Home Region:  Western Europe (Europe)

Plantagenet England

D G SC CC PT EQ 2020  gb_england_plantagenet

Preceding:
1066 CE 1153 CE Norman England (gb_england_norman)    [None]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
Add one more here.


The Plantagenet Dynasty originated from a powerful aristocratic family from Anjou in France. Geoffrey, count of Anjou (from 1129) and duke of Normandy (from 1144), was the patrilineal ancestor of the Plantagenet kings through his marriage to Empress Matilda, the daughter of King Henry I of England. The nickname ‘plantagenet’ allegedly comes from the yellow flower planta genista that Geoffrey wore in his hat.
Though the monarch still had ultimate power in the kingdom, the period of Plantagenet England saw a move away from absolute monarchy. A series of conflicts with the powerful barons and the church led to the signing of the Magna Carta by King John in 1215; a treaty between the king and the barons with compromises on both sides, neither of which were adhered to, which led to a series of civil wars known as the Barons’ Wars in the thirteenth century.
The Hundred Years’ War with France (1337-1453) originated from a dispute over the French throne between the Plantagenets and the French House of Valois. There were three phases of the war separated by truces, but ultimately the Plantagenets were defeated and reneged their claim.
During this period a distinct English identity was shaped, which is still recognisable today. This was partly due to ongoing conflicts with their surrounding neighbours on the isle, the Scots, Welsh and Irish, but also with their distancing from relations with France. The English language was solidified and became the primary language of the country, eschewing the French and Latin languages which had also commonly been used. Through military campaigns, Wales was brought under English rule. The basis of English law and government administration also has its roots in this period. Despite the economic and demographic expansion of England in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, famines and the Black Death of the early fourteenth century curbed England’s growth.
The rivalry between the two main cadet branches of the Plantagenet dynasty – Lancaster and York – led to the War of the Roses (1455-1487). Elite in-fighting, civil war and succession struggles resulted in the male lines of both dynasties becoming almost extinct. This left open an opportunity for Henry Tudor (of the Beaufort family branch) to push his tenuous claim to the throne by defeating and killing Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485. He assumed the throne as Henry VII and married Elizabeth of York (the daughter of former king, Edward IV). Through this marriage alliance the Plantagenet dynasty ended, and the period of Tudor England began.
[1] [2]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI

[2]: (Ormrod 2000) Ormrod, W. ‘England: Edward II and Edward III’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 6: C.1300–c.1415, ed. Michael Jones, vol. 6, The New Cambridge Medieval History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 271–96, https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521362900.014. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/Y46E5QCH

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
29 N  
Original Name:
Plantagenet England  
Capital:
London  
Alternative Name:
England  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[1,154 CE ➜ 1,485 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Supracultural Entity:
none  
Succeeding Entity:
Early Modern England  
Preceding Entity:
Preceding:   Norman England (gb_england_norman)    [None]  
Succeeding: Tudor and Early Stuart England (gb_england_tudor_and_early_stuart)    [None]  
Language
Religion
Religious Tradition:
Christianity  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
70,000 people  
Polity Territory:
130,279 km2  
Polity Population:
5,000,000 people 1300 CE
3,500,000 people 1350 CE
Largest Communication Distance:
650  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4  
Religious Level:
7  
Military Level:
11  
Administrative Level:
6  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Source Of Support:
state salary  
land  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
unknown  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
present  
Communal Building:
present  
Utilitarian Public Building:
present  
Symbolic Building:
present  
Knowledge Or Information Building:
present  
Entertainment Building:
present  
Special Purpose House:
inferred present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
inferred absent  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Trading Emporia:
present  
Enclosure:
present  
Ceremonial Site:
present  
Burial Site:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Mnemonic Device:
present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
unknown  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Token:
inferred absent  
Precious Metal:
present  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
present  
Article:
inferred absent  
Store Of Wealth:
present  
Debt And Credit Structure:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
absent  
General Postal Service:
absent  
Courier:
present  
Fastest Individual Communication:
-  
Information / Measurement System
Weight Measurement System:
present  
Volume Measurement System:
unknown  
Time Measurement System:
Transitional (Absent -> Present)  
Length Measurement System:
present  
Geometrical Measurement System:
present  
Area Measurement System:
present  
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Military use of Metals
Projectiles
Handheld weapons
Animals used in warfare
Armor
Naval technology
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Plantagenet England (gb_england_plantagenet) was in:
Home NGA: None

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Plantagenet England


Alternative Name:
England

Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[1,154 CE ➜ 1,485 CE]

Political and Cultural Relations
Supracultural Entity:
none

Succeeding Entity:
Early Modern England

Preceding Entity:
Norman England [gb_england_norman] ---> Plantagenet England [gb_england_plantagenet]
Preceding Entity:
Plantagenet England [gb_england_plantagenet] ---> Tudor and Early Stuart England [gb_england_tudor_and_early_stuart]

Language
Religion
Religious Tradition:
Christianity


Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
70,000 people

inhabitants. London had a population of around 70,000 people, perhaps more, by 1300. However, other larger towns are unlikely to have exceeded 20,000 (most being much less), making London the largest settlement by far. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 20) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Polity Territory:
130,279 km2

km2. [1] From the end of King John’s reign 1216.

[1]: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England


Polity Population:
5,000,000 people
1300 CE

estimated population. There was a rapid population growth in the thirteenth century which led to a peak population of around 5 million by 1300. However, due to famine and plague in the early-to-mid century, the population fell again by about a third to a half of the 1300 numbers. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 9, 530-532) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI

Polity Population:
3,500,000 people
1350 CE

estimated population. There was a rapid population growth in the thirteenth century which led to a peak population of around 5 million by 1300. However, due to famine and plague in the early-to-mid century, the population fell again by about a third to a half of the 1300 numbers. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 9, 530-532) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Largest Communication Distance:
650

kilometers. A trip between London and Caerlaverock castle, just over the Scottish border was about 650 miles and a round trip could take twenty-five days. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 25. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4

levels.: 1. Capital city: London had been the capital city of England since William I declared it in 1066. Its population far surpasses that of any other city or town at around 70,000 people in 1300. [1] :: 2. Major Towns:: Important larger market towns such as London, York, Cambridge, and Ely. They had cathedrals and were the official seat of a diocesan bishop. The larger towns had a surrounding wall. [2] ::: 3. Port and trading towns::: Trading emporium and market towns and ports such as Dover, Sarre, Southampton, and Ipswich. [3] [4] ::: 4. Villages::: Villages were generally situated with access to good ploughing land. It is often difficult to distinguish what may have been considered a village versus a small town. Villages were varied in layout and organisation – some were carefully planned, others grew up around a farm or village green. [5] [6]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 20. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI.

[2]: (Prestwich 2005: 22. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI.

[3]: Yorke 1990: 40, 65

[4]: Wright 2015: 34-36

[5]: Higham 2004: 10

[6]: (Prestwich 2005: 19, 22. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI.


Religious Level:
7

levels. [1] : 1. The King :: 2. Archbishops ::: 3. Bishops :::: 4. Archdeacon :::: 5. Priest ::::: 6. Chaplain :::::: 7. Ecclesiastical officials

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 69-72) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Military Level:
11

levels.: 1. King :: 2. General [1] ::: 3. Commanders [1] :::: 4. Captains [2] :::::: 5. Knight Banneret [3] :::::: 6. Knights [4] :::::: 7. Knight Bachelor [5] ::::::: 8. Esquire [4] :::::::: 9. Cavalry [1] ::::::::: 10. Archers [2] :::::::::: 11. Infantry Soldiers [6] ref>

[1]: (Ormrod 2000: 290) Ormrod, W. ‘England: Edward II and Edward III’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 6: C.1300–c.1415, ed. Michael Jones, vol. 6, The New Cambridge Medieval History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 271–96, https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521362900.014. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/Y46E5QCH

[2]: (Coss 2019: 41) Coss, Peter. ‘Andrew Ayton, the Military Community and the Evolution of the Gentry in Fourteenth-Century England’, in Military Communities in Late Medieval England: Essays in Honour of Andrew Ayton, ed. Craig L. Lambert, David Simpkin, and Gary P. Baker, vol. 44 (Boydell & Brewer, 2018), 31–50, https://doi.org/10.1017/9781787442221.007. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/WIE6TS8M

[3]: (Simpkin 2018: 50-53) Simpkin, David. 2018. ‘Knights Banneret, Military Recruitment and Social Status, c. 1270–c. 1420: A View from the Reign of Edward I’, in Military Communities in Late Medieval England: Essays in Honour of Andrew Ayton, ed. Craig L. Lambert, David Simpkin, and Gary P. Baker, vol. 44 (Boydell & Brewer, 2018), 51–76, https://doi.org/10.1017/9781787442221.008. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V56P62M

[4]: (Coss 2019: 37) Coss, Peter. ‘Andrew Ayton, the Military Community and the Evolution of the Gentry in Fourteenth-Century England’, in Military Communities in Late Medieval England: Essays in Honour of Andrew Ayton, ed. Craig L. Lambert, David Simpkin, and Gary P. Baker, vol. 44 (Boydell & Brewer, 2018), 31–50, https://doi.org/10.1017/9781787442221.007. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/WIE6TS8M

[5]: (Simpkin 2018: 56) Simpkin, David. 2018. ‘Knights Banneret, Military Recruitment and Social Status, c. 1270–c. 1420: A View from the Reign of Edward I’, in Military Communities in Late Medieval England: Essays in Honour of Andrew Ayton, ed. Craig L. Lambert, David Simpkin, and Gary P. Baker, vol. 44 (Boydell & Brewer, 2018), 51–76, https://doi.org/10.1017/9781787442221.008. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V56P62M

[6]: (Coss 2019: 40-42) Coss, Peter. ‘Andrew Ayton, the Military Community and the Evolution of the Gentry in Fourteenth-Century England’, in Military Communities in Late Medieval England: Essays in Honour of Andrew Ayton, ed. Craig L. Lambert, David Simpkin, and Gary P. Baker, vol. 44 (Boydell & Brewer, 2018), 31–50, https://doi.org/10.1017/9781787442221.007. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/WIE6TS8M


Administrative Level:
6

levels.:1. King : The king was at the very top of all social and administrative hierarchies. However by this period he was more accountable to his council and the aristocracy, though ultimately, his decision on all state matters was final. [1] The kings council usually consisted of a mixture of trusted nobles, experienced officials (usually the chancellor and treasurer), ecclesiastical members, judges and sometimes a close and trusted member of his family. [1] Administrative duties were divided between the King’s Household, and the two central administrative departments: the exchequer and the chancery. The law courts were also an integral part of government. State and local departments were not truly separated, but they were hierarchical in the local officials reported into direct lines to the main state department. [2] ::2. The King’s Household The Kings Household was an administrative department that was responsible for a variety of duties and was a central hub of the government. It provided for the domestic and organisational needs of the court as well as [3] :: 2.1 The Wardrobe :: The wardrobe was the financial department of the king’s household and at times would out-rank the exchequer in terms of financial hierarchy. Orders issued under the privy seal to the exchequer and chancery came from the wardrobe. By the reign of Edward III the exchequer was recognised as the head department of financial administration, though when it suited the king, the wardrobe would be used to issue huge sums of money sum – without the consent of the exchequer – such as during the French War in the 1330’s and military campaigns. [4] ::: 2.2 Clerks of the Household ::: Responsible for the organisation of war, recruitment of soldiers and upper management, pay and board. [3] ::2. The Exchequer “The exchequer was divided into two sections, the lower, which dealt with money paid in and the issue if receipts in the form of wooden tallies, and the upper, which was the court where accounts were rendered and heard.” [3] It assigned revenue. [5] :: 2.1 Treasurer [6] ::: 2.2 Chief Baron of the Exchequer [7] :::: 2.3 Chamberlains [8] ::::: 2.4 Sheriff [9] :::::: 2.5 Under-sheriffs [10] ::::::: 2.6 Clerks [10] :::::: 2.5 Baliffs [10] ::::::: 2.6 Sub-Baliffs [10] ::2. Chancery The chancery issued writs and in the early period was closely linked to the King’s Household. However after being divided between Gascony and England during Edward I’s campaign in the 1280’s, the chancery became increasingly separate from the royal household and no longer followed the king around as the Household did and by Edward III’s reign was based permanently at Westminster in London. [5] :: 2.1 Chancellor [11] ::: 2.2 Sergeants [12] :::: 2.3 Masters :::: Twelve ‘Masters’ (senior clerks) ran the department and managed the clerks, curistors, and assistant clerks and servants below them. [12] ::::: 2.4 Clerks ::::: By the fourteenth century around one hundred clerks were employed. Records from 1324 show that they were producing about eighty writs and day – 29,000 in that year. [12] :::::: 2.5 Curistors :::::: Those who wrote standardised writs. [12] ::::::: 2.6 Assistant Clerks [12] The law courts were divided between the King’s Bench and the Common Pleas. ::2. The King’s Bench :: The King’s Bench travelled with the king in order to action any necessary legal work immediately. It also dealt with appeals from the lower courts and criminal matters. [12] ::2. The Common Pleas :: The Common Pleas was the court based permanently at Westminster and dealt mainly with property matters. [12]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 57. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI.

[2]: (Prestwich 2005: 58, 60, 66. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI.

[3]: (Prestwich 2005: 58. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI.

[4]: (Prestwich 2005: 58-60. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI.

[5]: (Prestwich 2005: 60. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI.

[6]: (Prestwich 2005: 57, 59. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI.

[7]: (Prestwich 2005: 59. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI.

[8]: (Prestwich 2005: 59) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI

[9]: (Prestwich 2005: 57, 66-67) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI

[10]: (Prestwich 2005: 66-67) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI

[11]: (Prestwich 2005: 57) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI

[12]: (Prestwich 2005: 60) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

Soldiers and officers were employed by Dukes in their territories and for the King’s army. [1] [2]

[1]: Coss 2019: 40-42) Coss, Peter. ‘Andrew Ayton, the Military Community and the Evolution of the Gentry in Fourteenth-Century England’, in Military Communities in Late Medieval England: Essays in Honour of Andrew Ayton, ed. Craig L. Lambert, David Simpkin, and Gary P. Baker, vol. 44 (Boydell & Brewer, 2018), 31–50, https://doi.org/10.1017/9781787442221.007. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/WIE6TS8M

[2]: (Simpkin 2018: 50-60) Simpkin, David. 2018. ‘Knights Banneret, Military Recruitment and Social Status, c. 1270–c. 1420: A View from the Reign of Edward I’, in Military Communities in Late Medieval England: Essays in Honour of Andrew Ayton, ed. Craig L. Lambert, David Simpkin, and Gary P. Baker, vol. 44 (Boydell & Brewer, 2018), 51–76, https://doi.org/10.1017/9781787442221.008. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V56P62M


Professional Priesthood:
present

Archbishops, bishops, archdeacons, priests, chaplains, ministers. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 69-72) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Professional Military Officer:
present

Soldiers and officers were employed by Dukes in their territories and for the King’s army. [1] [2]

[1]: Coss 2019: 40-42) Coss, Peter. ‘Andrew Ayton, the Military Community and the Evolution of the Gentry in Fourteenth-Century England’, in Military Communities in Late Medieval England: Essays in Honour of Andrew Ayton, ed. Craig L. Lambert, David Simpkin, and Gary P. Baker, vol. 44 (Boydell & Brewer, 2018), 31–50, https://doi.org/10.1017/9781787442221.007. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/WIE6TS8M

[2]: (Simpkin 2018: 50-60) Simpkin, David. 2018. ‘Knights Banneret, Military Recruitment and Social Status, c. 1270–c. 1420: A View from the Reign of Edward I’, in Military Communities in Late Medieval England: Essays in Honour of Andrew Ayton, ed. Craig L. Lambert, David Simpkin, and Gary P. Baker, vol. 44 (Boydell & Brewer, 2018), 51–76, https://doi.org/10.1017/9781787442221.008. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4V56P62M


Source Of Support:
state salary

Bureaucrats were paid a salary, and those in the highest positions may be granted land or more lucrative appointments. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 60-70) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI

Source Of Support:
land

Bureaucrats were paid a salary, and those in the highest positions may be granted land or more lucrative appointments. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 60-70) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

All departments of state had specialist government buildings in Westminster. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 60-61) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Merit Promotion:
present

Bureaucrats could rise through the ranks at both local and state levels. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 60-70) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

The King’s Household, The Exchequer, The Chancery and the law courts employed hundreds of full-time staff. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 60-70) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown

Judge:
present

Judges were present from the beginning of the period. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 61) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Formal Legal Code:
present

There were country-wide laws that were maintained by the Chancery department. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 61) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Court:
present

There were two higher courts - The King’s Bench and the Common Pleas – and lower courts throughout the territory. . [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 60-61) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Markets were present in towns and cities.


Irrigation System:
unknown

Food Storage Site:
present

Settlements would have multiple food storage sites, particularly granaries.


Drinking Water Supply System:
present

Water supplies were present in all settlements. Though they were not well maintained and were often polluted due to the lack of hygiene. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 22) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Communal Building:
present

Religious sites, palaces and castles, taverns and inns, universities, colleges and schools etc etc.


Utilitarian Public Building:
present

Symbolic Building:
present

Cathedrals, churches, abbeys.


Knowledge Or Information Building:
present

Universities, colleges, archives. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 63-64) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Entertainment Building:
present

Jousting arenas, tennis and other sporting events.


Special Purpose House:
present

It is likely there were special houses for activities like brewing, religious meetings etc, but the sources consulted have not mentioned this directly.


Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present

The Roman roads built centuries before were maintained and still used as the major thoroughfares, but as the population of the time did not travel much, little effort was made to create new roads. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 24) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Port:
present

Ports were used for trading along the coast as well as to mainland Europe, and the in-land waterways were utilised by barges and smaller boats. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 24) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Canal:
absent

There is no mention of canals in the sources used.


Bridge:
present

Bridges were present across the territory and were a vital for of maintaining communication across the country. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 24) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

Quarries were present and records tell of many accidental deaths happening at them. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 11) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Trading Emporia:
present

trading emporiums would have been present along the coastal regions for foreign import and exporting.


Enclosure:
present

Many major towns were enclosed by walls. Castles, palaces, and manor houses were often encircled by walls and moats. Animal enclosures were present across settlements. Farmland may also be enclosed to divide up tenants’ lands. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 409, 457) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Ceremonial Site:
present

Churches, cathedrals, cemeteries, large-scale event buildings such as Westminster Abbey.


Burial Site:
present

Cemeteries all across the territory.


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

A wide variety of legal, economic, administrative, personal and royal records exist. [1] Alexander Swereford wrote The Red Book of the Exchequer during his major overhaul of the economic records in 1234-35. [2]

[1]: Prestwich 2005: 57.

[2]: (Prestwich 2005: 59) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI



Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

The English and Latin alphabets.


Nonwritten Record:
present

Royal and privy seals. A secret seal also came into use during the reign of Edward III, by which he would use his signet ring for private communications. In 1335 the Griffin Seal also came into use, for land and revenue business. [1]

[1]: Prestwich 2005: 58) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

Mnemonic Device:
present

Abacus’ and chequered cloths were used as part of the accounting process at court. Wooden tallies were used as receipts. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 58) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Climate was of particular interest in this period. A cleric, William Merle, kept a detailed record of the weather between 1337-1344. As an agricultural polity, recording and analysing weather patterns was important for crops. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 4) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Sacred Text:
present

The Bible.


Religious Literature:
present

Practical Literature:
present

Works on a variety of subjects were produced, including management guides for animal husbandry, agricultural work, land and estate management, guides for the duties and performances of servants, and the same for state officials [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 429) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Philosophy:
unknown

Evidence of philosophers such as John of Darlington who became a councillor and confessor to King Henry, and an Oxford educated friar, William of Ockham, who lived in Germany from 1328 and wrote philosophical works there, but no direct information had been found in sources as to whether any philosophical books were written within the polity. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 101) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Records for weather and climate were kept alongside crop and pastoral records. Census records kept in manuscript form. Ecclesiastical parish records. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 4-5, 591) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


History:
present

Popular histories were written, often on the history of the Britons, such as Brut. Bartholomew Cotton wrote a history beginning with the Anglo-Saxons up to present day. And the Mirror of Justice is a history of the origins of England focused on the arrival and domination of the Angle and Saxon chieftain. However, there were no ‘official’ histories written on behalf of the monarchy during this period. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 53, 561) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Fiction:
present

Romantic literature was popular during this period, as were the Arthurian tales written by Geoffrey of Monmouth. French literature was also popular. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 53, 557) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI



Information / Money
Token:
absent

Coins were used as currency and there are no mentions of tokens in the sources consulted.


Precious Metal:
present

Gold, silver. In 1344 gold coins (florins) were first produced under Edward III. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: xxiii) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Paper Currency:
absent

There was no paper currency during this time. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: xxiii) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Indigenous Coin:
present

Silver pennies were the most common coin. Halfpennies and farthings were minted by Edward I but were uncommon. Gold coins were first minted under Edward III; Florins in 1344 and Nobles in 1351. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: xxiii) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Foreign Coin:
present

During the thirteenth century there was a substantial amount of low-quality coins imported from the Low Countries in circulation which often contained half the silver of an English coin. By spring of 1300 they had been demonetised. Bullion also circulated from the continent, as well as other foreign coins throughout the period. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 177) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Article:
absent

Coins were used as currency and there are no mentions of articles in the sources consulted.


Store Of Wealth:
present

Palaces, the court, and homes of many high-ranking officials contained stores of wealth including treasury rooms, cash hoards, crown jewels, plate, gold and silver, chests and hiding places containing valuable goods. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 40, 73, 189, 272) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Debt And Credit Structure:
present

The crown often took out loans from wealthy private companies or individuals. This was sometimes guaranteed against the royal crowns and other jewels. It is estimated the Edward III’s campaigns in the Low Countries left him with a sum of around £100,000 to merchants and moneylenders, and £200,000 to his supporters. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 272) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
absent

There was not a general postal service during this time.


General Postal Service:
absent

There was not a general postal service during this time.


Courier:
present

Royal messengers were employed for courtiers and the state departments. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 56, 181, 477) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Fastest Individual Communication:
-

Horse relay or coastal ships would have been used as the fastest form of communication, but it is uncertain how long exactly they may have taken.


Information / Measurement System
Weight Measurement System:
present

Weight was used for currency, among other uses. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 72, 287) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Volume Measurement System:
unknown

Time Measurement System:
Transitional (Absent -> Present)

Time was usually measured by the monastic day, with services and church bells indicating the time and patterns of the day followed daylight rather than exact times. However, at the beginning of the fourteenth century a clock was installed at Windsor castle. It was run weights and struck the time. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 23) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Length Measurement System:
present

Measurements such as feet and miles. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 558) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Geometrical Measurement System:
present

The newly built town of Conwy in Wales had tenements laid out in perfect geometric order. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 468) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI


Area Measurement System:
present

Area was measured out in acres and hectares. [1]

[1]: (Prestwich 2005: 558) Prestwich, Michael. 2005. Plantagenet England 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XTBKFDCI



Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Military use of Metals
Projectiles
Handheld weapons
Animals used in warfare
Armor
Naval technology

Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions