Home Region:  Southern Europe (Europe)

Lombard Kingdom

EQ 2020  it_lombard_k / ItLombr


The Lombard were a Germanic tribe who, by the end of the 5th century CE, had settled their territory north of the Danube River, which corresponds approximately to the area that is now modern-day Austria. Under the rule of Alboin, the Lombards invaded and migrated to a defenceless Italy in 568 CE, and within a year had conquered and occupied all major cities north of the Po River. [1]
When they arrived in Italy the Lombards were divided into clans, each with its own war-leader, but by the middle of the seventh century a monarchy had been established which led to a centralised authority which each of the clans ‘dukes’ were answerable to. [2]
In 773 CE the Franks under Charlemagne, and in alliance with Pope Adrian I, invaded Italy. After a year of siege they captured the city of Pavia and the Lombards surrendered to Charlemagne. He became the ruler of both the Lombards and the Franks, and Lombardian rule in Italy came to an end. [1]

[1]: “Lombard | People | Britannica”. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/E6RFZXRD

[2]: Peters 2003: x. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/X4ETPHA7

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
32 N  
33 N  
Original Name:
Lombard Kingdom  
Capital:
Verona 568 CE
Milan 584 CE
Alternative Name:
Lombards  
Kingdom of the Lombards  
Langobards  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[568 CE ➜ 774 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Language
Religion
Religious Tradition:
Christianity  
Christianity  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
-  
Polity Territory:
214,500 km2  
Polity Population:
4,000,000 people  
Largest Communication Distance:
-  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4  
Religious Level:
4  
Military Level:
3  
Administrative Level:
4  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred absent  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred absent  
Source Of Support:
unknown  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown  
Merit Promotion:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
unknown  
Food Storage Site:
inferred present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
present  
Communal Building:
present  
Utilitarian Public Building:
present  
Symbolic Building:
present  
Knowledge Or Information Building:
unknown  
Entertainment Building:
present  
Other Utilitarian Public Building:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
inferred absent  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Trading Emporia:
unknown  
Enclosure:
present  
Ceremonial Site:
present  
Burial Site:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
inferred present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Information / Money
Token:
inferred absent  
Precious Metal:
present  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
present  
Article:
inferred absent  
Store Of Wealth:
present  
Debt And Credit Structure:
inferred absent  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
unknown  
Fastest Individual Communication:
-  
Information / Measurement System
Weight Measurement System:
unknown  
Volume Measurement System:
unknown  
Time Measurement System:
unknown  
Length Measurement System:
unknown  
Geometrical Measurement System:
unknown  
Area Measurement System:
unknown  
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Military use of Metals
Projectiles
Handheld weapons
Animals used in warfare
Armor
Naval technology
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Lombard Kingdom (it_lombard_k) was in:
Home NGA: None

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Lombard Kingdom

Capital:
Verona
568 CE

Verona was made the first capital of Lombard Italy by the conquering king, Albion. [1] In 584, when the monarchy was dissolved, the capital city was moved west to Milan. [2] In 620 the capital shifted again to Pavia, just south of Milan, where it remained and housed the royal Lombard court. [3] [4]

[1]: Christie 1998: 145. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF

[2]: Christie 1998: 146. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF

[3]: Peters 2003: xi. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/X4ETPHA7

[4]: Christie 1998: 147. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF

Capital:
Milan
584 CE

Verona was made the first capital of Lombard Italy by the conquering king, Albion. [1] In 584, when the monarchy was dissolved, the capital city was moved west to Milan. [2] In 620 the capital shifted again to Pavia, just south of Milan, where it remained and housed the royal Lombard court. [3] [4]

[1]: Christie 1998: 145. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF

[2]: Christie 1998: 146. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF

[3]: Peters 2003: xi. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/X4ETPHA7

[4]: Christie 1998: 147. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF


Alternative Name:
Lombards
Alternative Name:
Kingdom of the Lombards
Alternative Name:
Langobards

Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[568 CE ➜ 774 CE]

Political and Cultural Relations
Language
Religion
Religious Tradition:
Christianity
Religious Tradition:
Christianity


Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
-

Settlement figures have not been mentioned in the sources consulted.


Polity Territory:
214,500 km2

square kilometres. The exact extent of the Lombard territory in this period is not known as the Byzantines still held intermittent areas in the north of Italy where the Lombards were centred, as well as along the coast, around Rome, and the south of the peninsula. [1] However, judging by the maps included in the sources and tracking this on google maps gives a very approximate estimate of around 214,500 square kilometres.

[1]: Wickham 1981: 31. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/Z539DW5B


Polity Population:
4,000,000 people

Inhabitant. Exact polity population figures have not been mentioned in the sources consulted. However, Wickham (1981) estimates that there may have been around 200,000 Lombards that migrated to Italy, who made up approximately 5-8% of the population of the region, while the remaining 92-95% were Romans. [1] Therefore it could be calculated from this that there were approximately four million inhabitants in the Lombard held territories of Italy.

[1]: Wickham 1981: 65. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/Z539DW5B


Largest Communication Distance:
-

kilometers.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4

[1] : 1. Cities :: 2. Towns ::: 3. Forts ::: 4. Villages

[1]: Christie 1998: 77, 83, 104, 168-169. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF


Religious Level:
4

_Catholicism_ : 1. Pope :: 2. Cardinals ::: 3. Archbisops :::: 4. Bishops


Military Level:
3

[1] [2] : 1. King :: 2. War Chiefs ::: 3. Warriors

[1]: Christie 1998: 118. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF

[2]: Clayton 2021: 162. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4N2ZFRX8


Administrative Level:
4

[1] [2] [3] Kings were elected from the noble class and were seen as a representative or head of the Lombard people, rather than a monarch with absolute power. : 1. King :: 2. War Chiefs (later as Dukes) ::: 3. Officials (notaries, chancellor, cellarer, treasurer) :::: 4. Lesser/local administrators

[1]: Christie 1998: 115. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF

[2]: Clayton 2021: 162. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4N2ZFRX8

[3]: Wickham 1981: 39-42. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/Z539DW5B


Professions
Professional Soldier:
absent

All freemen were expected to carry out military service as and when their duke or king summoned them. However there does not seem to have been a standing professional army. [1] [2]

[1]: Christie 1998: 118. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF

[2]: Clayton 2021: 162. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4N2ZFRX8


Professional Priesthood:
present

In the Catholic church.


Professional Military Officer:
absent

All freemen were expected to carry out military service as and when their duke or king summoned them. However there does not seem to have been a standing professional army. [1] [2]

[1]: Christie 1998: 118. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF

[2]: Clayton 2021: 162. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4N2ZFRX8


Source Of Support:
unknown

Source of support has not been mentioned in the sources consulted.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown

Specialized government buildings have not been mentioned in the sources consulted.


Merit Promotion:
unknown

Merit promotions have not been mentioned in the sources consulted.


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

The imperial and legal courts had notaries, chancellors, judges etc. [1]

[1]: Christie 1998: 115. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF


Examination System:
unknown

Examination systems have not been mentioned in the sources consulted.


Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown

Lawyers have not been mentioned in the sources consulted


Judge:
present

There were judges who oversaw the justices and punishments of the law. [1]

[1]: Christie 1998: 115, 124. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF


Formal Legal Code:
present

The Lombards had written and codified laws. [1] [2]

[1]: Peters 2003: xiii, 112. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/X4ETPHA7

[2]: Christie 1998: 124. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF


Court:
present

Judges and their lesser officials worked in courts. [1]

[1]: Christie 1998: 116-117. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Markets are mentioned in the Lombard laws and were present in urban and rural areas. [1]

[1]: Christie 1998: 141. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF


Irrigation System:
unknown

Irrigation systems have not been mentioned in the sources consulted


Food Storage Site:
present

It is very likely that cities at least had food storage sites, however this has not been mentioned in the sources consulted.


Drinking Water Supply System:
present

Existing Roman aqueducts, which were later extended by the Lombards, provided cities with water. [1]

[1]: Christie 1998: 150, 158. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF


Communal Building:
present

Churches, chapels, cathedrals. [1]

[1]: Christie 1998: 96. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF


Utilitarian Public Building:
present

Roman public buildings such as forums, amphitheatres and bath houses, existed in the territories that the Lombards conquered. Cities in particular had well made and preserved public buildings. [1]

[1]: Christie 1998: 146, 150. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF


Symbolic Building:
present

Churches, chapels, cathedrals. [1]

[1]: Christie 1998: 96, 147, 149. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF


Knowledge Or Information Building:
unknown

Knowledge buildings have not been mentioned in the sources consulted


Entertainment Building:
present

Amphitheatres, forums, and public baths surviving from the Roman period, were utilised by the Lombards. [1]

[1]: Christie 1998: 149-150. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF


Other Utilitarian Public Building:
present

Roman public buildings such as forums, amphitheatres and bath houses, existed in the territories that the Lombards conquered. Cities in particular had well made and preserved public buildings. [1]

[1]: Christie 1998: 146, 150. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF


Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present

There were roads across the Lombard territory in Italy and beyond. Major cities such as Milan and Pavia were at an intersection of crossroads giving access to other parts of the kingdom. [1]

[1]: Christie 1998: 77, 78, 147. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF


Port:
present

There were ports along the Italian/Lombardian coast such as Classe near Ravenna, and the important Byzantine ports of Taranto and Brindisi. [1]

[1]: Clayton 2021: 119, 136. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4N2ZFRX8


Canal:
absent

Canals have not been mentioned in the sources consulted.



Special-purpose Sites
Trading Emporia:
unknown

Trading emporiums have not been mentioned in the sources consulted


Enclosure:
present

There were already forts and walled towns and cities when the Lombards arrived in Italy. These were then occupied and more were built over the centuries. [1]

[1]: Christie 1998: 87-89, 92. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF


Ceremonial Site:
present

Churches, chapels, cathedrals. [1]

[1]: Christie 1998: 96, 100. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF


Burial Site:
present

Lombard cemeteries were built rapidly as soon as they moved in to their new Italian territories. Around the city of Cividale especially there were several cemeteries built within the first year. Tombs and crypts were used for elite individuals. [1]

[1]: Christie 1998: 77, 100, 158. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Letters, scholarly works, legal and official royal documents. [1] [2]

[1]: Peters 2003: xii-xiv. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/X4ETPHA7

[2]: Christie 1998: 115, 124. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF




Nonwritten Record:
present

Seal rings were used by members of the state office. [1] The royal seal for official documentation. [2]

[1]: Christie 1998: 100. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF

[2]: Christie 1998: 125. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF



Mnemonic Device:
unknown

Mnemonic devices have not been mentioned in the sources consulted.


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Sacred Text:
present

The Bible.


Religious Literature:
present

It is very likely that there was religious literature in but it has not been discussed directly in the sources consulted.


Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown

Lists, tables, and classifications have not been mentioned in the sources consulted.


History:
present

Paul the Deacon – a noble and scholar who later became a monk after the invasion of Lombard territory by the Franks – wrote several historical works, including The History of the Lombards. Germanic legends and folklore were written into historical narratives. [1]

[1]: Peters 2003: xii-xiv. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/X4ETPHA7


Fiction:
present

Poetry and verse was written by scholars such as Paul the Deacon. [1] Panegyrics “such as the Carmen de Synodo Ticinesi of c.690, the Laudes Mediolanensis Civitatis (c.740) and the Laudes Veronensis or Veronae Rythmica Descriptio (c.795-800)”. [2]

[1]: Peters 2003: xii. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/X4ETPHA7

[2]: Christie 1998: 150. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF


Information / Money
Token:
absent

Tokens have not been mentioned in the sources consulted.


Precious Metal:
present

Gold and silver was used for coins, jewellery, military and dress adornments, and other elite items. [1]

[1]: Christie 1998: 100, 127. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF


Paper Currency:
absent

Only metal coins were present.


Indigenous Coin:
present

The adoption of the Byzantine coins as Lombard currency meant that they continued to be minted in both the Byzantium territories of Italy, and in the new Lombard territories. Tremisses, a lighter gold inferior copy of the Byzantine solidi coin, were also minted by the Lombards. Additionally the Lombard kings began minting their own silver coins from the late seventh century. [1]

[1]: Christie 1998: 141-142. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF


Foreign Coin:
present

Byzantine coins - solidi, made of pure gold, and seliqua, of silver -were present. They seem to have been adopted as the Lombard currency. [1]

[1]: Christie 1998: 91, 141. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF


Article:
absent

Articles have not been mentioned in the sources consulted.


Store Of Wealth:
present

Coins hoards, such as the 1,600 pieces found in Biella, have been found in the Lombard territory. [1]

[1]: Christie 1998: 144. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/975BEGKF


Debt And Credit Structure:
absent

These structures have not been mentioned in the sources consulted.


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown

Postal stations have not been mentioned in the sources consulted.


General Postal Service:
unknown

General postal service have not been mentioned in the sources consulted.


Courier:
unknown

Couriers have not been mentioned in the sources consulted.


Fastest Individual Communication:
-

This has not been mentioned in the sources consulted.


Information / Measurement System
Weight Measurement System:
unknown

Measurement systems have not been mentioned in the sources consulted.


Volume Measurement System:
unknown

Measurement systems have not been mentioned in the sources consulted.


Time Measurement System:
unknown

Measurement systems have not been mentioned in the sources consulted.


Length Measurement System:
unknown

Measurement systems have not been mentioned in the sources consulted.


Geometrical Measurement System:
unknown

Measurement systems have not been mentioned in the sources consulted.


Area Measurement System:
unknown

Measurement systems have not been mentioned in the sources consulted.



Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Military use of Metals
Projectiles
Handheld weapons
Animals used in warfare
Armor
Naval technology

Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.