]: (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (b), 707)


Elephant:
present

[1]

[1]: (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (b), 707)


Not specified in list of animals used in warfare. [1]

[1]: (Hall 2000, 65)


Not specified in list of animals used in warfare. [1]

[1]: (Hall 2000, 65)


Not specified in list of animals used in warfare. [1]

[1]: (Hall 2000, 65)


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

The Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds. [1] Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [2] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’armour, shield, helmet’. [3]

[1]: (Draeger 1972, 23) D F Draeger. 1972. Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia. Tuttle Publishing.

[2]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[3]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Shield:
present

The Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds. [1] Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [2] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’armour, shield, helmet’. [3]

[1]: (Draeger 1972, 23) D F Draeger. 1972. Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia. Tuttle Publishing.

[2]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[3]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Scaled Armor:
unknown

The Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds. [1] Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [2] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’armour, shield, helmet’. [3]

[1]: (Draeger 1972, 23) D F Draeger. 1972. Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia. Tuttle Publishing.

[2]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[3]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Plate Armor:
unknown

The Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds. [1] Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [2] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’armour, shield, helmet’. [3]

[1]: (Draeger 1972, 23) D F Draeger. 1972. Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia. Tuttle Publishing.

[2]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[3]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Limb Protection:
unknown

The Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds. [1] Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [2] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’armour, shield, helmet’. [3]

[1]: (Draeger 1972, 23) D F Draeger. 1972. Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia. Tuttle Publishing.

[2]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[3]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Leather Cloth:
present

The Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds. [1] Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [2] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’armour, shield, helmet’. [3]

[1]: (Draeger 1972, 23) D F Draeger. 1972. Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia. Tuttle Publishing.

[2]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[3]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Laminar Armor:
unknown

The Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds. [1] Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [2] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’armour, shield, helmet’. [3]

[1]: (Draeger 1972, 23) D F Draeger. 1972. Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia. Tuttle Publishing.

[2]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[3]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Helmet:
present

The Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds. [1] Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [2] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’armour, shield, helmet’. [3]

[1]: (Draeger 1972, 23) D F Draeger. 1972. Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia. Tuttle Publishing.

[2]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[3]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Chainmail:
present

The Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds. [1] Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [2] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’armour, shield, helmet’. [3]

[1]: (Draeger 1972, 23) D F Draeger. 1972. Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia. Tuttle Publishing.

[2]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[3]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Breastplate:
unknown

The Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds. [1] Old Mataram was a ’highly Indianized culture’ until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island’s older indigenous traditions." [2] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include ’armour, shield, helmet’. [3]

[1]: (Draeger 1972, 23) D F Draeger. 1972. Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia. Tuttle Publishing.

[2]: (Unesco 2005, 233) Unesco. 2005. The Restoration of Borobudur. Unesco.

[3]: (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

Professional seamen. [1] "A water-related professional that was first mentioned in Kadiri inscriptions was the undahagi lancang, the shipbuilder." [2] According to the Chinese the Kediri kingdom was an even greater maritime power than the Sailendra empire, controlled islands such as Bali, Borneo, South-Celebes. [3]

[1]: (Hall in Tarling 1993, 212)

[2]: (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (b), 707)

[3]: (Rao 2005, 213) B V Rao. 2005. History of Asia. Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd. New Dawn Press, Inc. Elgin.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

central government controlled building and use of boats. [1]

[1]: (Kinney 2003, 49)



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.